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世界上最高的瀑布 – 译学馆
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世界上最高的瀑布

The Tallest Waterfall in the World!

吱吱和我住的地方有条河
Squeaks and I live right near a river.
欣赏湍急的水流很有趣 有时还会有人去这垂钓
It’s fun to watch the water rush past, and sometimes people even go fishing in it!
和世界上其他的河流一样 它随着地面向下流去
Like most of the rivers in the world, it flows downhill, right along the ground.
但你知道有些河流顺着悬崖流动吗
But did you know that some rivers flow right off of cliffs?
就像这个
Just look at this one!
这种顺着悬崖而流的溪流 我们称之为瀑布
This is a river that’s flowing right off a cliff, and that’s what we call a waterfall.
这个瀑布叫做天使瀑布
This waterfall is called Angel Falls.
位于南美洲委瑞内拉 并且这是世界上最高的瀑布
It’s in Venezuela, in South America, and it’s the tallest waterfall in the world!
大约有1000米高
It’s almost 1000 meters tall.
比世界上最高的建筑还要高哦
That’s taller than the tallest building!
瀑布的起点和普通河流一样 河水渐渐汇聚
Waterfalls start off as normal rivers, with lots of water flowing towards one place.
当河水流到悬崖边上时
But then the water in the river comes to a cliff.
河水顺势而下 形成瀑布
It flows over the side and becomes a waterfall!
就像天使瀑布 它变成了一个大瀑布
In the case of Angel Falls, it becomes a huge waterfall.
但是悬崖并不是一成不变的
But the cliff hasn’t always been there.
事实上是河水造就了悬崖
The river actually built the cliff.
[吱吱表示怀疑]
[Squeaks squeaks]
不 这是真的
No, really!
悬崖那里来的呢
Where there’s now a huge cliff?
它们本来只是任由河水流淌的普通平地
That used to just be regular flat ground with the river flowing over it.
但你看看河底 你就会发现一层硬质岩石
But if you looked underneath this river, you’d find a layer of hard rock, then a layer of
接着是一层沙土 再接着又是一层硬质岩石 这样交替下去
softer rock or dirt, then another layer of hard rock, over and over in a pattern!
就像一块很多层的蛋糕
It looks almost like a cake with lots of layers!
河流有些部分冲刷着硬质岩石层 另外有些部分
Some of the parts of the river hit only the hard layers, but the water eventually hits
冲刷着沙土层
some of the softer layers.
这就是水所蕴含的力量
That’s where the water can do some real work.
当水流一遍遍冲刷着岩石 也就渐渐的磨损着它
When water goes over rocks, it can wear away at those rocks over time.
我们称之为侵蚀
We call this erosion.
相较于一些坚硬的东西水流更容易侵蚀柔软的物质
It’s easier to for the water to erode soft things than hard things, like how it’s easy
比如水流可以轻易的冲毁沙堡 但弄坏一块砖就得费些时日
for you to smash a sand castle, but harder for you to break a brick.
所以河水流淌过硬质岩石层时 干不了什么
So, as the water goes over the hard rock, it doesn’t do too much.
但当河水流过沙土层时 沙土层会磨损的很快
But as it goes over the soft rock, it wears away the layer of soft rock more quickly.
因为河水会带走一些沙土 长此以往
The water takes a few little pieces of rock away, then a few more, and more, until finally,
直至最后 沙土层将不复存在
the soft rock layer is gone.
当沙土层被完全侵蚀时 旁边两层硬质岩石
When the layer of soft rock is completely eroded away, that creates a cliff between
就形成了一座悬崖
two of the layers of hard rock.
悬崖的出现需要经过许多许多年的时间 可能数百万年
This takes a very, very long time to happen, sometimes millions of years.
吱吱表示惊讶
[Squeaks squeaks]
对的
Exactly!
水流淌过悬崖顶端 飞流直下 就生成了瀑布
The water flows over the top of the cliff and falls straight down as a waterfall.
天使瀑布之所以能这么高皆是由于水流和岩石之间的互相作用
Angel Falls has grown especially tall because of how the water and the rock interact.
天使瀑布周围的土地中 有着极容易被侵蚀的沙土层
The land around Angel Falls has layers of very soft rock that erode super easily, and
以及无数非常难以被腐蚀的硬质岩石
tons of incredibly hard rock that hardly erodes at all.
由于各个岩层被侵蚀的程度大不相同
Because of the big difference in how these layers erode, this river has carved a huge
这条河侵蚀了许多沙土 却没侵蚀多少硬质岩石
amount of soft rock out of the way, and very little hard rock.
从而造就了世界上最高的瀑布
That created the tallest waterfall in the whole world!
感谢收看我们的儿童科学秀
Thanks for joining us on SciShow Kids!
如果你们对瀑布 侵蚀或者其他东西有什么疑问
Do you have questions about waterfalls, erosion, or anything else?
可以发邮件或者写评论给我们
Have a grown-up help you leave a comment, or send us an email at kids@scishow.com.
本期结束 下期再见咯
We’ll see you next time, here at the fort!

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视频概述

水柔而有力,日积月累,水滴也能石穿哦。瀑布便由此而来。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

秣子

审核员

嘉言先森

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c_dUdfnZyao

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