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这项技术让动画变得栩栩如生

The trick that made animation realistic

This walrus didn’t get these dance moves on his own.
这些舞步不是海象自创的
They came from Cab Calloway,
而是来自于凯伯·凯洛威
a 1930s jazz superstar and band leader.
二十世纪三十年代极受欢迎的爵士乐团主唱
Do you see it now?
现在你明白了吗?
Cab was a source of endless inspiration for early animators
凯伯是早期动画片制作者无尽的灵感源泉
who transformed his dancing into that walrus, into ghost,
他们将其舞步赋予海象和鬼魂
and a very moonwalky old man of the mountain.
以及很会走太空步的山中长者
The old man of the mountain…Ah![scream]
山中长者……啊![尖叫声]
The way these moves got from real life to cartoon
这种将现实动作动画化的方式
was a breakthrough in technology and method.
是动画制作技术和方式的双突破
It’s an idea that forever changed animation,
当一位发明家拍下对象移动的瞬间
when an inventor took pictures that had just started to move,
并使之起舞时
and made them dance.
这个想法就永远地改变了动画界
《滑稽脸的幽默相》
As…“riveting” as that was…
早期动画虽然看上去很吸引人
early animation had a problem.
但有着一个问题
The first animated shorts didn’t look right.
首批动画短片看起来并不自然
Don’t focus on the drawing.
别关注它画得好不好
Look at the motion.
看他的动作
See how clunky his arm move is here?
看到他的手臂动作有多僵硬了吗?
And how his shoulder doesn’t move realistically?
看到他的肩膀动作多不逼真了吗?
Max Fleischer saw that problem too.
马克斯·弗莱舍也注意到了那个问题
This is him, the inventor,
就是他 提到的那位发明家
blowing bubbles in some of the first films that revolutionized animation.
在首批变革动画的一些电影中吹响了号角
And this is the clown that did it.
这是小丑柯柯做到的
See how naturally Koko the clown moves compared to the umbrella guy?
看到小丑柯柯的动作比拿伞人自然了多少吗?
That’s where the invention called the rotoscope comes in.
这都要归功于转描技术的发明
You can understand it from the patent application.
你可以通过专利申请书来理解它
It was a way to film real movement to create better animation.
这种技术通过拍摄真实动作来制作更好的动画
First, they filmed live action motion in the wild.
首先 他们在户外拍摄真人动作
For Koko the clown,
至于小丑柯柯
they filmed Max’s brother, Dave Fleischer,
他们拍摄的是马克斯的兄弟 戴夫·弗莱舍
dancing around in a clown costume on Max’s roof.
他在马克斯家的屋顶上穿着小丑服跳舞
He was in front of a white sheet, for contrast.
为了突出人物 他的后面放置了白色床单
The sheet actually blew around so much that
当时床单被风吹得摆动幅度很大
Dave almost fell off the roof.
以至于戴夫差点从屋顶上掉下来
So, don’t try this at home.
所以别在家尝试这个
That film gave them individual frames of Koko moving around
电影里柯柯的每个动作都有单独的帧
Like in the patent, they used a projector,
如专利申请书中所述 他们使用了投影仪
hooked up to a car headlamp to amp up brightness,
将其挂在汽车的前灯上以增亮
and showed each frame on a screen with tracing paper.
并用铺有描图纸的屏幕展示每一帧
Then they just played it back frame by frame
然后就逐帧回放
tracing what they needed.
描摹他们需要的帧
It had the creativity of animation,
它既保留了动画的创意
but the precision of live action.
也不乏真人动作的精确
The results were astonishingly smooth, and lots of people noticed.
成片效果出奇地流畅 引起了许多人的关注
The New York Times said Koko,
《纽约时报》这样评论柯柯
“the Inkwell Man,” “leaps as a human being,”
“墨水瓶人” “跳得像真人一样”
and it made sense — he was one.
倒也说得通——他确实曾经是人
Take Cab Calloway’s performance.
现在再来看凯伯·凯洛威的表演
Now, animators didn’t have to guess what subtle movements came in the middle.
现在 动画师不需要构想过渡的细微动作了
They had a filmed guide to every frame.
他们每一帧都有拍摄好的参考
Later, it helped out with Superman,
后来 《超人》也使用了此技术
using photos and film to model Lois, like here.
如此 用照片和胶卷制作露易丝的模型
Gulliver’s Travels also had hyperreal movement inspired by real motion.
《格列佛游记》中的超写实动作也是受到真人动作的启发
When the patent expired, other animation studios followed.
专利保护期满了之后 其他动画工作室开始效仿
But Fleischer’s work was more than just one invention.
但弗莱舍的作品远不只这一项发明
Now these cartoons and other ones at the time are filled with
如今他的动画和其他同一时期的动画一样
tons of cringing stereotypes that wouldn’t pass muster today.
那些陈旧的技术放在今天 已无人会大惊小怪
But the creativity?
但创意呢?
That, that is not dated at all.
创意 一点都没过时
“Here we go!”
“开始吧!”
Fleischer studios invented the bouncing ball song,
弗莱舍工作室发明了弹球歌
where you can follow along with the lyrics.
让你能够跟随着小球看歌词
Oh yes, there’s a patent.
是的 这也申请了专利
Max and Dave patented multiplane animation as well.
马克思和戴夫也为多平面动画申请了专利
See how they could film the main character moving
看到了他们是怎样拍摄移动的主角
and separately move the background elements, like pictures and models?
并分别移动图片和模型等背景元素了吗?
This created depth and saved animators’ time.
这种方法创造出了立体感并节省了制片人的时间
It enabled gorgeous motion like in this scene from Superman.
它使得类似《超人》中这一幕的华丽动作成为可能
As it evolved, Fleischer animation mixed all these technologies
随着发展 弗莱舍动画荟萃了所有这些技术
with skilled artistry and improvisation.
以及精湛的艺术技巧和即兴创作
And that’s why rotoscoping is a versatile tool still,
这就是转描技术仍是一个被广泛运用的工具的原因
whether it’s inspiring some of the animation in early video games
它既是早期电子游戏中动画的灵感
or in its logical extension in motion capture,
也对运动捕捉的问世提供了思路
where real movements are given over to animators’ fancy.
真实动作是动画制作者灵感源泉
But even that undersells their achievements a little.
下面这部或许不算转描技术的“成就”了
That Cab Calloway Walrus cartoon — Minnie the Moocher
那部有着像凯伯·凯洛威的海象的动画——《米妮公主》
is a Betty Boop cartoon.
属于《贝蒂娃娃》动画系列
But it is a work of art filled with infinite delights that tantali—
但这是一部充满着无穷乐趣的艺术作品 能引人……
Scratch that. It is straight up weird, in the best way possible.
打住 从最欣赏的角度来看 它都很怪异
Phones have lips, handkerchiefs talk
电话长嘴 手绢说话
ghost skeletons get drunk, tonsils scream
骷髅醉酒 扁桃体尖叫
the list goes on.
例子还有很多
When Cab Calloway saw himself turned into a dancing walrus,
当凯伯·凯洛威发现自己变成了一只跳舞的海象时
he fell to the floor laughing.
他倒在地上捧腹大笑
An invention made that work,
这项发明造就了流畅自然的动画
but it was a different type of genius that made Cab Calloway fall to the floor.
而令凯伯·凯洛威捧腹大笑的是另一种魔力
You can patent a device.
你可以为一个设备申请专利
But you can’t patent that.
但这个申请不了
That’s it for this episode in this series
这就是本集的全部内容
about big changes to movies that came from outside of Hollywood.
本系列介绍除好莱坞外 对电影业影响巨大的人事物
If there are any other animation examples you find striking,
如果有其他不同寻常的动画案例
let me know in the comments.
请在评论区评论
I do want to take a chance though to underscore
我还是想借此机会强调一下
just how far outside of Hollywood the Fleischers were.
弗莱舍工作室离好莱坞有多远
In addition to their New York Studios, they had one in Miami, Florida.
除了纽约 他们在佛罗里达的迈阿密还有个工作室
And that is where Gulliver’s Travels was actually made.
《小人国》就是在迈阿密创作的

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视频概述

转描技术的问世彻底改变了动画的发展,让我们一起来了解一下它的历史吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

亿珀

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IS1hCSsmH1E

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