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青少年的大脑:为什么那些年我们特别疯狂 – 译学馆
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青少年的大脑:为什么那些年我们特别疯狂

The teenage brain: Why some years are (a lot) crazier than others | Robert Sapolsky

从神经生物学角度来看 一个20岁的大脑最重要的事实是
Neurobiologically, the single most important fact about say a 20-year-old brain
它几乎所有的部分都已经成熟
is the fact that almost all of it is already matured,
都是完全连接的 髓鞘也已成熟
fully wired up, myelinated jargony term for it.
从青春期早期开始 多巴胺应答系统
The reward dopamine system has been going full blastsince
已经开始全面爆发
some where around like early puberty.
除了额叶皮层 大脑的所有部分都在全速运转
All of the brain is totally up to speed,except for the frontal cortex.
也许关于人类发展最有趣的事实是
Probably the most interesting fact about human development is
额叶皮层是大脑完全成熟的最后一部分
the frontal cortex is the last part of the brain to fully maturity.
直到你25岁左右才开始完全形成网络
It’s not completely online until you’re about 25 years old,
这是一件令人难以置信的事情
which is mind-boggling to think about.
这说明了什么?
What does that explain?
这就解释了为什么青少年的行为是不成熟的
That explains why adolescents are adolescent in their behavior.
追求刺激 承担风险
The sensation-seeking and the risk-taking,
高潮更高 低谷更低
and the highs are higher and the lows are lower.
因为正在定态的额叶皮层
Because the steadying frontal cortical hang there
还没有完全达到速度
isn’t fully up to speed yet
其他一切都如脱手而出的陀螺搬无法掌控
and everything else is a gyroscope,out of control.
这就是冲动的来源
And that’s where the impulsivity is from,
这就是极端行为的来源
and that’s where the extremes of behavior,
这就是为什么 大多数犯罪都发生在
and that’s why most crime is committed by people
额叶皮层尚未发育完全的阶段
at a stage whose frontal cortex is not fully developed yet.
这就是为什么 大多数人会做出惊人的 自我牺牲的原因
That is why most people who do astonishing wondrously self-sacrificial things;
他们没有额叶皮层
don’t have a frontal cortex.
这也是完全正常的
That’s fully in gear yet either,
但从另一角度看
and is not in a position to convince them yet
这无法使人信服
at somebody else’s problem, look the other way.
这就是为什么年轻人是这样的
That’s why young adults are,
他们就是这样的
exactly how they are.
因为 额叶皮层还没有完全形成
Because the frontal cortex isn’t quite there yet,
因此 你所拥有的是
and what you have, as a result, is
更大的冒险精神 对新奇事物更加开放
more adventurousness and more open to novelty
更有可能看到
and more likelihood of seeing
与你截然不同的人
somebody who is very different
事实上 他们并没有那么不同
as in fact not to being that different after all,
更有可能抓起一根棍子
and more likely to grab a cudgel and
砸向一个恰好和他们相似的人的脑袋
smash in somebody’s skull who happens to seem like of them,
每件事 每件事的基调都被抬高了
and everything just the tone of everything is pushed up.
其中 一个非常重要的含义是
One incredibly, important implication of that is,
如果额叶皮层是大脑完全成熟的最后一部分
if the frontal cortex is the lost last part of the brain to fully mature,
那就意味着 它是大脑中
that means it’s the part of the brain
受环境和经验塑造最多
that is most sculpted by environment and experience
受基因约束最少的部分
and least constrained by genes,
也是大脑中最有趣的部分
and it’s the most interesting part of the brain.
另外 看看另一端
Meanwhile, look at the other end of it,
看看60岁的人
look at 60-year-olds and
会发生什么
what’s going on there
如果你是一个60岁的人
if you were a 60-year-old human
或一只相当于60岁的老鼠?
or say a rat equivalent of a 60-year-old?
你会比一个20岁的人
You were far more close to novelty than a 20-year-old
一只成年鼠更加喜欢新奇事
than an adolescent rat is.
以一只老鼠为例 看看在生命中的哪个阶段
Take a rat for example and see at what points in life
它是否愿意品尝一种新食物
is it willing to try a new food
而这与青少年晚期和成年早期完全一样
and exactly the equivalent of late teenage years early adulthood,
然后你就接近新奇的事物
and then you close to novelty.
任何物种
Any species out there
包括人类 都显示出这种模式
shows that pattern including human.
所以 一个60岁的人抗拒改变
So a 60-year-old is resistant to change,
是在抗拒对其他的人的新奇
is resistant to somebody else’s novelty.
60岁的人与20岁的人不同
A 60-year-old, unlike a 20-year-old,
他们处理压力的方式非常特别
deals with stress in a very particular way.
如果你20岁 那么压力管理就是
If you’re 20, what stress management is about
试图克服压力并战胜它
is trying to overcome the stressor and defeat it.
如果你60岁 那么压力管理就是
If you’re 60, what stress management is about
学着去适应
is learning to accommodate
那些你无法改变的事情
what things you’re not going to be able to change,
你对你的膝盖疼得像地狱一样 这一事实无能为力
and there’s nothing you can do about the fact that your knees hurt like hell
但它是可以适应的
and it’s accommodating.
它是学习你能改变什么 和不能改变什么之间的区别
It’s learning the difference between what you can change and what you can’t.
如果你20岁
If you ‘re 20,
世界上没有什么是我们不能改变的
there’s nothing in the world we can’t change.
在你60岁的时候
By the time you’re 60,
所谓知识 智力主要是关于
what knowledge, what an intelligence is mostly about
具体事实的知识
is crystallized fact-based knowledge
以及处理这些知识的具体策略
and crystallized strategies for dealing with that knowledge.
一个20岁的聪明人所擅长的是
What a 20-year-old intelligence is about
随机应变
is fluid improvising,
换位思考 推翻命令
changing of set, reversing of orders.
所有都是那么的不同
All of that is a very very different sort of picture,
20岁和60岁的大脑
20-and 60-year-old brains and
20岁和60岁的社会人是大不相同的
20-and 60-year-old social worms are remarkably different.

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