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比梵塔黑还黑:史上最黑黑色的意外发现

The Surprising Origin Of A Color Darker Than Vantablack

Believe it or not, this is a diamond.
不管你相不相信 反正这是一颗钻石
And the reason you can’t see it
你之所以看不到
is because it’s covered with the darkest color on Earth.
是因为它被地球上最黑的材料覆盖了
In fact, this material is so dark
事实上 这种材料非常黑
that it captures at least 99.995% of incoming visible light.
以致吸收了99.995%以上入射可见光
But why is it covering a $2 million diamond?
但它为何出现在了一颗两百万美元的钻石表面?
And how was it made in the first place?
以及它当初是怎样造出来的呢?
地球上最黑的黑
You may remember this color, Vantablack.
你或许认得这颜色 梵塔黑
It was unveiled in 2014,
于2014年问世
and media outlets called it the darkest color in the world.
当时被媒体称为世界最黑的颜色
But this color here?
但这里的黑
It’s not Vantablack.
并非梵塔黑
It’s even blacker.
它更加黑
And that’s thanks to an unprecedented collaboration between science and art.
而它的出现多亏了一次科学与艺术的空前合作
It all traces back to this artist,
故事得从这位艺术家讲起
Diemut Strebe.
蒂姆特•斯特雷贝
In 2014, she set out on a mission to find the blackest black.
她在2014年启动了一项任务 找到最黑的黑色
Her goal was to make a diamond disappear.
为了隐藏掉一颗钻石
Diemut Strebe: This project explores
该项目旨在
how values attach to concepts and objects
从奢侈品 艺术和社会层面
in reference to luxury and art and society.
探究价值如何依附于观念与物质
Narrator: Meanwhile, a scientist named Brian Wardle
同时 一位叫布莱恩•沃德的科学家
was on a totally different mission.
正在开展另一项截然不同的研究
He was working with a material called carbon nanotubes,
他的研究用到了一种叫碳纳米管的材料
the same stuff used to make Vantablack,
也是制造梵塔黑的材料
though he was using them to boost the thermal and electrical properties of materials like aluminum.
不过他是用来改善铝一类材料的热电性能
But little did Wardle know,
他浑然不知
he was producing something even darker than Vantablack.
他在制造比梵塔黑更黑的材料
Strebe: Brian was looking into the optical properties of CNTs
布莱恩当时研究碳纳米管的光学特性
only because of the art project.
纯粹是为了这个艺术项目
And so it kind of caused, really, from this art project,
可以说 正因为这个艺术项目
the research to find the blackest black.
才有了这项寻找最黑的黑色的研究
Narrator: The new material, which Wardle has yet to name,
这种瓦尔德尚未命名的新材料
is 10 times blacker than any other color ever reported.
比报道中出现过的任何材料还要黑十倍
And that likely has to do with the structure of those nanotubes themselves.
这或与碳纳米管的本身结构有关
In this case, Wardle and his team grew them on top of aluminum.
具体而言 他们在铝箔表面种植碳纳米管
Yeah. They may not be alive,
没错 碳纳米管虽无生命
but you can actually grow carbon nanotubes.
但它们确实能够生长
First, you cover a material with microscopic metal particles.
首先 把微观金属粒子涂在一种材料上
Then you bake it at high temperatures, in the presence of a hydrocarbon gas.
随后放入烃气环境高温烘烤
And that’s basically it.
基本上就成了
Carbon nanotubes will sprout out of those metallic particles,
微观金属粒子中间就会长出碳纳米管
like plants from seeds.
像种子生出植物一样
Brian Wardle: You do it in the way we’ve done it here,
只要按照上述方法做
you get the recipe right, you can create forests.
步骤对 就会出现“森林”
These are very, very long aspect ratios of, like, a million.
这些纳米管极其细长 长径比差不多一百万
Right, the length of the tube is, like, a million,
没错 它们的长度差不多是
relative to the diameter.
直径的一百万倍
And that grows into what’s called a forest.
它们构成了所谓的“森林”
Narrator: That nanotube forest is the key to creating this black color.
制造这种黑色 碳纳米管“森林”是关键
When particles of light, called photons, enter it,
当光子进入“森林”后
nearly all of them get trapped and then dissipate as heat.
它们几近全数被困 并以热量形式耗散掉
That’s why when you look at this black,
这就解释了盯着这种黑色看
you see, well, absolutely nothing.
却什么也看不见的原因
No shadows, no ridges, just black.
无阴无影 亦无棱角 就是黑
And that made it perfect
而这种材料完美契合了
for Strebe’s diamond-vanishing project.
斯特雷贝钻石隐藏项目的需要
In fact, Wardle’s team followed the exact same procedure
事实上 瓦尔德团队正是以相同步骤
to grow those nanotubes directly onto a diamond.
把碳纳米管直接种到了钻石上
And that’s pretty wild when you consider this:
而有一点想想就很奇妙
Strebe: Both is made of carbon.
两者都是由碳组成的
It’s the same element,
是同一种元素
just the different atomic letter structure,
仅因为原子结构不同
makes them so extreme opposite in the phenomenology, in their appearance.
它们就在现象学和外观上大相径庭
Narrator: And as it turns out,
结果表明
this material isn’t just useful for multimillion-dollar art projects.
除了用在数百万美元的艺术项目上
Scientists can also use it to reduce the glare in optical sensors,
也可以用来改善光学传感器的眩光问题
such as for telescopes that explore distant objects in space.
例如改善远距离天体望远镜
Wardle: You know, if you have a material that can absorb the stray starlight,
若你有一种可吸收零散星光的材料
then you can look further,
那么你就能看得更远
and/or look in more detail, at objects such as exoplanets.
更加详细地观察 诸如系外行星这样的天体
Narrator: But here’s the thing.
不过有一点
As cool as this color is,
不管这颜色现在有多酷
it likely won’t be the darkest for long.
或许不久后 它就不是最黑的
Because even an absorption rate this high
因为即遍是这么高的吸收率
still leaves some room for improvement.
它仍存改进空间
So keep your eyes peeled
请睁大双眼
for the next color that you can’t see.
注视下一个看不见的颜色

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视频概述

梵塔黑曾被媒体誉为世界最黑,然而因为一次机缘巧合的科学艺术跨界合作,科学家意外发现了比梵塔黑还黑的材料。百万美元钻石因它凭空消失、太空光学器材因它可以看得更远更清晰。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ε-greedy

审核员

审核员BC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KTDmD0XRxkw

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