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压力和记忆之间惊人的联系 – 译学馆
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压力和记忆之间惊人的联系

The surprising link between stress and memory - Elizabeth Cox

你花数周的时间准备一次重要考试
You spend weeks studying for an important test.
考试那天 老师分发试卷时你焦急地等待
On the big day, you wait nervously as your teacher hands it out.
当被要求定义 ‘心平气和’时 你努力思考
You’re working your way through,when you’re asked to define ‘ataraxia.’
你知道自己见过它 但脑子却一片空白
You know you’ve seen it before,but your mind goes blank.
发生了什么?
What just happened?
答案就在压力与记忆的复杂关系中
The answer lies in the complex relationship between stress and memory.
压力的类型及程度有很多种
There are many types and degrees of stress
记忆也有很多种
and different kinds of memory,
但我们将专注于短期压力
but we’re going to focus on how short-term stress
事实上是如何影响记忆的
impacts your memory for facts.
首先 它能帮助了解这种记忆的运作原理
To start, it helps to understand how this kind of memory works.
你的所读 所闻 或所学
Facts you read, hear, or study
通过三个主要步骤的过程 变成记忆
become memories through a process with three main steps.
首先获得的:遇到一个新信息的那一刻
First comes acquisition: the moment you encounter a new piece of information.
每个感官体验激活一组独特的大脑区域
Each sensory experareas activates a unique set of brain areas.
以便形成持久记忆
In order to become lasting memories,
这些感官体验必须由海马来巩固
these sensory experiences have to be consolidated by the hippocampus,
受杏仁体的影响
influenced by the amygdala,
它强调与强烈情绪相关的体验
which emphasizes experiences associated with strong emotions.
然后海马体很可能通过加强
The hippocampus then encodes memories,
在原感官体验期间刺激而成的突触链接
probably by strengthening synaptic connections
来进行记忆编码
stimulated during the original sensory experience.
一旦记忆被编码
Once memory has been encoded,
就能被记住 或之后被提取
it can be remembered or retrieved later.
记忆储存在大脑各处
Memories are stored all over the brain,
很可能是前额皮层发出提取记忆信号
and it’s likely the prefrontal cortexthat signals for their retrieval.
那么压力是如何影响每一阶段的呢?
So how does stress affect each of these stages?
在前两个阶段
In the first two stages,
实际上适当的压力有助于经历转化为记忆
moderate stress can actually help experiences enter your memory.
大脑通过释放一种叫
Your brain responds to stressful stimuli
“皮质激素”的荷尔蒙 它会在杏仁体中
by releasing hormones known as corticosteroids,
启动一个“威胁检测-反应”的过程
which activate a process of threat-detection
从而对紧张刺激做出回应
and threat-response in the amygdala.
杏仁体促使海马
The amygdala prompts your hippocampus
把压力诱发的体验 巩固成记忆
to consolidate the stress-inducing experience into a memory.
同时 源于压力的大量皮质激素
Meanwhile, the flood of corticosteroids from stress
刺激海马 并且促进巩固记忆
stimulates your hippocampus, also prompting memory consolidation.
但即使有少许压力是有帮助的
But even though some stress can be helpful,
极端且长期的压力还是会产生相反的效果
extreme and chronic stress can have the opposite effect.
研究者通过直接给老鼠注射压力激素
Researchers have tested this by injecting rats
已经验证了这一点
directly with stress hormones.
随着皮质激素剂量的逐渐增加
As they gradually increased the dose of corticosteroids,
老鼠记忆测试的表现 起初有所提高
the rats’ performance on memory tests increased at first,
但在大剂量下 其表现下降
but dropped off at higher doses.
人体在适度压力下也有类似的积极效果
In humans, we see a similar positive effect with moderate stress.
但只有压力关系到记忆任务时
But that only appears when the stress
才会如此
is related to the memory task –
所以 时间压力也许能帮你记住列表
so while time pressure might help you memorize a list,
但找个朋友吓唬你则不然
having a friend scare you will not.
由于长期压力
And the weeks, months, or even years
数年日积月累
of sustained corticosteroids
持续的皮质激素
that result from chronic stress
会损害海马
can damage the hippocampus
并减弱形成新记忆的能力
and decrease your ability to form new memories.
如果一些压力
It would be nice
也能帮助记忆事实 那就好了
if some stress also helped us remember facts,
但很遗憾 情况恰恰相反
but unfortunately, the opposite is true.
记忆行为 依赖前额皮质
The act of remembering relies on the prefrontal cortex,
它控制着思想 注意力与理性观点
which governs thought, attention, and reasoning.
当皮质激素刺激杏仁体
When corticoamygdala stimulate the amygdala,
杏仁体会抑制或减少
the amygdala inhibits, or lessens the activity of,
前额皮质的活动
the prefrontal cortex.
这种抑制作用的原因
The reason for this inhibition
是“斗争-逃跑-吓呆”反应
is so the fight/flight/freeze response
在危险情况下 对较慢 更合理的思维
can overrule slower, more reasoned thought
施加影响
in a dangerous situation.
但也会有那种 让你的大脑
But that can also have the unfortunate effect
在考试时一片空白的不良效果
of making your mind go blank during a test.
然后这种试图记忆的行为本身
And then the act of trying to remember
可成为压力源
can itself be a stressor,
导致释放更多皮质激素的恶性循环
leading to a vicious cycle of more corticosteroid release
以及记下内容的更渺茫的机会
and an even smaller chance of remembering.
那么我们怎样才能在最关键的时候
So what can you do to turn stress to your advantage
化压力为优势 并泰然自若呢?
and stay calm and collected when it matters the most?
首先 若你知道紧张情况临近 比如考试
First, if you know a stressful situation like a test is coming,
试着在类似紧张的环境下做准备
try preparing in conditions similarto the stressful environment.
新奇事物可以当作压力源
Novelty can be a stressor.
在时间压力下完成练习题
Completing practice questions under time pressure,
或坐在桌前 而不是沙发上
or seated at acouch rather than on a couch,
能让你在考试时对这些情况的
can make your stress response to these circumstances
压力反应不那么敏感
less sensitive during the test itself.
运动是另一种有用的工具
Exercise is another useful tool.
增加心率与呼吸频率
Increasing your heart and breathing rate
与大脑中帮助减少焦虑
is linked to chemical changes in your brain
并增加幸福感的化学变化相关
that help reduce anxiety and increase your sense of well-being.
定期运动同样被广泛认为可改善睡眠模式
Regular exercise is also widely thought to improve sleeping patterns,
这在考前的一晚很实用
which comes in handy the night before a test.
在真正考试当天
And on the actual test day,
试着深呼吸
try taking deep breaths
缓解身体的“斗争-逃跑-吓呆”反应
to counteract your body’s flight/fight/freeze response.
在三年级学生到护士生
Deep breathing exercises have shown
深呼吸练习表明了
measurable reduction in test anxiety in groups
考试中的焦虑 明显减少
ranging from third graders to nursing students.
所以 下次你发现自己在关键时刻
So the next time you find your mind going blank
大脑一片空白
at a critical moment,
做几次深呼吸 直到想起 “心平气和”
take a few deep breaths until you remember ataraxia:
保持冷静 不再焦虑
a state of calmness, free from anxiety.

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视频概述

适度压力与深呼吸能帮助缓解过度压力,从而帮助记忆。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

昵伊荙

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hyg7lcU4g8E

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