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奇妙的幸福科学 – 译学馆
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奇妙的幸福科学

The surprising science of happiness | Dan Gilbert

When you have 21 minutes to speak,
相对二十一分钟的演讲来说
two million years seems like a really long time.
两百万年显得非常漫长
But evolutionarily, two million years is nothing.
但是从进化的角度来看 两百万年只是一瞬间
And yet in two million years,
在两百万年中
the human brain has nearly tripled in mass,
人脑容量从我们祖先 能人的1.25磅
going from the one-and-a-quarter pound brain of our ancestor here, Habilis,
增大了近三倍
to the almost three-pound meatloaf that everybody here has between their ears.
现在这里每个人都有的3磅
What is it about a big brain
为什么自然急于
that nature was so eager for every one of us to have one?
让我们每个人都进化出一个大容量的大脑呢?
Well, it turns out when brains triple in size,
当我们的脑量扩大成三倍的时候
they don’t just get three times bigger;
大脑不仅仅在体积上有了改变
they gain new structures.
它在结构上也发生了变化
And one of the main reasons our brain got so big
我们大脑变大的原因之一
is because it got a new part, called the “frontal lobe.”
就是它有了新的一部分 叫做“额叶”
Particularly, a part called the “pre-frontal cortex.”
其中尤为重要的是“前额叶”
What does a pre-frontal cortex do for you
前额叶对你有什么作用
that should justify the entire architectural overhaul of the human skull
能在进化的瞬间
in the blink of evolutionary time?
证明人类头骨的整个结构改造是合理的?
It turns out the pre-frontal cortex does lots of things,
前额叶有很多功能
but one of the most important things it does
其中最重要的是
is that it is an experience simulator.
它是一种经验模拟器
Flight pilots practice in flight simulators
飞行员利用在飞行模拟器中的训练
so that they don’t make real mistakes in planes.
来防止在真实飞行中产生失误
Human beings have this marvelous adaptation
人类有惊人的适应性
that they can actually have experiences in their heads
他们可以在大脑中体验
before they try them out in real life.
未曾真实经历的东西
This is a trick that none of our ancestors could do,
这个技巧是我们的祖先们都不会的
and that no other animal can do quite like we can.
也没有任何动物会
It’s a marvelous adaptation!
这种适应性真不可思议!
It’s up there with opposable thumbs
这一特征和对生拇指
and standing upright and language as one of the things
直立行走以及语言
that got our species out of the trees
使我们从树上
and into the shopping mall.
进化到了购物中心
Now — (Laughter) —
现在(笑声)
All of you have done this.
大家都能做这些
I mean, you know, Ben and Jerry’s doesn’t have liver-and-onion ice cream,
我的意思是 比如Ben and Jerry’s没有肝和洋葱口味的冰激淋
and it’s not because they whipped some up,
并不是因为他们试做了一下
tried it and went, “Yuck.”
尝了尝 然后说“Yuck” (表示恶心)
It’s because, from without leaving your armchair,
而是因为你坐在椅子上
you can simulate that flavor and say “yuck” before you make it.
就可以想象肝和洋葱的口味的冰激淋是怎样恶心了
Let’s see how your experience simulators are working.
让我们来看看经验模拟器是如何工作的
Let’s just run a quick diagnostic
在我继续我的演说之前
before I proceed with the rest of the talk.
让我们来做一个简短的试验
Here’s two different futures
这里有两个不同的未来
that I invite you to contemplate.
我想邀请你们一起来参与
And you can try to simulate them
你可以幻想这两种未来
and then tell me which one you think you might prefer.
告诉我你更喜欢哪一种
One of them is winning the lottery.
第一种未来是中彩票
This is about 314 million dollars.
价值3.14亿美元的彩票
And the other is becoming paraplegic.
第二种是截瘫
(Laughter)
(笑)
So just give it a moment of thought.
我给你们几分钟考虑一下
You probably don’t feel like you need a moment of thought.
你也许觉得根本不用考虑
Interestingly, there are data on these two groups of people,
这里有一些很有趣的数据
data on how happy they are.
这些数据显示了这两组人到底有多快乐
And this is exactly what you expected, isn’t it?
是不是这正如你们所料?
But these aren’t the data. I made these up!
可其实这是我胡诌的数据!
These are the data.
这才是真正的数据
You failed the pop quiz,
你们都没有通过突击测试
and you’re hardly five minutes into the lecture.
这堂课开始还不到5分钟呢
Because the fact is
事实是
that a year after losing the use of their legs,
在失去双腿一年之后
and a year after winning the lotto,
和在赢了彩票一年之后
lottery winners and paraplegics are equally happy with their lives.
中彩票的人和截瘫患者的快乐程度几乎相同
Now, don’t feel too bad about failing the first pop quiz,
现在 不要为没有通过突击测试而沮丧了
because everybody fails all of the pop quizzes all of the time.
因为几乎没有人能通过这项突击测试
The research that my laboratory has been doing,
我实验室所做的研究
that economists and psychologists around the country have been doing,
还有全国的经济学家和心理学家所做的研究
has revealed something really quite startling to us,
显示了一种让人吃惊的东西
something we call the “impact bias,”
我们称它为影响偏差
which is the tendency for the simulator to work badly.
这是指人脑的模拟功能有犯错误的倾向
For the simulator to make you believe
模拟器会夸大事物的不同结果
that different outcomes are more different than in fact they really are.
而这些结果实际上未必有多么的不同
From field studies to laboratory studies,
现场研究和实验室研究都显示
we see that winning or losing an election,
选举的输赢
gaining or losing a romantic partner,
伴侣的得失
getting or not getting a promotion,
提升与否
passing or not passing a college test, on and on,
考试成败等等
have far less impact, less intensity and much less duration
对我们的影响及影响时间的长短
than people expect them to have.
都比人们想象的少
In fact, a recent study — This almost floors me —
事实上 最新的研究几乎让我大吃一惊
a recent study showing how major life traumas affect people suggests
最新的研究显示
that if it happened over three months ago,
发生在三个月以前的重大的创伤
with only a few exceptions,
除了少数例外
it has no impact whatsoever on your happiness.
对你今日的快乐几乎没有影响
Why?
这是为什么?
Because happiness can be synthesized.
因为快乐是可以人工合成的
Sir Thomas Brown wrote in 1642,
托马斯·布朗(Thomas Brown)在1642年写到:
“I am the happiest man alive.
“我是世界上最快乐的人
I have that in me that can convert poverty to riches,
我可以将贫穷变为富有
adversity to prosperity.
将逆境变为顺境
I am more invulnerable than Achilles;
我比阿奇里斯(Achilles)更无懈可击
fortune hath not one place to hit me.”
我用不着幸运的眷顾”
What kind of remarkable machinery does this guy have in his head?
是什么力量让他如此强大?
Well, it turns out it’s precisely the same remarkable machinery
这种力量
that all off us have.
是我们每个人都有
Human beings have something
人类具有一种
that we might think of as a “psychological immune system”.
“心理免疫系统”
A system of cognitive processes,
这个系统通是一个认知过程
largely non-conscious cognitive processes,
基本上是无意识的认知过程
that help them change their views of the world,
这种认知可以改变人们对世界的认识
so that they can feel better about the worlds in which they find themselves.
让人们感到自己的生活更美好
Like Sir Thomas,
像托马斯爵士一样
you have this machine.
你也具有这样的能力
Unlike Sir Thomas,
与托马斯爵士不同的是
you seem not to know it.
你还没有意识到你有这种能力
We synthesize happiness,
我们都可以自己制造快乐
but we think happiness is a thing to be found.
尽管我们一直以为快乐是一种需要苦苦追寻的东西
Now, you don’t need me to tell you give you
现在 我想你们不用我举太多
too many examples of people synthesizing happiness, I suspect.
人们自己合成快乐的例子
Though I’m going to show you some experimental evidence,
不过我还是想给你们看一些实验证据
you don’t have to look very far for evidence.
你并不用太费劲地寻求证据
As a challenge to myself, since I said this once in a little while in lectures.
我上课时说过要自我挑战
I took a copy of the New York Times
因此我随便拿了一份纽约时报
and tried to find some instances of people synthesizing happiness.
试着从中寻找人们人工合成快乐的例子
Here are three guys synthesizing happiness.
这里有三个例子
“I’m so much better off physically, financially, emotionally and almost every other way —
“我现在在心理上 经济上 感情上和
mentally, almost every other way.”
精神上各方面都比以前好”
“I don’t have one minute’s regret.”
“我没有一分钟后悔过”
“It was a glorious experience.”
“这个经历太荣耀了”
“I believe it turned out for the best.”
“我相信事情向最好的方向发展”
Who are these characters who are so damn happy?
谁如此快乐?
The first one is Jim Wright.
第一位是吉姆·莱特(Jim Wright)
Some of you are old enough to remember:
年纪大一点的人可能记得:
he was the chairman of the House of Representatives
他是众议院主席
and he resigned in disgrace
因为一个名叫牛特·金瑞奇(Newt Gingrich)的年轻共和党党员
when this young Republican named Newt Gingrich
发现了他的一桩黑幕交易事件
found out about a shady book deal he had done.
莱特被迫辞职
He lost everything.
他失去了一切
The most powerful Democrat in the country lost everything.
这个在美国最有权的民主党人失去了一切
He lost his money, he lost his power.
他失去了金钱 权利
What does he have to say all these years later about it?
这么多年后他是怎么看待这些的?
“I am so much better off physically, financially, mentally and in almost every other way.”
“我现在在心理上 经济上 感情上和精神上等各方面都比以前好”
What other way would there be to be better off?
最好还能好成怎样?
Vegetably? Minerally? Animally?
植物上?矿物上?动物上?
He’s pretty much covered them there.
他基本上都包括了
Moreese Bickham is somebody you’ve never heard of.
你可能从来没有听说过莫里斯·比克 汉(Moreese Bickham)
Moreese Bickham uttered these words upon being released.
莫里斯·比克汉出狱后说了这样的话
He was 78 years old.
他七十八岁了
He’d spent 37 years in a Louisiana State Penitentiary
他因为一项错误的判决在路易斯安那监狱
for a crime he didn’t commit.
坐了37年牢
He was ultimately exonerated,
他最终在七十八岁时通过了DNA测验确认无罪
at the age of 78, through DNA evidence.
才被释放
And what did he have to say about his experience?
他是这样描绘这些经历的呢?
“I don’t have one minute’s regret.
“我没有一分钟后悔过
It was a glorious experience.”
这个经历太荣耀了 ”
Glorious!
荣耀!
This guy is not saying,
这个人不是在说:
“Well, there were some nice guys. They had a gym.”
“监狱里有些人还是不错的 那里还有一个健身房”
It’s “Glorious,” a word we usually reserve for
他说的是“荣耀!” 我们通常用这个词来形容
something like a religious experience.
跟宗教相关的经历
Harry S. Langerman uttered these words,
哈里·朗格曼(Harry S. Langerman)说了这些
and he’s somebody you might have known but didn’t,
他本可以成为一个家喻户晓的人物
because in 1949 he read a little article in the paper about
但在1949年 他在报上看到一篇关于
a hamburger stand owned by two brothers named McDonalds.
麦当劳兄弟拥有的一家汉堡小摊的报道
And he thought, “That’s a really neat idea!”
他立马想到“这是一个好主意!”
So he went to find them.
他找到了麦当劳兄弟
They said, “We can give you a franchise on this for 3,000 bucks.”
他们同意道:“给我们3000美元 我们就让你开连锁店”
Harry went back to New York, asked his brother who’s an investment banker,
哈里回到纽约 向他在投行工作的哥哥
to loan him the 3,000 dollars,
借3000美元
and his brother’s immortal words were,
他哥哥劝慰道:
“You idiot, nobody eats hamburgers.”
“你真是一个傻瓜 没人会吃汉堡的”
He wouldn’t lend him the money,
他没有借到钱
and of course, six months later Ray Kroc had exactly the same idea.
6个月之后 瑞·克罗克(Ray Croc)也有了同样的想法
It turns out people do eat hamburgers,
结果是人们喜欢吃汉堡
and Ray Kroc, for a while, became the richest man in America.
瑞·克罗克一时成为美国最富有的人
And then, finally, you know, to best of all possible words,
最后 尽可能多说几句
some of you recognize this young photo of Pete Best,
你们也许会认出照片上年轻的比特·贝斯特 (Pete Best)
who was the original drummer for the Beatles,
他是甲壳虫乐队早期的一位鼓手
until they, you know, kinda like sent him out on an errand and snuck away
直到他们借故丢下了他
and picked up Ringo on a tour.
让林格(Ringo)入伙
Well, in 1994, when Pete Best was interviewed —
1994年比特·贝斯特接受采访的时候
yes, he’s still a drummer;
是的 他还是一名鼓手;
yes, he’s a studio musician —
是的 他还是一名音乐家
he had this to say: “I’m happier than I would have been with the Beatles.”
他说到:“要是留在甲壳虫乐队 我不会这么快乐”
Okay. There’s something important to be learned from these people,
好了 我们可以从这些人身上学到很重要的东西
and it is the secret of happiness.
那是快乐的秘诀
Here it is, finally to be revealed.
让我们总结一下
First: accrue wealth, power, and prestige, then lose it.
一:积聚财富 权利和威望 然后失去这些东西
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Second: spend as much of your life in prison as you possibly can.
二:把牢底坐穿
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Third: make somebody else really, really rich.
三:让他人成为巨富
And finally: never ever join the Beatles.
最后:千万别加入甲壳虫乐队
(Laughter)
(笑声)
OK, now.
是的 没错
I like Ze Frank can predict your next thought,
我像泽·法兰克(Ze Frank)一样可以猜想到你会想什么
which is “Yeah, right.”
你们在想“哦 是吧”
Because when people synthesize happiness,
因为当人们像以上例举的人一样
as these gentlemen seem to have done,
去合成快乐时
we all smile at them,
我们会冲他们微笑
but we kind of roll our eyes and say,
同时会转动着眼睛说:
“Yeah right, you never really wanted the job.”
“哦 是吧 你从来没有真正想要那份工作”
“Oh yeah, right.
“哦 是的
You really didn’t have that much in common with her,
你本来就和她没有什么共同点
and you figured that out just about the time
你知道这点时
she threw the engagement ring in your face.”
她也差不多要把订婚戒指取下来扔给你 ”
We smirk because we believe that synthetic happiness
我们假笑是因为我们相信合成的快乐
is not of the same quality as what we might call “natural happiness”.
比不上天然的快乐
What are these terms?
什么是天然的快乐和人工合成的快乐?
Natural happiness is what we get when we get what we wanted,
天然的快乐是得到我们渴求的东西
and synthetic happiness is what we make
人工合成的快乐则是在得不到我们渴求的东西时
when we don’t get what we wanted.
自己制造出来的东西
And in our society, we have a strong belief
现在这个社会坚信
that synthetic happiness is of an inferior kind.
人工合成的快乐是次品
Why do we have that belief?
为什么人们有这样的观点?
Well, it’s very simple.
那很简单
What kind of economic engine would keep churning
如果我们都相信得到或得不到自己想要的东西都能一样快乐
if we believed that not getting what we want could make us just as happy as getting it?
那经济引擎还如何高速运转?
With all apologies to my friend Matthieu Ricard,
先让我向我的朋友马修·理查德(Matthieu Ricard)表示歉意
a shopping mall full of Zen monks
要是光顾商场的都是和尚
is not going to be particularly profitable,
那么这些商场岂不是都不赚钱了?
because they don’t want stuff enough.
因为和尚通常都没有 什么物质需求
(Laughter)
(笑声)
I want to suggest to you
我想告诉你们的是
that synthetic happiness is every bit as real and enduring
人工合成的快乐是真实而持久的
as the kind of happiness you stumble upon
它和那种因为得到我们渴求的东西
when you get exactly what you were aiming for.
而感受到的快乐一样
I’m a scientist, so I’m going to do this not with rhetoric,
我是一个科学家 我不光是说一些好听的结论
but by marinating you in a little bit of data.
我还要向你们提供一些数据
Let me first show you an experimental paradigm
让我先给你们看一个实验范式
that is used to demonstrate the synthesis of happiness among regular old folks.
用来证明普通老年人的合成的快乐
And this isn’t mine.
这不是我的试验
It’s a 50-year-old paradigm called the “free choice paradigm”.
这是50年前做的实验 叫做“自由选择范式”
It’s very simple.
它很简单
You bring in, say, six objects,
你有6件物品
and you ask a subject to rank them
你让受试者把这6件物品
from the most to the least liked.
按照他们的喜爱程度排序
In this case, because this experiment I’m gonna tell you about uses them,
在这个实验中
these are Monet prints.
我们用6幅莫奈的画
So, everybody can rank these Monet prints
每个人都把画
from the one they like the most, to the one they like the least.
按照他们最喜欢的到最不喜欢的排列
Now we give you a choice:
现在我们给你一个选择
“We happen to have some extra prints in the closet.
“我们正好有一些多余的画
We’re going to give you one as your prize to take home.
我们将把画作为奖品给你
We happen to have number three and number four,”
我们正好有三号和四号画”
we tell the subject.
我们这样告诉受试者
This is a bit of a difficult choice,
这个选择有点困难
because neither one is preferred strongly to the other,
因为受试者对两幅画的喜爱程度相当
but naturally, people tend to pick number three
很自然 人们都倾向于选择三号
because they liked it a little better than number four.
因为他们更喜欢三号
Sometime later — it could be 15 minutes;
过了一段时间之后 可能是15分钟
it could be 15 days —
也可能是15天
the same stimuli are put before the subject,
同样的画放在受试者面前
and the subject is asked to re-rank the stimuli.
我们叫受试者对同样的画再一次排序
“Tell us how much you like them now.”
“告诉我们你现在有多喜欢这些画了?”
What happens? Watch as happiness is synthesized.
结果怎样?快乐被人工合成了
This is the result that has been replicated over and over again.
我们反复进行了同样的实验
You’re watching happiness be synthesized.
你看到快乐被合成了吧!
Would you like to see it again?
你还想看一下吗?
Happiness! “The one I got is really better than I thought!
快乐!“我有的这张比我预想的还要好
That other one I didn’t get sucks!”
我得不到的那张其实不怎么样”
That’s the synthesis of happiness. (Laughter)
这就是人工合成的快乐(笑声)
Now, what’s the right response to that?
现在你怎么想呢?
“Yeah, right!”
“哦 是吧!”
Now, here’s the experiment we did,
这是我们做的实验
and I hope this is going to convince you that
我希望这个实验能够让你相信
“Yeah, right!” was not the right response.
“哦 是吗!”不是正确的答案
We did this experiment with a group of patients who had anterograde amnesia.
我们跟患有健忘症的病人做了同样的实验
These are hospitalized patients.
这些都是住院病人
Most of them have Korsakoff’s syndrome,
大多数人都患有柯萨科夫(korsakoff)综合征
a polyneuritic psychosis.
一种多发神经炎精神症
They drank way too much,
患者过度饮酒
and they can’t make new memories.
记不住新发生的事情
OK? They remember their childhood,
明白吗?他们能记得他们的童年
but if you walk in and introduce yourself,
但是如果你走进房间做自我介绍
and then leave the room, when you come back,
然后离开房间 当你很快回到他们身边时
they don’t know who you are.
他们不会记得你是谁
We took our Monet prints to the hospital.
我们把莫奈的画拿到医院去
And we asked these patients to rank them
让病人们来对他们
from the one they liked the most to the one they liked the least.
按照喜爱的程度排序
We then gave them the choice between number three and number four.
然后我们让他们选择三号或者四号画
Like everybody else,
像很多人一样
they said, “Gee, thanks Doc! That’s great!
他们说:“哇 真太好了!谢谢你!
I could use a new print. I’ll take number three.”
我有一幅新的画了 我要三号”
We explained we would have number three mailed to them.
我们解释说 我们会把三号邮寄给他们
We gathered up our materials
然后我们收起东西
and we went out of the room, and counted to a half hour.
离开了病人的房间 等半个小时
Back into the room, we say, “Hi, we’re back.”
回到房间 我们说:“嘿 我们回来了”
“The patients, bless them, say,
病人们说:
“Ah, Doc, I’m sorry,
“啊 医生 非常抱歉
I’ve got a memory problem, that’s why I’m here.
我有一点记忆的毛病 所以才住院的
If I’ve met you before, I don’t remember.”
我们是不是见过面 我不记得了”
“Really, Jim, you don’t remember?
“哦 是吗 吉姆 你不记得了?
I was just here with the Monet prints?”
我刚刚带了几幅莫奈的画到这儿来的 ”
“Sorry, Doc, I just don’t have a clue.”
“对不起 医生 我真的不记得了”
“No problem, Jim.
“没关系 吉姆
All I want you to do is rank these for me
我只是想让你把这些画
from the one you like the most to the one you like the least.”
按照你喜爱的程度排序”
What do they do?
他们怎么做了?
Well, let’s first check and make sure they’re really amnesiac.
先让我们确认 他们是真的患有健忘症
We ask these amnesiac patients to tell us which one they own,
我们让这些病人告诉我们他们有哪幅画
which one they chose last time,
他们上次选了哪幅画
which one is theirs.
哪幅是他们的
And what we find is amnesiac patients just guess.
我们发现健忘症病人纯粹在猜
These are normal controls, where if I did this with you,
如果是正常对照者 如果我这样问你
all of you would know which print you chose.
你们都记得选择了那幅画
But if I do this with amnesiac patients,
但是这些健忘症病人
they don’t have a clue.
他们一点都不记得了
They can’t pick their print out of a lineup.
他们不能从一堆画中选出我送他们的那张
Here’s what normal controls do:
这是一般人做的:
they synthesize happiness. Right?
他们人工合成快乐 是吧?
This is the change in liking score,
这是喜爱程度的变化
the change from the first time they ranked
第一次排序
to the second time they ranked.
到第二次排序的变化
Normal controls show —
平常人的数据显示
that was the magic I showed you,
这正是我要向你们展示的“魔法”
now I’m showing it to you in graphical form —
现在我们用图形来显示
“The one I own is better than I thought.
这个变化 “我有的比我想的还好
The one I didn’t own, the one I left behind,
我没拥有的
is not as good as I thought.”
其实并不怎么样”
Amnesiacs do exactly the same thing.
健忘症病人也做了同样的事
Think about this result.
想想这个结果
These people like better the one they own,
他们更喜欢拥有的那张
but they don’t know they own it.
虽然他们并不知道自己拥有这个
“Yeah, right” is not the right response!
“哦 真的吗?” 你对此表示不屑?
What these people did when they synthesized happiness is
当人们合成快乐时
they really, truly changed their affective, hedonic, aesthetic reactions
他们真正的 真实的从感情上和审美角度上改变了
to that poster.
对那幅画的看法
They’re not just saying it because they own it,
他们这么说不仅仅是因为他们拥有这幅画
because they don’t know they own it.
他们其实并不记得自己有那幅画
Now, when psychologists show you bars,
现在 当心理学家给你们看这些图形
you know that they are showing you averages of lots of people.
你知道他们是在显示平均数据
And yet, all of us have this psychological immune system,
我们大家都有这个心理免疫系统
this capacity to synthesize happiness,
和人工合成快乐的能力
but some of us do this trick better than others.
但是我们中的一些人比另外一些人能更好的掌握这些窍门
And some situations allow anybody to do it more effectively
同时 人们的心理免疫系统在某些特定环境下
than other situations do.
能比在其他情况下运行的更有效
It turns out that freedom,
事实证明 自由
the ability to make up your mind and change your mind,
即做决定和改变决定的能力
is the friend of natural happiness,
是帮助我们获得天然快乐的朋友
because it allows you to choose among all those delicious futures
它能让你从各种可能情况中
and find the one that you would most enjoy.
选择你最喜欢的那种
But freedom to choose,
但是自由选择
to change and make up your mind,
决断力和改变决定的能力
is the enemy of synthetic happiness.
是人工合成快乐的敌人
And I’m going to show you why.
我来解释这是为什么
Dilbert already knows, of course.
当然 呆伯特(Dilbert)已经知道了
You’re reading the cartoons as I’m talking.
你一边看卡通 一边听我说
“Dogbert’s tech support. How may I abuse you?”
“Dogbert技术支持中心 我该怎么说你?”
“My printer prints a blank page after every document.”
“我的打印机在每个文件打印完毕后都会出一张白纸”
“Why would you complain about getting free paper?”
“你为什么要抱怨得到免费的纸呢?”
“Free? Aren’t you just giving me my own paper?”
“免费的?这本来就是我的纸啊?”
“Egad, man! Look at the quality of the free paper compared to your lousy regular paper!
“哎 老兄 看看这些免费的纸和那些普通的纸的质量!
Only a fool or a liar would say that they look the same! ”
只有傻子和骗子才会说它们是一样的”
“Ah! Now that you mention it,
“啊!在你说了之后
it does seem a little silkier!”
这些纸看上去是要光滑一些 ”
“What are you doing?”
“你在干什么?”
“I’m helping people accept the things they cannot change.”
“我在帮助这些人接受他们不能改变的现实”
Indeed. The psychological immune system works best
的确是这样 心理免疫系统
when we are totally stuck, when we are trapped.
在我们没有其他选择时最有效
This is the difference between dating and marriage, right?
这就是约会和婚姻的区别 是吧?
I mean, you go out on a date with a guy, and he picks his nose;
你出去和一个男人约会 他扣扣鼻孔
you don’t go out on another date.
你就不会跟他在约会了
You’re married to a guy and he picks his nose?
如果你们结婚了 他扣扣鼻孔
Yeah, he has a heart of gold.
嗯 他有金子一般的心
Don’t touch the fruitcake, right?
别动那个水果蛋糕 是吧?
You find a way to be happy with what’s happened. (Laughter)
你自我开导满于现状(笑声)
Now, what I want to show you is that
现在我告诉你
people don’t know this about themselves,
如果人们不了解自己
and not knowing this can work to our supreme disadvantage.
不知道他们有这个心理免疫系统 他们可能做一些很错误的决定
Here’s an experiment we did at Harvard.
这是我们在哈佛大学做的一个实验
We created a photography course, a black-and-white photography course,
我们开设了黑白摄影课程
and we allowed students to come in and learn how to use a darkroom.
学生们来学习如何使用暗室
So we gave them cameras, they went around campus,
我们给他们相机 他们在校园中采景
they took 12 pictures of their favorite professors
每人能拍12张照片 他们拍了他们最喜欢的教授
and their dorm room and their dog,
寝室 他们的狗等等
and all the other things they wanted to have Harvard memories of.
任何留给他们哈佛回忆的东西都可以拍
They bring us the camera;
然后他们把相机给我们
we make up a contact sheet;
我们做了一个胶片印出的小样
they figure out which are the two best pictures;
他们选出最好的两张
and we now spend six hours teaching them about darkrooms.
然后我们用了6个小时教他们如何使用暗室
And they blow two of them up,
他们自己把两张照片映出来
and they have two gorgeous eight-by-10 glossies of meaningful things to them,
他们有了两张极有纪念意义的8×10的照片
and we say, “Which one would you like to give up?”
我们问“哪一张你不要?”
“I have to give one up?”
他们问:“我不能两张都要吗?”
“Oh, yes, we need one as evidence of the class project.
“噢 不能 我们需要一张来留底
So you have to give me one.
因此你必须放弃一张
You have to make a choice.
你一定要做一个决定
You get to keep one, and I get to keep one.”
你留一张 我留一张”
“Now, there are two conditions in this experiment.
现在 这个实验又分为两种
In one case, the students are told,
第一种情况 学生们被告知
“But you know, if you want to change your mind,
“你知道 如果你改变了主意
I’ll always have the other one here,
另外一张还在我这里
and in the next four days,
我要四天以后
before I actually mail it to headquarters”
才把这些照片寄到总部去”
“I’ll be glad to — yeah, “headquarters” —
我很乐意 是的“总部”
I’ll be glad to swap it out with you.
我很乐意跟你换
In fact, I’ll come to your dorm room and give,
事实上 我会把照片送到你的寝室来换
just give me an email.
只要发电邮给我就行了
Better yet, I’ll check with you.
或者我会联系你
You ever want to change your mind, it’s totally returnable.”
只要你改变了主意 我们可以换照片”
The other half of the students are told exactly the opposite:
其他的学生被告知的正好相反:
“Make your choice, and by the way,
“选一张照片 顺便说一下
the mail is going out, gosh, in two minutes, to England.
另外一张照片马上就要寄到英国去
Your picture will be winging its way over the Atlantic.
你的照片要漂洋过海
You will never see it again.”
你再也见不到它了”
Now, half of the students in each of these conditions are asked to make predictions
然后 我们让每组中一半的学生来预测
about how much they’re going to come to like
他们对留下的照片和送走的照片的
the picture that they keep and the picture they leave behind.
喜爱程度会如何
Other students are just sent back to their little dorm rooms
其他的学生回到他们的寝室
and they are measured over the next three to six days
我们测量了在后来的三到六天之中
on their liking, satisfaction with the pictures.
他们对照片的喜爱和满意程度
And look at what we find.
看看我们发现了什么
First of all, here’s what students think is going to happen.
首先 这是学生对两张照片喜爱程度的预期
They think they’re going to maybe come to like the picture they chose
他们想他们可能会更喜欢他们选择的照片
a little more than the one they left behind,
而不是留给我们的那一张
but these are not statistically significant differences.
但是这算不上是统计上的显著差异
It’s a very small increase,
差异很小
and it doesn’t much matter whether they were in the reversible or irreversible condition.
能不能换照片影响并不大
Wrong-o. Bad simulators.
错啦!这一次模拟器工作得很不好!
Because here’s what’s really happening.
实际上
Both right before the swap
在交换以前
and five days later, people who are stuck with that picture,
和5天后那些没有交换权
who have no choice,
不能选择
who can never change their mind,
不能更改决定的学生
like it a lot!
非常喜欢他们的照片
And people who are deliberating —
另外的学生则在深思熟虑
“Should I return it? Have I gotten the right one?
“我应该换照片吗?我选了好的那张吗?
Maybe this isn’t the good one? Maybe I left the good one?” —
也许这张并不好?交给老师的那张或许更好?”
have killed themselves.
这些问题简直折磨人
They don’t like their picture,
他们不喜欢他们的照片
and in fact even after the opportunity to swap has expired,
事实上 甚至在交换期结束后
they still don’t like their picture.
他们还是不喜欢自己的照片
Why? Because the reversible condition is not conducive
为什么?因为可逆转的选择不利于
to the synthesis of happiness.
人工合成的快乐
So here’s the final piece of this experiment.
这里是这个实验的最后一部分
We bring in a whole new group of naive Harvard students and we say,
我们找了新的一批天真的哈佛学生 我们告诉他们:
“You know, we’re doing a photography course,
“我们将开设摄影课程
and we can do it one of two ways.
我们有两种方案
We could do it so that when you take the two pictures,
一是你拍两张照片
you’d have four days to change your mind,
然后有四天来选择保留哪张照片
or we’re doing another course where you take the two pictures
另外一种是你拍摄两张照片
and you make up your mind right away and you can never change it.
然后当机立断做选择 一但做了选择 你就不能更改
Which course would you like to be in?”
你愿意选择那种方式?”
Duh! 66 percent of the students, two-thirds,
啊!66%的学生 差不多三分之二
prefer to be in the course where they have the opportunity to change their mind.
更愿意加入那个可以改变选择的
Hello? 66 percent of the students choose
喂!66%的学生选择了
to be in the course in which they will ultimately be deeply dissatisfied with the picture.
那个让他们最终将非常不满意照片的方案
Because they do not know
因为他们不知道
the conditions under which synthetic happiness grows.
在什么条件下人工合成快乐有效
The Bard said everything best, of course, and he’s making my point here
莎士比亚说的正好反映了我的看法
but he’s making it hyperbolically:
他说的有点夸张
“Tis nothing good or bad / But thinking makes it so.”
“事无善恶 思想使然”
It’s nice poetry, but that can’t exactly be right.
这是美丽的诗句 但是并不一定全对
Is there really nothing good or bad?
事真的无善恶之分吗?
Is it really the case that gall bladder surgery
胆囊手术真的
and a trip to Paris are just the same thing?
和到巴黎旅行一样吗?
Nah. That seems like a one-question IQ test.
这听上去像一个IQ测试题
They can’t be exactly the same.
他们并不完全一样
In more turgid prose, but closer to the truth,
现代资本主义之父 亚当·斯密(Adam Smith)

was the father of modern capitalism, Adam Smith, and he said this.
用浮华却更贴近事实的语言阐述如下
This is worth contemplating:
这是值得思考的
“The great source of both the misery and disorders of human life
“人生中的悲剧与无序之源
seems to arise from
似乎皆来源于人们
overrating the difference between one permanent situation and another —
过高地评估某种时局
Some of these situations may, no doubt,
诚然 某些时局
deserve to be preferred to others,
确实值得人们追求
but none of them can be deserved,
但是 没有一项值得
none of them can deserve to be pursued with that passionate ardor
没有一个值得我们以那种
which drives us to violate the rules either of prudence or of justice,
违反审慎或公正的法则的激情去追求
or to corrupt the future tranquility of our minds,
亦不可破坏我们未来的心境
either by shame from the remembrance of our own folly,
因为假如我们真的那么做 我们必有一天会忆及当日的愚昧
or by remorse for the horror of our own injustice.”
或者是因为自己曾经的偏私而感到后悔”
In other words:
用另一句话说:
yes, some things are better than others.
没错 生活中确实存在某些事物比别的事物更有价值
We should have preferences that lead us into one future over another.
我们确实应该追求价值更高的东西
But when those preferences drive us too hard and too fast
但是 假如我们过分看重不同选择之间的差异
because we have overrated the difference between these futures,
因而拼命的追求我们想要的东西时
we are at risk.
我们就可能 面临危险
When our ambition is bounded,
当我们的追求不是无节制的时候
it leads us to work joyfully.
我们可以生活的快乐
When our ambition is unbounded,
当我们的追求不受节制的时候
it leads us to lie, to cheat, to steal, to hurt others,
我们会生活得很痛苦 甚至会去欺诈 偷窃 伤害他人
to sacrifice things of real value.
更甚至是牺牲真正有价值的东西
When our fears are bounded,
当我们畏惧受控制时
we’re prudent, we’re cautious, we’re thoughtful.
我们会行事谨慎、三思而后行
When our fears are unbounded and overblown,
当我们的畏惧失去节制并无限膨胀的时候
we’re reckless, and we’re cowardly.
我们会变得鲁莽大意,或者胆小如鼠
The lesson I want to leave you with, from these data,
最后用一句话来概括我们从这些数据中学到的东西:
is that our longings and our worries
我们每个人的期望与担忧
are both to some degree overblown,
在一定程度上都被夸大了
because we have within us the capacity to manufacture
通过选择感受 我们自己可以生产出
the very commodity we are constantly chasing when we choose experience.
我们所不懈追求的那样东西
Thank you.
谢谢

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