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繁盛宇宙中的外星生物

The Teeming Universe | Alien Biology

Imagine you’re an interstellar traveler.
假如你是个星际旅行者
What sorts of alien life might you find out there in the universe?
在宇宙中你会发现什么样的外星生命呢?
It’s interesting to speculate on how life might evolve in the depths of a planet covered by oceans,
推测生命在被海洋覆盖的行星深处
or the skies of a world with an atmosphere teeming with floating life.
或是在大气中充满漂浮生物的星球的天空中如何进化是件趣事
Perhaps one day, humanity will be able to set out into the universe,
或许有一天 人类能够深入宇宙
and document these unfamiliar worlds first-hand.
并亲手记录这些未知星球的信息
This concept is explored in great scientific detail in The Teeming Universe,
这一观念在科幻作家和艺术家Christian Cline的星际野外指南
an interstellar field guide by speculative author and artist Christian Cline
《繁盛的宇宙》一书中进行了详细的科学探讨
The book, which I have a link to down below, explores how alien life might evolve
这本书我在下面有一个链接 它探讨了外星生命
on various types of planets much different from our own.
可能如何在与我们大相径庭的各种类型的星球上进化
So, for this entry into the archive,
因此 为了进入这个档案
we’ll be joining a scientific vessel on a journey into the beyond
我们将加入一艘科学考察船 踏上一段通往远方的旅程
— and will explore just some of the worlds that Cline covers in his field guide.
探索一些Cline在他的星际野外指南中涵盖的星球
Several million light-years from Earth,
我们着陆的第一颗虚构星球
the first fictional planet we’re touching down on…
距离地球几百万光年
-doesn’t look like much.
看上去没什么特别的
This is planet Menir, a world of ice and rock
这是被冰雪和岩层覆盖的Menir星球
with a diminished atmosphere and high levels of ultraviolet radiation.
这里大气层稀薄 紫外线辐射强
Stepping out onto the surface, it seems like there isn’t any life here.
踏上它的地表 看上去没有什么生命存在
But that’s because to find life on Menir
那是因为要在这个星球发现生命
you have to look under a microscope.
需要借助显微镜
That’s right, the first alien life we’ve found is a kind of bacteria.
没错 我们发现的第一种外星生物是一种细菌
It might seem disappointing,
看上去也许有些扫兴
and there be will much larger aliens to come later in this entry,
后面的旅程中会有一些大得多的外星生物
but even discovering microscopic life on an exoplanet
但即使是在太阳系外行星上发现微观生命
would be a huge movement in science.
也会是科学上的一大进步
And just because these lifeforms look like Earth microorganisms to the untrained eye,
虽然这些生命形式在外行人看来像地球微生物
it doesn’t mean they’re the same.
但并不意味着它们是一样的
Called Menirophiles by the artist,
它被作者称为Menirophiles
he imagines their unique purplish-pink color
他设想它们独特的紫粉色
helps them reflect excess radiation
有助于反射过量的紫外线
and because they contain hydrogen-peroxide within various organelles instead of water
并且它们各种细胞器内含有过氧化氢而不是水
they don’t freeze.
因此不会被冻住
While such a mixture would be deadly to Earth bacteria
虽然过氧化氢对地球上的细菌是致命的
menirophiles are protected from the harsh effects by silicon in their molecular structure.
但menirophiles分子结构中含有的硅保护它们免受伤害
So, while the life on the desolate Menir may be tiny,
所以尽管荒凉的Menir上的生物也许微小
it’s exceptionally resilient.
却有很强的适应力
But the time has come to leave this exoplanet
到了离开这个系外星球
and head to world where life gets a little bigger…
前往有着大一点生命体的世界的时候
At first glance, our next planet — Ateria — appears far more Earth-like.
乍一看 我们的下一个行星Ateria似乎与地球相像得多
With a protective atmosphere and liquid oceans,
由于有保护性的大气层和液态海洋
Ateria offers a much better opportunity to find complex alien life.
Ateria为发现复杂的外星生命提供了更好的机会
Touching down on the surface, it’s a beautiful foggy day.
在这里着陆的时候是个美丽的雾天
Out of the mist rise grand plant like structures,
建筑物般高大的植物从薄雾中耸立出来
and the air is filled with the buzzing of animals.
空气中充满了动物的喧闹声
Yet we’ll find Ateria is much different from earth in one critical way…
然而 我们会发现Ateria在一个关键方面与地球有很大的不同
its seasons.
它的季节
On earth, seasonal change happens gradually due to earth’s axial tilt,
在地球上 由于地球轴向倾斜 季节变化是逐渐发生的
with most animals having numerous strategies to adapt to the predictable changes.
大多数动物都有很多策略来适应这种可预测的变化
But due to a past asteroid impact
但由于曾经遭受过小行星撞击
Ateria has a wildly elliptical orbit:
Ateria的运行轨道是狭长的椭圆形
meaning it moves close to its sun for some of its orbit
意味着它的部分轨道靠近它的恒星
and far out into the cold of space for the rest.
其余部分远离恒星进入寒冷的太空
This means the seasons on Ateria are truly extreme…
这使得Ateria星球上的季节很极端
and life on this planet has had to get creative.
在这里生活的生物必须有创新性
Beginning with plants, we might spot Strungs, which possess a bright red tint
从植物开始 我们会看到Strungs 它有淡淡的亮红色
to get the most out of the sun’s slightly dimmer light.
可以最大限度的利用微弱的光线
During winters when the environment cools,
在冬季 当环境变冷时
Strungs partially hollow bark retains insulating air,
Strungs部分中空的树皮会保留隔热空气
allowing for extra heat protection.
使额外的热量保护成为可能
But other organisms — like the Fisher Crame
但其它生物 例如我们旅途中
the first animal we’ve encountered on our voyage
见到的第一个动物Fisher Crame
have a different strategy to survive the seasonal changes.
有不同的策略在季节变化中生存
They might look someone like insects,
Fisher Crames看起来像昆虫
but Fisher Crames are far larger,
但比昆虫要大得多
with wingspans of four feet, or 1.2 meters.
其翼展可达4英尺 即1.2米
To outsmart the cold, these creatures simply die after laying eggs,
为了战胜寒冷 这些生物索性在产卵后死去
which a new generation emerges from when temperatures rise again
当温度再次上升时 新一代就会从卵中诞生
to start the cycle anew.
开始新的循环
Another insect-like creature , the Tripperhog,
另一种类似昆虫的生物Tripperhog
has the more familiar strategy of hibernating during the long winter,
用我们更熟悉的冬眠策略过冬
with their thick shells camouflaging them and protecting them from harm.
它们用厚重的壳伪装 保护自己免受伤害
Another clever solution.
是个不错的办法
Ateria is a fascinating and extreme world,
Ateria是个迷人和极端的地方
but we must look to the horizon once again,
但我们必须再次远眺
and see how much more incredible alien life can get.
寻找更多不可思议的外星生物
The next stop on our journey is a massive fictional planet called Toreya.
旅程的下一站是一个巨大的虚构星球Toreya
The brilliant blue of the planet comes from the fact
它的亮蓝色是由于
that 99% of the surface is comprised of an incredible planetwide ocean.
表面的99%都是由浩瀚的海洋组成的
Life in our own oceans can already be so alien
地球的海洋生命已经如此怪异
so you can imagine what’s under the waves of these endless waters…
所以可以想象 在这无边的海洋里的生命又是如何
The region closest to the surface is called The Pelagic Zone —
最接近海面的区域被称为远洋区
and contains entire ecosystems founded on towering colonies of kelp-like plants.
它包含了建立在高大的海藻状植物群上的整个生态系统
Nicknamed ‘Heavenkelp,’ these plants can grow up to an astonishing 750 feet,
这些被称为“天藻”的植物可以长到惊人的750英尺
or 228 meters in length — almost like underwater trees.
即228米长 相当于水下的树
Among the leaves, aquatic life such as the fish-like pelagonareans
水生生物如形似鱼的pelagonareans
seek shelter and food.
在树叶间寻求庇护和食物
Some fish on Earth live in undersea forests of kelp or seaweed for similar reasons.
出于类似的原因 地球上的一些鱼类也生活在海藻或海草的海底森林中
Pelagonareans, or Pelegs for short, are a highly diverse group
Pelagonarean简称Pelegs是一个已经进化到
that have evolved to fill all manner of underwater niches.
占据了各种水下生态位高度多样化的群体
The incredible diversity of the Pelegs
Pelegs令人难以置信的多样性
makes the oceans of Toreya a teeming aquatic wilderness,
使Toreya的海洋成为一片拥挤的水生荒野
much like the richest areas of Earth’s oceans.
与地球海洋内最富饶的区域很相似
The artist imagines that one species of Pelegs
作者设想有一种Plege
— the gallant gulls — can even leave the water altogether,
“勇敢的海鸥”可以完全离开水面
as they’ve evolved powered flight.
因为它们进化出动力飞行
Due to their aquatic ancestry, however,
然而 由于它们水生的天性
they still need to occasionally dive back underwater to breathe.
仍然需要偶尔潜入水下呼吸
But the Pelegs aren’t the only lifeforms that lurk below the waves.
但Pelegs并不是潜伏在海浪下的唯一生命形式
Further down, in the twilight of the Bathypelagic Zone
再往下 在深海区域的微光中
you can find various translucent or bioluminescent species
你可以看到各种各样的半透明的或者发光的物种
feeding on floating pieces of organic matter… or on each other.
以漂浮的有机物为食……或者彼此捕食
And it’s here where the largest organisms on Toreya dwell: the Anoom
这是在Toreya居住的最大生物体: Anoom
— the most gigantic creatures we’ve encountered on our journey so far.
它是目前为止我们在旅途中遇到的最大生物
They’re able to reach a staggering 250 feet, or 72 meters in length
由于Toreya的海洋之广大 它们的身长
due to the vastness of the planet’s oceans,
能达到惊人的250英尺(72米)长
which the Anoom navigate on an enormous transparent sail.
它们乘着巨大的透明帆在海上航行
Curiously, the Anoom are composed of vast colonies of jellyfish-like invertebrates,
奇怪的是 Anoom是由巨大的水母状无脊椎动物群组成的
which work together as a single giant lifeform.
它们共同组成了一个巨大的生命体
And at the bottom of this planet-wide ocean
在这片广阔海洋的底部
you can find the Abyssopelagic zone,
你可以发现深渊带
where ghostly, pale-grey species swim through the dark
在那里 幽灵般的淡灰色物种在黑暗中游动
in the absence of sunlight,
由于缺乏阳光
many lifeforms in the abyss survive off a chemical soup supplied by hydrothermal vents,
深渊带的许多生物 依靠深海热泉提供的化学汤状物生存
an extreme form of survival that also occurs in our own oceans
这种极端的生存方式也出现在我们的海洋中
— proving life can take hold almost anywhere.
证明生命几乎可以在任何地方生存
And the next imaginary planet on our interstellar journey is no exception.
我们星际旅行中的下一个科幻星球也是如此
At 64% of earth’s mass,
Yulene是我们迄今为止访问的最小的星球
Yulene is the smallest planet we’ve visited yet.
质量只有地球的64%
its gravity therefore is so low
因为它的重力如此小
it’s on the very edge of the minimum for planetary habitability —
处于行星宜居性的最低限度的边缘
which has had a fascinating affect on the planet’s native life.
这对它的原生生物产生了奇妙的影响
Much of Yulene’s surface is locked in permanent ice caps,
Yulene的大部分表面都被冰冠永久覆盖
as the low gravity has resulted in a thin atmosphere that retains little heat.
这是因为低重力导致了大气稀薄 无法保存一点热量
While some forms of life venture into these frozen wastes,
尽管一些物种冒险进入这些冰冻的荒原
most of the planet’s organisms live on the warmer equatorial tundra.
但星球上的大多数生物生活在更温暖的赤道苔原上
Here, for the first time in our interstellar voyage,
在这里 我们在星际航行中第一次
we can spot trees which are quite similar to those on earth.
看见了与地球上非常相似的树木
Similar doesn’t mean the same, however,
相似并不意味着相同
and upon closer inspection of their leaves,
仔细检查它们的叶子
you can spot some key differences.
你可以发现一些关键的区别
Due to a higher presence of blue visible light on Yulene,
由于Yulene上有更多的蓝色可见光
leaves have evolved to use not chlorophyll,
树叶已经进化到不利用叶绿素
but the yellow pigment xanthophyll for photosynthesis.
而是利用黄色色素叶黄素进行光合作用
Above the yellow foliage, you can spot the magnificent Clerei
在黄叶上方 你可以看到巨大的Clerei
flying animals similar to birds or pterosaurs.
一种类似于鸟类或翼龙的飞行动物
These low-gravity fliers have wingspans of nearly 40 feet, or 12 meters,
这些低重力飞行生物的翼展接近40英尺 即12米
which they use to soar on mountain thermals
它们利用翼展在山上的热气流中翱翔
that help them achieve lift-off despite the thin atmosphere.
热气流有助于它们在稀薄的大气中起飞
After mating, Clerei build nests in the branches of Yulene’s trees
交配后 Clerei在Yulene的树枝上筑巢
raising their young in pairs like many species of birds.
像许多鸟类一样成双成对抚养后代
And their newborn babies are called Cerilets,
新出生的幼鸟称作Cerilets
which is one of my favorite details.
这是我最喜欢的细节之一
Clerei typically feed on animals like the Cobbleback Trate,
Clerei通常以Cobbleback Trate之类的动物为食
an aquatic creature that gets its name from a pattern of stone-colored markings
Cobbleback Trate是一种水生生物 其名字来源于它身上石头颜色的斑纹图案
that help camouflage it from predators gliding overhead.
这种斑纹帮助它伪装 躲避头顶上滑翔的捕食者
To lay their eggs, the Cobbleback Trate, like many freshwater Earth fish,
为了产卵 Cobbleback Trate像许多地球淡水鱼类一样
must make a trying voyage
必须进行一次艰难的航行
upstream to the frigid regions where predators are scarce.
逆流而上到掠食者稀少的寒冷地区
One creature that doesn’t have to worry about predators,
然而有一种动物不需要担心捕食者
however, is the armored Sisobe,
那就是全副武装的Sisobe
low-gravity grazers that can grow up to 20 ft, or 6 meters in length.
这种低重力食草动物可以长到20英尺 即6米长
From the edge of the tundra to the continental deserts,
从苔原的边缘到大陆上的沙漠
you can find these shaggy giants,
都可以看到这些皮毛粗糙的庞然大物
which move in great herds not unlike Earth bison.
它们成群结队地活动 就像地球上的野牛一样
And as the sun sets on Yulene,
当其恒星在Yulene落山时
many plants let off a brilliant glow to attract pollinating species.
许多植物发出明亮的光芒来吸引授粉物种
It’s a dazzling display,
这是一场令人眼花缭乱的展示
but the time is come to continue our expedition.
但是到了继续我们的探险的时候了
And the next imagined world is perhaps the most extreme so far.
而下一个假想星球可能是目前为止最极端的
Borold is a planet that closely orbits a red dwarf star,
Borold是一颗紧绕一颗红矮星运行的行星
only 20% the size of our sun, and far cooler
红矮星大小只有太阳的20% 温度也低得多
Borold is also tidally locked,
Borold 也是被潮汐力锁定的星球
with one side of the planet perpetually facing the sun in endless day,
它的一边在无尽的白天永远面对着太阳
and the other trapped in endless night.
而另一边被困在无尽的夜晚
Yet despite the harshness of Borold
尽管Borold的环境很恶劣
there is life upon this rock.
在这块岩石上还是有生命存在的
In the less extreme twilight region between the dark and light sections of the planet,
在行星的亮部和暗部之间不太极端的昏暗区域
you can find the Borold Stars.
你可以发现一种生物叫Borold Star
The largest animals on this planet’s surface
它们是这个星球上最大的动物
these creatures can grow up to 30 ft, or 9 meters long.
这些生物可以长到30英尺 即9米长
Since the gravity on this planet is almost 3 times that of earth.
由于这个星球的重力几乎是地球的3倍
These Stars creep slowly across the ground —
这些动物几乎像巨大的陆地海星
almost like giant terrestrial starfish.
在地面上缓慢爬行
The real challenge for Borold Stars, however, is food and water.
然而Borold Stars面临的真正挑战是食物和水
Unable to hunt due to their top speed being one mile,
由于它们的最高时速只有一英里 即1.6公里
or 1.6 kilometers per hour,
所以无法捕猎
Borold Stars simply crawl over anything edible
Borold Stars仅仅爬过任何可食用的东西
and crush it under their body.
用身体将它们压扁
And when they find water,
但当它们发现水源
these unusual creatures can drink hundreds of gallons at a time.
这些不寻常的生物一次可以喝下数百加仑
Borold Stars aren’t alone on this rock, however.
然而Borold Stars并不孤单
There are also plants… just not plants as we know them.
还有植物作伴 只是不像我们熟知的植物那样
These are Vleian Ojur, which look like jagged, tall stones,
这些看起来像锯齿状的高大石头叫Vleian Ojur
but are actually cone-shaped photosynthetic lifeforms most analogous to Earth trees.
但实际上是与地球上的树木非常相似的锥状光合生物
Their design helps protect them from the planet’s brutal winds,
它们的外形有助于保护它们免受星球上狂风的侵袭
which are the result of the extreme temperature gradients produced by the planet’s tidal lock.
狂风是地球潮汐锁定产生的极端温度变化率导致的
Our final Borold organism, however,
然而 我们要讲的最后一种生物
can take advantage of these perpetual winds to achieve lift-off.
可以利用这些无休止的风来实现飞升
You might not expect to find creatures on a world with such crushing gravity,
你可能没指望在重力如此大的星球找到会飞的生物
Borold Kites are scavengers that let these currents carry them to their next meal.
Borold Kite就是凭借风寻找食物的食腐动物
Unique, Certainly,
奇才? 那是当然
but even more fantastical lifeforms might be waiting on the final stop of our journey.
但更奇妙的生物可能正等在我们旅程的最后一站
The last fictional planet we’ll be visiting is also the largest of them all.
我们将要访问的最后一个虚构星球也是其中最大的一个
A world somewhere between a terrestrial planet and a gas giant,
Hurcelion是一个介于类地行星和气体巨星之间的世界
Hurcelion has a thick atmosphere divided into layered ecosystems,
它有分成了多层次生态系统的厚厚的大气层
almost like an aerial ocean.
几乎就像空中的海洋
And it is in this atmosphere
正是在这种大气层中
where we’ll find some of the most awe-inspiring life in all the cosmos.
我们能找到宇宙中最令人惊叹的生命
In the stratosphere, ballon-like animals float on sacs of internal hydrogen,
在平流层 气球状动物通过体内的氢气囊漂浮在空中
steering themselves through the air on specialized fins.
用特制的鳍在空气中航行
Many of these animals feed on green clouds of areofoliage,
它们中的许多以绿色云状的areofoliage为食
groups of small floating plants held aloft by the wind
areofoliage是一堆堆随风漂浮的小植物
which contribute to the high oxygen levels in Hurcelion’s atmosphere.
它们导致了Hurcelion大气中的高含氧量
And feeding on the herbivores are Speldos: airborne predators
以这些食草动物为食的是空中掠食者Speldos:
which despite being twice as long as a school bus, are quite agile.
尽管它们的身长是校车的两倍 却非常敏捷
Speldos lack jaws, but their gaping mouths are filled with teeth,
Speldos没有下颚 但它们张大的嘴里却长满了牙齿
so to hunt they simply ram into their prey.
所以要捕猎的话 它们直接撞向猎物就可以了
But the Speldos aren’t the true titans of these skies,
但Speldos并不是这片天空中真正的大块头
Oones are the largest animal we’ve found on this expedition,
Oones是我们在这次探险中看到的最大的动物
at over three times the size of a blue whale.
体型是蓝鲸的三倍多
Indeed, Oones are more than just singular lifeforms,
实际上 Oones不仅仅是单一的生命体
and incorporate dozens of symbiotic species into their bodies.
在它们的身体里融合了几十种共生物种
Oone mites are among the most important
Oone 螨虫是其中最重要的
as they act as the colony’s guardians.
因为它们是群体的守护者
While normally docile, they become fierce protectors
虽然平时温顺 但当它们称之为家园的那个 Oone 受到威胁时
when the Oone they call their home is threatened.
它们就变成了凶猛的保护者
Sometimes, however, an Oone passes away
然而有时一个Oone会死亡
and falls through the atmosphere to Hurcelion’s surface,
穿过大气层落到Hurcelion的表面
in a striking event known as an Oonefall.
这一惊人的事件被称为“Oonefall”
Below the calmer upper-atmosphere,
在较平静的上层大气下面
the surface of Hurcelion is a volcanic, stormy wasteland
Hurcelion的表面是一片火山肆虐的荒原
— and one of the most extreme regions glimpsed so far.
也是迄今为止我们所看到的最极端的地区之一
Yet even here there is life,
但即使在这里也有生命
like the tiny Praglerworms,
比如微小的 Praglerworms
which you can spot illuminating the dark with their bioluminescent displays.
你能看到它们用生物发光照亮黑暗
these humble organisms prove once for all
这些不起眼的生物完全证明
that life can take advantage of even the most extreme scenarios
生物可以利用哪怕是最极端的情况
Although our journey through the cosmos is over for now,
虽然我们在宇宙中的旅程暂时结束了
Christian Cline’s book The Teeming Universe
但Christian Cline的书《繁盛的宇宙》中
contains many more incredible speculative worlds and alien creatures,
包含了更多令人难以置信的新奇世界和外星生物
I encourage you to check out the link to it below
我建议你查看下面的链接
I’ve also included a link in the description to Astrovitae,
我还在下面加入了Astrovitae的链接
a relatively new speculative biology magazine
这是一本比较新的推理性生物学杂志
you can read online for free.
你可以线上免费阅读它
The Teeming Universe was recently featured there,
《繁盛的宇宙》是近期的主要内容
and they’ve got a lot of other cool stuff too,
但是里面也有许多其它很酷的内容
so I wanted to spread the word to fans of the genre.
所以我想把这个消息传给这一类的粉丝
And as always, thanks for watching.
感谢您的收看
If you enjoyed this entry,
如果你喜欢本次旅行
please lend your support and like, subscribe,
请给予支持 点赞 订阅
and hit the notification icon to stay up to date on all things Curious.
点击通知图标 了解Curious所有的最新动态
See you in the next video.
下期再见!

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译制信息
视频概述

宇宙中的其它星球会是什么样子呢?其它星球上的生命是如何进化来适应恶劣的环境的?《繁盛宇宙中的外星生物》引领你来一次遥远的旅行,探索令人惊奇的宇宙。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Winnie

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UL_V_jpIANE

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