ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

装死的动物们 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

装死的动物们

The surprising reasons animals play dead - Tierney Thys

“沉默是最有力的呐喊”
“Silence is the most powerful scream”
想象你正在被一个捕食者攻击
Imagine you’re being attacked by a ferocious predator
没有逃跑的可能 你会有哪些勇敢的举动
With no chance of escape, you do what any courageous,
自尊的负鼠可能会:
self-respecting possum would do:
把身体蜷成一种叫作紧张症的静止状态
curl into an immobilestate called catatonia,
伸出舌头 流口水
stick out your tongue, drool,
从肛门腺里渗出臭味的液体
and ooze some foul-smelling liquid from your anal glands.
攻击者会感到厌恶进而松开控制
Disgusted,your assailantloosens its grip,
不再把你作为它要找的晚餐 并且离开
decides you’re not the dinnerit was looking for, and departs.
十分钟之后 你就复活了 并且可以快乐的闲逛
After 10 minutes,you resurrect and merrily saunter on.
从狐猴到蜥蜴 从蚂蚁到两栖动物 从鲨鱼到鸡
From lemurs to lizards, ants to amphibians, sharks to chickens,
数百种动物把“装死” 作为一种生存策略
hundreds of animals”play dead” as a survival tactic.
完美的演技为负鼠赢得了“最佳装死动物”的称号
Nicknamed”playing possum”after its star performer,
装死也被称作假死状态
feigning death is also called thanatosis.
起源于萨纳托斯 古希腊的死亡之神的典故
That’s from Thanatos,the ancient Greek deity of death.
但大多数科学家称它为强直静止 或称TI
But most scientists call ittonic immobility, or TI.
TI如何而又为何会出现取决于生物的物种和所处环境
How and why TI occurs dependson the species and situation.
散发恶臭和采取奇怪的姿势是常见的 往往发挥着重要的作用
Spewing stench and adopting odd postures are common and often play important roles.
其他动物会牺牲它们的同伴:
Other animals sacrifice their neighbors:
鹌鹑在同类逃生的时候身体会僵硬
quail chicks that freeze while their kin run amok
这样被猫追逐时会有更好的生存机会
have a better chance of survivalwhen pursued by a cat.
说到猫
Speaking of cats,
猫科动物妈妈可以叼小猫的脖子
feline mothers can pinch the napes of their kittens’necks
并导致另一种不动 称为“夹子催眠”
and induce another kind ofimmobility called clipnosis.
这使它们的小猫保持安静 便于带走
This keeps their kittens quietand easy to transport.
这些行为背后的大部分生理机制
Most of the physiological mechanismsunderlying these theatrics
起源于副交感神经系统
originate inthe parasympathetic nervous system,
它以控制休息和消化的循环而为人知
better known for controlling cyclesof resting and digesting.
在负鼠体内
In possums,
副交感神经系统会引起它们的
the parasympathetic nervous system causes their
心率下降近一半
heart rates to drop by nearly half,
呼吸降三分之一
respiration by a third,
并且体温下降超过0.5摄氏度
and body temperatures by more than half a degree Celsius
时间长达一小时
for up to an hour.
神经递质多巴胺也起着一定的作用
The neurotransmitter dopaminealso plays a part.
低多巴胺水平的面粉甲虫的死亡频率
Flour beetles with low dopamine levelsplay dead more frequently
相对于那些高水平的更大
than those with high levels,
并且任何阻断多巴胺受体位点的东西都会延迟反应
and anything blocking dopamine receptor sites can lengthen catatonia.
但维持死亡诡计并不容易
But maintaining a death ruse isn’t easy.
表演者们不断地根据周围的环境
The performers are constantlygauging their surroundings
关注着什么时候安全可以起身逃跑
for cues on when it’s safe to rise.
比如鸡
Chickens,for instance,
能感觉到捕食者的眼睛什么时候在盯着它们
can sense when a predator’s eyes are upon them.
研究者之所以了解这一点
Researchers know this
是因为他们在实验中使用假鹰时
because when they used a stuffed hawk in an experiment,
当鹰的目光移开的时候
their chicken subjects came out of theircatatonia quicker
他们的实验鸡从紧张中恢复得更快
when the hawk’s eyes were averted.
其他动物使用TI的目的不是为了防御
Other animals use TI for purposesother than defense.
当沉睡的丽鱼觉得饿的时候
When the sleeper cichlid feels peckish,
它沉到湖底 一动不动地躺着
it sinks to the lake floorand lies motionless,
斑驳的颜色使它看起来像腐烂的尸体
its splotchy coloration making itseem like a rotting carcass.
如果一个小清道夫靠近 这个装死的骗子就会出击
If a small scavenger investigates,this undead trickster strikes.
有些动物甚至把假死作为一种性手段
Some animals even feign deathas a sexual ploy.
雄性蜘蛛会献上蛛丝包裹的昆虫作为礼物
Male nursery spiders offer gifts ofsilk-wrapped insects
希望以此吸引雌性
in hopes of wooing females.
但众所周知 这些雌性以求爱的雄性为食
But those females are knownto eat love-seeking males.
当雌性急切地吞下零食时 雄性假装死亡
By playing dead while the femaleeagerly devours her snack,
这些雄性动物可以谨慎地复活
these males can cautiously revive
来提高它们成功交配的机会
and improve their chancesof successfully mating.
所以TI可以对动物有利
So TI can work to an animal’s advantage,
除非其他人知道这个秘密
unless someone else knows its secret.
加利福尼亚的虎鲸可以把年轻的大白鲨翻过来
California orcas can flip overyoung great white sharks,
僵硬的鲨鱼长时间保持TI假死状态是不行的
inducing TI for so longthe immobilized sharks,
它们必须恢复 因为那本质上是一种窒息
who must move to respire,essentially suffocate.
人类同样可以让鲨鱼进入假死状态
Humans can also flip sharks into TI.
通过抚摸鲨鱼的电敏感的鼻子
By stroking a shark’selectrically-sensitive snout
轻轻地把它翻过来
and gently turning it over,
研究人员可以诱导长达15分钟的TI
researchers can induce TI that lasts up to 15 minutes.
有足够的时间去插入标签
That’s enough time to insert tags,
移除钩子 甚至做手术
remove hooks, and even perform surgeries.
但那样还是有风险:
There are risks however:
TI会抑制呼吸 导致高血糖和高血压
TI can hamper respiration and induce hyperglycemia, a sign of stress.
因此 这种技术只应在必要时使用
So this technique should onlybe used when necessary.
当人类在暴力攻击中恐惧地身体变僵时 他们也会体验到TI
Humans can also experience TI when they freeze with fear during violent assaults.
认识到这种古老的 非自愿的自卫形式
Recognizing this ancient, involuntaryform of self-defense
因此研究此现象有重要的意义 这可以解释
has significant implicationswhen trying to understand
为什么有些受害者在危险面前不逃跑或战斗
why some victims don’t flee or fight in the face of danger.
所以 研究动物的TI
so,studying TI in non-human animals
不仅能帮助我们更好地理解一些奇怪的行为
not only helps us better understand someodd behaviors,
还可以更好的理解我们人类自己
it can also help us betterunderstand our own,
有时违反常理的 反抗暴力的反应
sometimes counterintuitive, responses to violence.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

许多生物有奇特的装死机制。这帮助它们逃避天敌,求偶,甚至于我们人类面对危险的时候也就有类似的反应。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小君子

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hBAr7uJ6L8

相关推荐