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为更健康地植物和人们不能说地秘密 – 译学馆
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为更健康地植物和人们不能说地秘密

The taboo secret to better health | Molly Winter

无论何时外出工作
Whenever I get to travel for work,
我都会尝试弄清我饮用水的来源
I try to find out where my drinking water comes from,
还有我排泄物的去处
and where my poop and pee go.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这让我赢得了“大便女皇”的家庭绰号
This has earned me the nickname “The Poo Princess” in my family,
同时还毁了很多家庭旅行 因为这并不正常
and it’s ruined many family vacations, because this is not normal.
但是思考排泄物们都去哪儿了
But thinking about where it all goes is the first step in activating
其实是激发它们超级潜能的第一步
what are actually superpowers in our poop and pee.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
是的
Yeah.
而且如果我们好好利用它们
And if we use them well,
我们可以拥有更加健康而美好的生活
we can live healthier and more beautifully.
这是新墨西哥州圣菲市的自然景观
Check out this landscape in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
想想涌入你思绪的是怎样的词汇
Just notice what kinds of words and feelings come to mind.
这样的景观却是用处理过的污水灌溉的
This landscape was watered with treated sewage water.
这会影响你的判断吗
Does that change anything for you?
我想可能会吧
I imagine it might.
不过没关系
And that’s OK.
我们对这件事的看法
How we feel about this
会决定我们究竟有多少革新精神
is going to determine exactly how innovative we can be.
我想解释一下原理
And I want to explain how it works,
先想一下我应该用啥词
but what words do I use?
我是想表达我本可以用很污的词 比如“屎”和“尿”
I mean, I can use profane words like “shit” and “piss,”
然后我奶奶就会拒绝看这段视频
and then my grandma won’t watch the video.
或者我也可以用幼稚的词汇 像“粑粑”和“尿尿”
Or I can use childish words like “poo” and “pee.” Eh.
我也可以用更科学的单词 类似于“尿液”和“粪便”
Or I can use scientific words like “excrement” and “feces.” Humph.
然后我用了混合体
I’ll use a mix.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这是我能想到的全部了(笑声)
It’s all I got. (Laughs)
那么 在这片城郊
So, in this suburb,
各种排泄物们和废水正涌向
the poo and the pee and the wash water are going to this treatment plant
处于区域中心的处理池
right in the middle of the community.
其实与其说处理池 它看起来更像一个公园
It looks more like a park than a treatment plant.
那些处于所有砂砾层最下方的粪便们
The poo at the very bottom of all those layers of gravel —
-不与其它成员接触-
not touching anyone —
为沼泽植物提供了固体养料
is providing solid food for those marsh plants.
在另外一头出去的清澈而干净的水
And the clean, clear water that comes out the other end
会从地下运输用于灌溉每个人的庭院
is traveling underground to water each person’s yard.
所以即使他们身处沙漠之中
So even though they’re in a desert,
他们也可以拥有私人绿洲
they get their own personal oasis.
这种方法被称为水资源综合治理
This approach is called Integrated Water Management,
或者整体治理或者循环治理
or holistic or closed-loop.
你们想叫它什么都可以
Whatever you want to call it,
但它与我们目前对卫生设施体系的看法
it’s in conflict with the status quo of how we think about sanitation,
(收集,处理,排放)是相悖的
which is contain, treat, push it away.
在这套系统中 我们做的更好
But in this approach, we’re doing one step better.
我们一开始就设计成了循环利用
We’re designing for reuse from the very beginning,
由于所有的东西都希望被再利用
because everything does get reused,
直到现在我们还在继续规划
only now we’re planning for it.
经常 这套系统能帮助创造美妙的空间
And often, that makes for really beautiful spaces.
但是 对于这个体系来说
But the most important thing about this system
最重要的不是其科技原理
isn’t the technicals of how it works.
而是你们对它的感觉
It’s how you feel about it.
你们希望在你们的后院中拥有它吗
Do you want this in your yard?
为啥不呢
Why not?
我真的对这个问题很好奇
I got really curious about this question.
为什么我们没有在污水处理中看到革新
Why don’t we see more innovation in sanitation?
为什么革新迟迟不来
Why isn’t that kind of thing the new normal?
我真心关心这个问题
And I care so much about this question,
之后我为非营利性组织“Recode”工作
that I work for a nonprofit called Recode.
我们想要加快采用可持续建筑
We want to accelerate adoption
和发展实践
of sustainable building and development practices.
我们想拥抱更多革新
We want more innovation.
但是大多数时候 所有的革新
But a lot of times, whole categories of innovation —
那些能够帮助我们生活更美好的
ones that can help us live more beautifully —
最终往往不合法
turn out to be illegal.
如今的法规和条例都是基于假设所写
Today’s regulations and codes were written under the assumption
那些优质实践永远都是优质的
that best practices would remain best practices,
伴随着的只是不断叠加的升级工程
with incremental updates forever and ever.
但是创新不总是叠加的
But innovation isn’t always incremental.
事实证明我们对任何新技术的看法
It turns out, how we feel about any particular new technique
会进入到我们生活的方方面面
gets into everything we do:
我们如何谈论它
how we talk about it,
我们如何鼓励人们去研究
how we encourage people to study,
我们的笑话 甚至条例当中……
our jokes, our codes …
这将最终决定我们能富有多少革新精神
And it ultimately determines how innovative we can be.
这也是我们不愿在卫生设施体系当中革新的第一个理由
So, that’s the first reason we don’t innovate in sanitation.
我们在一定程度上是不愿讨论卫生体系的
We’re kind of uncomfortable talking about sanitation,
这也是我被如此频繁的被称为“大便女皇”的原因
that’s why I’ve gotten called “The Poo Princess” so much.
第二个理由是
The second reason is:
我们认为这个问题在美国这儿已经被解决了
we think the problem is solved here in the US.
但事实并非如此
But not so.
在美国我们依然会因为饮用含有粪便成分的阴沟水而生病
Here in the US we still get sick from drinking shit in our sewage water.
每年有700万人因此生病
Seven million people get sick every year,
一年会有900人死于此因
900 die annually.
但我们并没有运用一个更加彻底有效的方法来改善现状
And we’re not taking a holistic approach to making it better.
也就是说 我们并没有解决问题
So we’re not solving it.
在我住的地方 俄勒冈州 波特兰市
Where I live in Portland, Oregon,
我不能带着孩子在雨季游泳
I can’t take Echo for a swim during the rainy season,
因为我们时常把未处理过的污水直接倒进河里
because we dump raw sewage sometimes into our river.
我们的雨水和污水会进入相同的处理池
Our rainwater and our sewage go to the same treatment plant.
这样 过多的雨水就会进入河流之中
Too much rain overflows into the river.
波特兰市并不是唯一一个这样做的
And Portland is not alone here.
40%的市政当局在自述汇报中指出
Forty percent of municipalities self-report
曾倾倒未处理或仅部分处理的污水进入水网
dumping raw or partially treated sewage into our waterways.
另一件当下令人不悦的事
The other bummer going on here with our status quo
是我们的排泄物们一半跑去灌溉农场了
is that half of all of your poop and pee is going to fertilize farmland.
另一半则被火化
The other half is being incinerated
或是填埋了
or land-filled.
我对此很失望
And that’s a bummer to me,
因为我们每天的便便当中其实含有惊人的养分
because there are amazing nutrients in your daily doody.
与猪的粪便是类同的
It is comparable to pig manure;
我们是杂食动物 它们也是
we’re omnivores, they’re omnivores.
想像一下你的排泄物对于一棵树来说就是一杯奶昔
Think of your poo and pee as a health smoothie for a tree.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
其实还有一件令人不悦的事
The other bummer going on here
那就是我们正在迅速地把我们摄入体内的药物转入水网当中
is that we’re quickly moving all the drugs we take into our waterways.
中等水平的废水处理池只有能力
The average wastewater treatment plant can remove maybe half of the drugs
移除废水中的一半药物
that come in.
另一半就心安理得的从另一侧出去了
The other half goes right out the other side.
想一想由各种药物成分 性激素 类固醇
Consider what a cocktail of pharmaceuticals —
维柯丁(一种止痛药)构成的鸡尾酒
hormones, steroids, Vicodin —
会对一条鱼
does to a fish,
对一只狗
to a dog,
一个孩子造成怎样的影响
to a child.
但这个问题不单单只是它本身
But this isn’t just some problem that we need to contain.
如果我们能够换一个角度 我们就能找到一条途径
If we flip this around, we can create a resource
它能帮我们解决许多别的问题
that can solve so many of our other problems.
我希望你们能够接受这个想法
And I want to get you comfortable with this idea,
设想一下我将要展示给你的东西 这些科技
so imagine the things I’m going to show you, these technologies,
还有这样的态度
and this attitude that says,
“我们将要拯救这一切
“We’re going to reuse this.
让我们把它设计的更美吧”
Let’s design to make it beautiful” —
-致先进的如厕技术
as advanced potty training.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我以为你们已经做好心理准备了
I think you’re ready for it.
我认为我们的文化已经为先进如厕技术做好准备
I think we as a culture are ready for advanced potty training.
这其中有三个重要的理由
And there are three great reasons to enroll today.
第一
Number one:
这能为我们的食物施肥
we can fertilize our food.
我们每个人都产生
Each one of us is pooping and peeing something
能够肥沃我们一半甚至全部食物的排泄物
that could fertilize half or maybe all of our food,
具体取决于我们的食谱
depending on our diet.
我们的便便为什么是深棕色的
That dark brown poo in the toilet is dark brown because of what?
因为无机物 细菌
Dead stuff, bacteria.
都是碳
That’s carbon.
如果我们把这些碳弄进土壤里
And carbon, if we’re getting that into the soil,
它们将会与土壤中的其它矿物质 养分结合
is going to bind to the other minerals and nutrients in there.
更加健康的食物
Boom! Healthier food.
哇啦!更加健康的人们
Voilà! Healthier people.
化肥从定义上来讲是不含碳的
Chemical fertilizers by definition don’t have carbon in them.
想像假如我们能够把这些生物养分全部放进土壤
Imagine if we could move our animal manure and our human manure to our soil,
我们也许就不需要依赖于化石燃料基肥料
we might not need to rely on fossil fuel-based fertilizers,
或是老远拉来的矿物质了
mine minerals from far away.
我们会节约多少能量啊
Imagine how much energy we could save.
现在 我们其中的一些人也许正担心着
Now, some of us are concerned
工业有害物质污染循环圈
about industrial pollutants contaminating this reuse cycle.
这确实需要被强调
That can be addressed.
但是我们需要把因为讨论到排泄物而感到的不适与其区分开来
But we need to separate our discomfort about talking about poo and pee
只有这样我们才能平静地讨论如何循环利用它们
so we can calmly talk about how we want to reuse it
还有哪些东西我们不希望循环使用
and what things we don’t want to reuse.
还有这个
And get this:
如果我们改变了卫生设施体系
if we change our approach to sanitation,
我们将开始减缓气候变化
we can start to slow down climate change.
还记得粪便中的碳吗?
Remember that carbon in the poop?
如果那些碳进入土壤库
If we can get that into our soil bank,
它们会帮助吸收我们自己扔进空气中地二氧化碳
it’s going to start to absorb carbon dioxide that we put into the air.
这就会帮助我们减缓全球变暖
And that could help slow down global warming.
我想要给你们展示这些英勇地灵魂
I want to show you some brave souls
就是那些有勇气去拥抱这种先进如厕技术地人们
who’ve had the courage to embrace this advanced potty training approach.
所以这些在新墨西哥州地人们-
So those folks in New Mexico —
他们为什么要这么做呢?
why did they do it?
因为他们身处沙漠之中吗? 是为了省钱吗?当然
‘Cause they’re in a desert? ‘Cause they save money? Yeah.
但更重要地是他们会因为目睹进入厕所的
But more importantly, they felt comfortable
是一种资源而感到更舒心
seeing what was going down the toilet as a resource.
这是在俄勒冈州 波特兰市的一个普通房子
Here’s an average house in Portland, Oregon.
唯一特别之处是拥有一个堆粪厕所
This house is special because they have a composting toilet
能够逐渐把所有排泄物变为土壤改良剂
turning all their poo and pee, over time, into a soil amendment.
产生的洗手水 洗澡水都会进入地下
Their wash water, their shower water, is going underground
进入一系列封闭槽中
to a series of mulch basins,
然后用于灌溉山下的果园
and then watering that orchard downhill.
当他们去申报这个项目时
When they went to get this permitted,
被俄勒冈州所禁止了
it wasn’t allowed in Oregon.
但却在相邻的五个州得到通过
But it was allowed in five other states nearby.
那是我所在的组织“Recode” 的第一次修该条例运动
That was Recode’s — my organization’s — first code-change campaign.
这有一个水资源综合治理的很好的例子
Here’s a great example where the Integrated Water Management approach
它也是最便宜的方法
was the cheapest.
这是波特兰市中心的三栋高层住宅楼
This is three high-rise residential buildings in downtown Portland,
它们不会因为谈及下水系统感到脸红
and they’re not flushing to the sewer system.
这怎么说?
How?
嗯 他们的洗澡水会被再利用去冲马桶
Well, their wash water is getting reused to flush toilets,
冷却机械系统
cool mechanical systems,
还有浇灌景观植物
water the landscape.
当整栋楼已经充分利用了所有的东西
And then once the building has thoroughly used everything —
就是曾经的粪便们
aka, shat in it —
他们已经被植物和细菌净化过了
it’s treated to highest standard right on-site by plants and bacteria,
才会进入正下方的地下水系统
and then infiltrated into the groundwater right below.
这一切
And all that was cheaper
要比更新周围的污水基础设施要便宜很多
than updating the surrounding sewer infrastructure.
所以我们来到了应该为改变
So that’s the last reason we should get really excited
而感到激动的最后一个原因
about doing things differently:
我们可以节省一大笔钱
we can save a lot of money.
下面是这类技术在俄勒冈州第一个通过法令的例子
This was the first permit of its kind in Oregon.
勇敢而心胸开阔的人们在圆桌会议上
Brave and open-minded people sat down and felt comfortable saying,
阔谈到:“对 那坨粑粑听起来很有用”
“Yeah, that shit makes sense.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
“我们放手干吧!”
“Let’s do it.”
(鼓掌)
(Applause)
你们知道吗?
You know?
我不断的拿出各种例子
I keep showing examples
其中每个人都在重复使用每一样东西
where everyone’s reusing everything on-site.
为什么呢?
Why?
当我们目睹了这些老化着的器械
Well, when we look at our aging infrastructure — and it is old —
然后我们看到了更新它们的价格
and we look at the cost of updating it,
三分之一的钱将花费在更新城市地下管道上
three-quarters of that cost is just the pipes snaking through our city.
所以作为我们去整修 去翻新
So as we build anew, as we renovate,
把它们换成兼备治理和循环的设备也许更合理
it might make more sense to treat and reuse everything on-site.
旧金山就意识到了这一点
San Francisco realized that it made sense
他们在家装当中投资退税活动
to invest in rebates for every household
以此来拯救那些洗浴用水和雨水
to reuse their wash water and their rainwater
人们用这些水去浇灌他们的后院儿
to water the backyard,
因为从整体来说这样真的能节约很多水
because the amount of water they would save as a community would be so big.
但是为什么说这些项目都很创新呢?
But why were all these projects so innovative?
从钱的角度来说 是一方面
The money piece, yeah.
其实更重要的
But more importantly,
还是他们想到能够拥有先进如厕技术
they felt comfortable with this idea of advanced potty training.
想象如果我们能够运用全新的卫生设施体系
Imagine if we embraced innovation for sanitation
就拿已有的例子途径来说 太阳能
the way we have for, say, solar power.
思考一下它吧 太阳能曾经十分稀少且价格高昂
Think about it — solar power used to be uncommon and unaffordable.
现今它是我们能源链上的重要一员
Now it’s more a part of our web of power than ever before.
它也逐渐表现出适应性
And it’s creating resiliency.
我们现在拥有与太阳能类似的能源
We now have sources of power like the sun
而且并不随地球阴晴而改变
that don’t vary with our earthly dramas.
是什么驱动了这些创新?
What’s driving all that innovation?
是我们人类
It’s us.
我们正在谈论能源
We’re talking about energy.
这听起来很酷炫
It’s cool to talk about energy.
有一些人甚至在谈论
Some folks are even talking about the problems
当下能源紧张的问题
with the limited resources where our current energy is coming from.
我们邀请我们当中最棒最聪明的那批去解决这个问题
We encourage our best and brightest to work on this issue —
更加有效的太阳能板 更高能的电池
better solar panels, better batteries, everything.
现在让我们来讨论一下我们饮用水的来源吧
So let’s talk about where our drinking water is coming from,
其实就是我们排泄物的去处
where our poo and pee are actually going.
如果我们能够克服对于谈论这个话题的不适
If we can get over this discomfort with this entire topic,
我们就能够创造出埋下未来金矿的东西
we could create something that creates our future goldmine.
每当你们冲马桶时
Every time you flush the toilet,
我都希望你们能够思考
I want you to think,
“我的排泄物们都去哪儿了?
“Where is my poop and pee going?
他们会被高价雇佣吗?”
Will they be gainfully employed?”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
“或者他们会在水道当中制造大动乱吗?”
“Or are they going to be wreaking havoc in some waterway?”
如果你们不清楚的话 就要去弄清楚
If you don’t know, find out.
当你们不喜爱答案的时候
And if you don’t like the answer,
当你已经掌握先进如厕技术 对于循环利用有充分了解的时候
figure out how you can communicate to those who can drive this change
弄明白你如何能与有能力实现改变的人联系上
that you have advanced potty training, that you are ready for reuse.
你们所有人的感受
How all of you feel
将会决定我们究竟能多么富有创新精神
is going to determine exactly how innovative we can be.
非常感谢
Thank you so much.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)

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视频概述

一个很有味道的视频,演讲者对于人类排泄出的废物相关的一些研究,一些排水系统的相关问题

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

血蔷薇

审核员

与光同尘

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Brajdazp1o

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