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牛油果骇人听闻的真相

The Terrifying Truth About Avocados

大家好
Hi there.
在过去10年里
Over the last ten years,
牛油果逐渐成为了大多超市
the avocado has slowly and steadily become a superstar
农产品区的热门水果
in the produce section of most supermarkets,
西餐食谱中的重要原料
and a staple of western diet,
尤其受素食主义者青睐
especially for vegans and vegetarians.
自从21世纪以来
Since the turn of the millennium,
牛油果的消费量
the consumption of the fruit
在大多数工业化国家
has increased more than fivefold
增长了五倍多
in most industrial countries.
如今 牛油果成为了网红水果
Today the avocado is a social media star.
号称是一流食材
It proclaims super food
还是健康饮食的代表
and an ambassador of the healthy cuisine.
牛油果似乎更受一些人的喜爱
The fruit seems to be especially popular for people
这些人热爱动物和自然
who would have a strong sensibility towards animals and the environment,
并且想与自然和谐共处
for people that want to be in harmony with nature,
想回到快餐和
and want to return to old values,
工厂化农业出现之前
like naturalness and sustainability,
那种自然可持续的生活
before fast food and factory farming.
牛油果并非浪得虚名
The avocado has its good reputation not for no reason.
它的确很健康
It is indeed very healthy.
富含单不饱和脂肪 维生素和矿物质
Rich monounsaturated fats, vitamins and minerals,
光是看着就觉得很健康
you feel healthier just looking at them.
而且它的囗感很好
And yet, avocados are also convincing in taste,
吃起来也方便
all while being easy to eat
就是个完美的水果
– in itself, the perfect fruit.
但事实上 素食主义者关于牛油果的美梦
But in reality, every vegan’s wet dream is actually,
从生态学和经济学来看是有很大疑问的
ecologically and economically deeply questionable, and is,
此外 牛油果也没有人们想象中那么原生态
in addition to that, not nearly as natural as people make it out to be.
[音乐]
[Music]
10000年前 在美洲中部 一些
Avocados have been cultivated by the various advanced civilizations
先进文明已经在种植牛油果了
in central America, since 10 000 years ago.
然而如今的牛油果 除了名字
Today’s fruit, however, doesn’t share much resemblance
与早期野生的牛油果已大不相同
with its wild ancestors except for its name.
牛油果一词来源于阿兹特克语 意思是”睾丸”
The name avocado is derived from its Aztec name, which meant “testicle”.
这名字很贴切
In name, it was good in either,
无论是对于它的形状和质感
because of its similar shape and texture
还是它原有的催情作用
or because of the aphrodisiac effect it’s supposed to have.
现在 牛油果主要在热带和亚热带地区种植
Today, avocados are mostly grown in tropical and subtropical regions,
因为它们需要大量的光照和热量
as they need a lot of sunlight and heat
而且不耐寒
and don’t tolerate frost.
牛油果的主产地有墨西哥 多米尼加共和国
The main producers are Mexico, the Dominican Republic,
秘鲁 哥伦比亚 印尼和巴西
Peru, Columbia, Indonesia and Brazil.
对西方市场来说
But Chile and South Africa are also important exporters,
智利和南非也是重要的出口国
especially for the Western markets.
美国是唯一一个
The only Western country that grows avocados
在佛罗里达州和加州的农业区
in comparably large numbers itself, are the United States,
大量种植牛油果的西方国家
with its farming areas in Florida and California.
但由于那里的牛油果产量
But because the amount of avocados harvested there
在过去20年来都没有增长
hasn’t increased in the last 20 years,
美国不得不通过进口来满足不断增长的需求
America has to cover the continuously rising demand
主要从墨西哥进口
through imports too, mainly from Mexico.
而欧洲主要从
Europe’s avocado imports, on the other hand,
智利 巴西和南非进口牛油果
come mostly from Chile, Brazil and South Africa.
然而 种植牛油果
Growing avocados is, however,
并不容易
not as easy as it might seem.
农民在种植获利之前
Before farmers can ever profit from the trees,
必须先剥去种皮 培育多年
they first have to be husked, be cultivated over many years.
一粒种子大约要花15年
Roughly 15 years does it take for a seed
才能成长为结满硕果的树
to grow into a fruit-yielding avocado tree.
就算是嫁接的幼苗也要8年左右才能结果
Even grafted seedlings take around 8 years to become productive.
因此 种植牛油果不仅需要农民
As a result, avocado growing demands from farmers
前期大量的投入 还需要付出大量的精力
not only large upfront investments, but also considerable effort,
需要栽种空间和种植技术
space and technical know how.
除了拥有家族产业果树的
Aside from a few small holders
少数小型种植户
that have owned avocado trees for generations,
通常只有来自较富裕国家的大商人
it’s usually only big businessmen, quite often from richer countries,
才有充足的资源来做这门赚钱生意
that have the necessary resources to enter this lucrative business.
这就是为什么各国只有
That’s why today’s ever increasing demand
少量的大型种植园
was for the most part
来满足日益增长的需求的原因
satisfied by only a few large scale plantations in every country.
这些大农场只种牛油果 规模堪比大型城市
These maga farms control giant avocado monocultures as bigger cities
并且逐年扩张
and only continue to grow larger every year.
在此过程中 该区域的大多数小型种植户
In the process, most small holders in the region are expelled,
遭到了排挤 进而不再种植
and whole landscapes altered.
这还不是最糟糕的
And that’s not even the worst part,
更糟的还在后面
but more on that in a minute.
这些做法当然与人们所说的
All these has, of course, not much to do with
可持续发展和热爱自然无关
the alleged sustainability and love of nature.
大型种植园需要种植大量的果树
The cultivation of the hundreds or thousands of trees
种植技术是先进的且精心管理的
that these large plantations need, are sophisticated and controlled.
不放过任何一个细节
Nothing has left a chance.
因为许多品种牛油果的根系入地不深
Because many avocado species produce a very shallow root system
主要水平生长在地表下面
that mainly spreads horizontally just below the surface,
极易受到病虫害和
they’re very susceptible to pests and diseases,
地表活动所引起的腐烂 感染和破坏的影响
as well as rot, infection and damage from surface activities.
这给大农场种植增加了难度
This makes large scale farming challenging.
为了解决这种状况 商业种植的牛油果
To counteract this, commercially producing avocados
不是从种子长成果树
are not grown to maturity from seedlings,
而是嫁接到其他树的根茎上
but rather are grafted with good known varieties onto rootstocks.
在这里我想不讲太多细节
I don’t want to go into too much detail here,
简言之 就是
but in a nutshell, this means
拿一个品种的接穗
that you take the scion of one particular species
或是一整棵
or even one particular individual
然后移植或嫁接到另一个品种的根茎上
and transplant or graft it onto the rootstock of another species.
选择与哪一个品种嫁接取决于种植地区
Which species you choose to combine depends on the region,
和当地的种植条件
and its specific challenges of course.
但最终的目的都是培养出稼接牛油果树
But the goal is always to create a sort of Franken-avocado,
这种果树有坚固的根
which has very resistant roots
且产量高
and at the same time a very productive top.
你可以通过稼接果树来改变树的特性
Growing trees like this allows you to specifically control characteristics such as
像是产量 外观 高矮 耐盐程度
fruit yield, vegetative figure, dwarfing, salt tolerance,
耐石灰性或是抗病力
lime tolerance, and disease resistance
使产量和利润最大化
to maximize productivity and profitability.
另一个优势是嫁接在根茎上的接穗可以
Another advantage is that the scions grafted under the rootstocks
取自成年的树 这样基本长出一样的树果
can come from mature trees, which essentially produces clones,
也能缩短好几年果树结果时间
and also reduces the time to the tree yields fruits by years.
不用从种子生长出的根茎和接穗
Using clones, as opposed to rootstocks and scions grown from seed is,
而用克隆技术 尽管很贵 但在如今却更普遍
although it’s more expensive, much more common today,
因为它能够保证树达到预期的品质
as it ensures that the final trees will have the desired properties.
直到今天 在加州和南美地区
Some of the rootstock clones still used today to grow new trees
仍用根茎来种植新树
in areas in California and South Africa
追溯母树 其母树是在上个世纪50年代
trace back to a mother plant that was specifically cultured
为嫁接而特殊培育的树
for this purpose in the 1950s.
顺便说一下 嫁接是大多数经济水果作物的种植方式
Grafting is, by the way, how most commercial fruit crops are grown.
不是牛油果独有的
It isn’t exclusive to avocados,
但我觉得还是得在别人
but I still thought I’d mention it
试图跟我讲牛油果是多么原生态前提一句
before someone tries to tell me how natural avocados are.
但让牛油果真正遭到生态学质疑是
But what really makes avocados so ecologically questionable
因为它耗水量极大
are the immense amount of water they need.
在全球气温的稳步增长下
The steadily increasing global temperatures,
旱灾发生得越来越频繁
shorter and shorter time spans between record droughts,
争夺重要资源 引发大规模冲突的可能性空前提高
and an ever increasing possibility of large scale conflicts over the vital resource,
缺水已威胁到全球数亿人口
water shortage already threatens billions of people around the world,
尤其是在比较贫穷的热带和亚热带地区
especially in poorer tropical and subtropical regions.
牛油果需求激增对这些区域来说毫无益处
It doesn’t help that in exactly these regions the avocado boom
反而像海绵一样吸取了本来就稀缺的水资源
absorbs the already small water supplies like a sponge.
每千克牛油果 约两个半果子
On average 1 000 liters of water are needed
平均需要1000升左右的水
to produce a single kilo of avocado, just 2.5 fruits.
相当于满满的7浴缸水
That’s the equivalent of 7 bath tubs full of water.
对比一下 番茄只需要一浴缸水
For comparison, tomatoes only need a single,
每千克生菜只需要半浴缸水
salad only half a bath tub per kilo.
没有哪种水果或蔬菜像牛油果一样
No other fruit or vegetable that is equally popular
需要如此多的水
needs so much water.
想想西方国家
If you consider how many avocados are
已经进口了多少牛油果
already being imported by Western countries,
而且随着健康膳食主义越来越受推崇
and that these numbers will likely only increase,
这个数字将只增不减
as the health cuisine becomes more and more popular,
显然牛油果迟早会成为
it becomes clear that the avocado will become a problem
人类 动物和环境的一大难题
for humans, animals and the environment sooner rather than later.
仅美国每年进口的牛油果就超过20亿磅
The United States alone imports over 2 billion pounds of avocado every year,
这个数字甚至超过了香蕉进口
a number that now even exceeds the banana imports.
因此 不必惊讶
Thereby, it’s no surprising
牛油果热的负面影响
that the negative impacts related to the avocado boom
在全球的许多地方已经可见
are already visible in many places around the world.
例如 在墨西哥
In Mexico, for instance,
百分之八十的可饮用水
80% of the little drinking water available
已经用于农业
is already used for agriculture,
然而牛油果农场的比重仍在不断增加
while the proportion of avocado farms is increasing constantly.
以色列的情况更糟糕
In Israel, it’s even worse.
在那里 牛油果种植正在吞噬着一半的水源储备
Here, the avocado plantations are swallowing half of all water reserves.
在南非 持续的干旱导致了上千头牛死亡
In South Africa, continued droughts kill thousands of cattle
并且极大地影响了每年的粮食收成
and cause significant harvest losses every year,
以至于该国无法产出足够的粮食
to the point that the country is incapable of producing enough resources
来满足人口需求 反而要靠进口基本的食物
to feed its population, and instead has to import basic foods.
除去这种糟糕的情形
Despite this dire situation,
你依然能寻找到大面积的绿草地
you can still find giant oases of green.
在那里 你留意不到缺水
Here, you don’t notice much water shortage.
那些因牛油果热富裕起来的大地主
The large land owners made rich by the avocado boom
拥有资源去建造必要的大坝 管道和深水井
have the resources to build the necessary dams, pipelines and deep wells,
以给农场提供大量的水
to provide the farms with the large volumes of water required.
牛油果的年产量大约为十万吨
With a production value of around 100 000 metric tons annually,
约需1000亿升
this are roughly 100 000 million litres
大约250亿加仑的水
about 25 000 million gallons of water.
原本这里种植着番茄
Originally tomatoes were grown in this region.
但是牛油果
But the green gold,
或者农民们形象地称为绿色金子 利润丰厚
or the avocados fittingly called by farmers, were simply too lucrative.
所以多年来越来越多的番茄地
So over the years more and more of the tomato fields
不得不给牛油果树腾地方
had to make room for avocado trees.
虽然目前该地的牛油果种植
So far avocado farming in this region
对环境的影响相对还较小
had comparably small consequences for the environment,
但这会马上发生变化
but this could change quickly.
从长远来看 牛油果对资源的需求量
In the long run, avocados simply demand more resources
远高于生态系统所可以提供的量
than its supporting ecosystem can supply.
牛油果种植的危害和失控状态
The danger and uncontrolled cultivation of avocados
可以在智利的生态系统体现
presents to the ecosystem can be seen in Chile,
智利是面向欧洲市场的主要出口商之一
one of the main exporters for the European market.
大概最严重的就是帕托尔卡省
Perhaps the most severe example is the province Petorca.
在过去10年
Over the past 10 years,
几乎所有的自然水池和河流都干涸了
almost all natural water holes and rivers dried out,
大多数的植被都死了
and most of the vegetation died.
只留下贫瘠的砂石荒地
What remains is a barren waste land of dirt and rocks.
这场水资源危机的罪魁祸首就是那些在过去二十年
Mainly responsible for the water crisis are the giant avocado farms,
遍及整个国家的大型牛油果农场
that popped up all over the country over the last two decades.
这些农场确实占用了环境中大量的水资源
Too much water did they take from the environment.
起初是河流 现在到深水井
Initially from rivers and now with the deep wells
当然也有地下水
also from the ground water,
这种过量耗水破坏了水循环
this excessive usage of water disturbed the water cycle
给生态系统带来不可逆的损害
and caused irreversible damage to the ecosystem.
还有一个问题 智利的宪法允许水资源私有化
Furthermore problematic, Chile’s constitution allows the privatization of water.
任何人只要有足够的钱就可以购买水权
Anyone with enough money can buy water rights
然后相对合法地拥有大量的水资源
and then hold giant amounts of water quite legally.
随着水井的日趋干枯 又加之没有降雨
With their wells dry and no more rain,
许多小农民别无选择只能放弃他们的农田
most small farmers had no choice but to give up their farms.
他们中的许多人在牛油果农场做工人
Many of them now work as laborers on the avocado plantations.
在这个区域的村庄和镇子里
And in the villages and towns in the region,
成千上万的人没有足够的饮用水
thousands and tens of thousands of people lack access to enough drinking water,
与此同时牛油果树种植却蓬勃发展
all while the avocado trees thrive.
农场主责怪政府
The owners of the farms blame the government
却也每年继续种植成百上千的新树
and continue to plant hundreds of thousands of new trees every year.
他们瞄准了中国市场
They speculate on the Chinese market,
在那里牛油果热才刚开始有苗头
where the avocado boom are still in its infancy.
同时得益于有针对性的营销活动
But thanks to targeted marketing campaigns,
让那里的牛油果热度也正在持续升温
the avocados are constantly gaining a popularity here too.
在2011年到2017年间
Between 2011 and 2017,
中国的进口量已经增加了1000倍
China’s import volume has increased 1 000 fold,
从31吨到31000吨
from 31 to 31 000 metric tons.
由此看来似乎牛油果热目前还没有尽头
And so it seems there is no end in sight for the avocado boom.
这对种植区域的人类 动物和环境
What this means for the population, the animals and environment
意味着什么仍有待发现
in the farming areas remains to be seen.
但我觉得有理由认为
But I think it’s reasonable to assume
将会越来越糟
that it will get worse.
然而 牛油果种植带来的恶果
And yet, the ecological problems aren’t the only problem
不仅仅是生态问题
that loom like a shadow over the avocado.
墨西哥是美国市场的主要出口商
In Mexico, the main exporter for the American market,
牛油果热正在滋养着那里的非法商人们
the avocado boom is fueling the racketeers,
长期以来他们谋取暴利
that long have discovered the lucrative food for themselves.
由于墨西哥大多数牛油果都种植在米却肯
Michoacan, where most of Mexico’s avocados are produced,
那里已被垄断商人大部分控制
is in large control by these cartels.
当局和警方已经长期失去了对该区域的控制
Authorities and police have long lost control of the region.
30多年来这种热门的水果已经成为了
Already for 3 decades, the popular fruits have been used
掌权者们额外收入的来源
as an additional source of income by whomever is in power.
若农民想继续种植
If farmers are to continue farming
并且避免绑架和其他暴力
and avoid kidnappings and other forms of violence,
他们需为收割
they have to pay taxes on the harvests,
保护或者交通运输上税
protection money or transport holds.
为了进一步增加利润
To further increase profits,
农民和垄断集团砍伐受保护的森林植被
farmers and cartels are thinning our protected plant forests
种植更多的牛油果树
to grow even more avocado trees.
每年报道的因牛油果农场的非法扩张造成的
Up to 1 000 hectares of forest are reportedly lost every year,
森林缩减超过1000公顷
due to the illegal expansion of avocado farms.
政府在解决这些问题上束手无策
The government does very little to solve these problems.
相反的 在米却肯的一些镇子
Instead, in a few towns throughout Michoacan,
居民已经开始自己拿起武器
residents have started to take up arms themselves,
组成自卫队来驱逐这些团伙
forming self defence groups to drive the gangs out.
努力起了作用
The effort worked.
例如坦西塔罗 自称为是世界牛油果之都
Tancítaro, the self proclaimed world capital of avocado production, for example,
得以成功摆脱了垄断控制
could successfully break free from the cartel control
并最终获得表面的稳定
and finally achieved a semblance of stability.
但这只是一个例外
But this is the exception rather than rule.
牛油果的需求在墨西哥仍然在上涨
There’s still rising demand for avocado’s booming, that in Mexico too,
在情况好转之前似乎会变得更糟
things will likely get worse before they get better.
所有的这些使得牛油果成为一个实际的问题
All this makes the avocado a real problem,
在世界上的许多地区 前所未有的大需求量
whose ever increasing demand will, in many regions around the world,
会导致对环境和整个生态系统不可逆转的伤害
cause irreversible damage to the environment and whole ecosystems.
但只要美食杂志和健康博客继续推广牛油果
But as long as food magazines and health blogs keep marketing them
将它作为高尚 自然和生态友好的超级食物
as this ethical, natural and eco-friendly super food,
情况将不会有所改变
nothing about that would change.

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译制信息
视频概述

一直以来牛油果都是一种健康、营养丰富的时尚水果,广受人们的喜爱。但是,在这个明星水果的背后,究竟隐藏了怎样的真相呢?然我们一起来看看。

听录译者

小达不溜

翻译译者

Vera

审核员

审核员_DY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hRHZEb_uXc

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