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原创思维者的惊人特质

The surprising habits of original thinkers | Adam Grant

七年前 一个学生找到我请求我为他们的公司投资
Seven years ago, a student came to me and asked me to invest in his company.
他说:“我和三位朋友合作
He said, “I’m working with three friends,
我们要在网上卖东西然后颠覆整个行业”
and we’re going to try to disrupt an industry by selling stuff online.”
然后我说:“好吧 你们整个夏天都在做这个 对吧?”
And I said, “OK, you guys spent the whole summer on this, right?”
“没有啊 我们都参加了实习 以防万一它没有成功”
“No, we all took internships just in case it doesn’t work out.”
“好吧 但是你们毕业之后 要全职投入在这个项目中啊”
“All right, but you’re going to go in full time once you graduate.”
“不完全对吧 我们都想好了备选的工作”
“Not exactly. We’ve all lined up backup jobs.”
六个月过去了
Six months go by,
他们的公司还有一天就开张了
it’s the day before the company launches,
但是他们的网站还不能正常运营
and there is still not a functioning website.
“你们这些家伙要知道 整个公司就是一个网站
“You guys realize, the entire company is a website.
网站就是公司的全部”
That’s literally all it is.”
所以显然我拒绝了给他们投资
So I obviously declined to invest.
最后他们把公司 命名为“瓦比·帕克”
And they ended up naming the company Warby Parker.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
他们在网上销售眼镜
They sell glasses online.
他们最近被认定为 世界上最有创新力的企业
They were recently recognized as the world’s most innovative company
估值超过十亿美金
and valued at over a billion dollars.
结果现在呢? 我的妻子接管了所有投资项目
And now? My wife handles our investments.
为什么我犯了这么大的错误?
Why was I so wrong?
为了弄明白这点 我开始研究 一些我称为“原创者”的人
To find out, I’ve been studying people that I come to call “originals.”
原创者不墨守成规
Originals are nonconformists,
他们不仅有崭新的想法
people who not only have new ideas
也通过实践去捍卫它们
but take action to champion them.
他们从人群中脱颖而出 畅所欲言
They are people who stand out and speak up.
原创者驱动着全世界的创造与变革
Originals drive creativity and change in the world.
他们才是你应该下注的人
They’re the people you want to bet on.
他们看起来与我之前的想象完全不同
And they look nothing like I expected.
我想与各位分享
I want to show you today three things I’ve learned
原创者的三个特质
about recognizing originals
以及自己努力成为其中之一的经历
and becoming a little bit more like them.
我拒绝瓦比·帕克的第一个原因
So the first reason that I passed on Warby Parker
就是他们走出第一步的速度 实在太慢了
was they were really slow getting off the ground.
我相信各位非常熟悉 拖延症患者的大脑里的情景
Now, you are all intimately familiar with the mind of a procrastinator.
好吧 我得向大家承认: 我与之相反 是个“提早症”患者
Well, I have a confession for you. I’m the opposite. I’m a precrastinator.
对 那个词是存在的
Yes, that’s an actual term.
你们都知道那种恐慌的感受: 最后期限还有几个小时就到了
You know that panic you feel a few hours before a big deadline
然而你还什么都没做
when you haven’t done anything yet.
我只是在几个月之前就有这感觉了
I just feel that a few months ahead of time.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这很早就开始了:我还小的时候我很认真地对待任天堂游戏
So this started early: when I was a kid, I took Nintendo games very seriously.
我会在早上5点醒来
I would wake up at 5am,
开始打游戏 在打通关之前绝不休息
start playing and not stop until I had mastered them.
最后我彻底失去了控制 以至于当地的一家报纸找到我
Eventually it got so out of hand that a local newspaper came
然后写了篇故事 讲述任天堂的黑暗面 主角就是我
and did a story on the dark side of Nintendo, starring me.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(掌声)
(Applause)
我的年龄都是用掉光的头发换来的
Since then, I have traded hair for teeth.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
但是这在大学里反倒帮了我
But this served me well in college,
因为我在最后期限之前四个月 就完成了我的毕业论文
because I finished my senior thesis four months before the deadline.
我对此非常自豪 直到几年之前
And I was proud of that, until a few years ago.
我有一个名叫吉哈的学生她对我说
I had a student named Jihae, who came to me and said,
“我在犯拖延症的时候 想到了最有创造力的点子”
“I have my most creative ideas when I’m procrastinating.”
然后我的反应就是:“很有意思你欠我的四篇论文在哪里?”
And I was like, “That’s cute, where are the four papers you owe me?”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
不 她是我最有创造力的学生之一
No, she was one of our most creative students,
作为一位组织心理学家 这是我要测试的一些想法
and as an organizational psychologist, this is the kind of idea that I test.
我向她提出挑战 让她找些数据
So I challenged her to get some data.
她跑过了一大堆公司
She goes into a bunch of companies.
她让员工填了问卷 了解他们是否经常犯拖延症
She has people fill out surveys about how often they procrastinate.
之后她让他们的老板 评估每个人的创造力水平
Then she gets their bosses to rate how creative and innovative they are.
不出所料 像我这样的提早症患者
And sure enough, the precrastinators like me,
他们急匆匆把所有事做完
who rush in and do everything early
他们的创造力不如
are rated as less creative
一些中度的拖延症患者
than people who procrastinate moderately.
我很想知道 重度拖延症患者是怎样的
So I want to know what happens to the chronic procrastinators.
她回答我:“我不知道啊 他们没填我的问卷”
She was like, “I don’t know. They didn’t fill out my survey.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
开个玩笑 我们的结论如下
No, here are our results.
你的确可以看到不到最后一刻不做事的人
You actually do see that the people who wait until the last minute
大部分时间都是混过去的他们根本没法产生新想法
are so busy goofing off that they don’t have any new ideas.
而另一类人那些把事情匆忙做完的人
And on the flip side, the people who race in
一直处在狂暴的焦虑状态他们也没法产生新想法
are in such a frenzy of anxiety that they don’t have original thoughts either.
在中间似乎有一个恰好的点这就是原创者聚集的地方
There’s a sweet spot where originals seem to live.
为什么会这样呢?
Why is this?
可能只是原创者工作习惯不好
Maybe original people just have bad work habits.
可能拖延症并不直接引发创造力
Maybe procrastinating does not cause creativity.
为了研究这点 我们设计了些实验
To find out, we designed some experiments.
我们要求受试者 想一些新的商业计划
We asked people to generate new business ideas,
然后我们让独立的第三方
and then we get independent readers
评估受试者的创造力和实践力
to evaluate how creative and useful they are.
有些人被要求立即着手做这个任务
And some of them are asked to do the task right away.
另外一些人被 随机地要求拖延一阵子
Others we randomly assign to procrastinate
在他们电脑上开个扫雷游戏
by dangling Minesweeper in front of them
让他们玩5或10分钟
for either five or 10 minutes.
不出所料 中度拖延者
And sure enough, the moderate procrastinators
比另外两组受试者 创造力高出16%
are 16 percent more creative than the other two groups.
扫雷是很棒的游戏但不是导致这个效应的真正原因
Now, Minesweeper is awesome, but it’s not the driver of the effect,
因为如果你在了解任务之前 就去玩游戏
because if you play the game first before you learn about the task,
是没有创造力加成的
there’s no creativity boost.
只有在你被告知 你要完成某一项任务之后
It’s only when you’re told that you’re going to be working on this problem,
然后你开始拖延
and then you start procrastinating,
任务的想法还活跃在你脑海里
but the task is still active in the back of your mind,
这时才会产生新想法
that you start to incubate.
拖延行为让你有时间发散性思考
Procrastination gives you time to consider divergent ideas,
以非线性的模式思考然后获得意想不到的突破
to think in nonlinear ways, to make unexpected leaps.
正当我要完成这些实验时
So just as we were finishing these experiments,
我开始写一本有关原创者的书
I was starting to write a book about originals,
我在想“这是最佳时机了 现在我就在写有关拖延症的章节
and I thought, “This is the perfect time to teach myself to procrastinate,
我要教教自己如何拖延”
while writing a chapter on procrastination.”
结果我拖延得很古怪
So I metaprocrastinated,
像任何一位自尊心很强的 提早症患者一样
and like any self-respecting precrastinator,
我第二天早早醒来
I woke up early the next morning
写了一份待办清单里面是拖延的详细步骤
and I made a to-do list with steps on how to procrastinate.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
然后我刻苦工作
And then I worked diligently
努力达到我“不取得任何进展”的目标
toward my goal of not making progress toward my goal.
我开始写有关拖延症的章节
I started writing the procrastination chapter,
然后有一天 我已经写完一半了
and one day — I was halfway through —
我在写了半句话之后就放下笔
I literally put it away in mid-sentence
持续了几个月
for months.
这简直是煎熬
It was agony.
但当我重新提起笔时我满脑子里都是新想法
But when I came back to it, I had all sorts of new ideas.
正如阿兰·索金所说
As Aaron Sorkin put it,
“你把它叫做‘拖延’ 我把它叫做‘思考’”
“You call it procrastinating. I call it thinking.”
这个过程中 我发现
And along the way I discovered
历史上很多伟大的原创者 都是拖延症患者
that a lot of great originals in history were procrastinators.
比如列奥纳多·达·芬奇
Take Leonardo da Vinci.
他断断续续工作了16年
He toiled on and off for 16 years
画了一幅《蒙娜丽莎》
on the Mona Lisa.
他觉得很失败
He felt like a failure.
他在日志里倾诉了很多
He wrote as much in his journal.
但是他在其他时间里 对光学的研究
But some of the diversions he took in optics
大大改变了他塑造光效的方式
transformed the way that he modeled light
让他成为了一个更出色的画家
and made him into a much better painter.
马丁·路德·金又如何呢?
What about Martin Luther King, Jr.?
他一生中最重要的演讲之前的晚上
The night before the biggest speech of his life,
那是三月 在华盛顿州
the March on Washington,
他凌晨三点还醒着 完善他的讲稿
he was up past 3am, rewriting it.
轮到自己上台前 他坐在观众席里
He’s sitting in the audience waiting for his turn to go onstage,
还在演讲稿上奋笔疾书
and he is still scribbling notes and crossing out lines.
当他走上台 过了11分钟
When he gets onstage, 11 minutes in,
他没按照准备的内容来讲
he leaves his prepared remarks
却念出了改变历史进程的几个字:
to utter four words that changed the course of history:
“我有一个梦想”
“I have a dream.”
这不是写在稿子里的
That was not in the script.
通过尽可能推迟 演讲稿最终确定的那一刻
By delaying the task of finalizing the speech until the very last minute,
他可以随时向其中添加任何的想法
he left himself open to the widest range of possible ideas.
而正因为讲稿不是固定不变的
And because the text wasn’t set in stone,
他就有了即兴发挥的自由
he had freedom to improvise.
拖延症会导致生产力的下降
Procrastinating is a vice when it comes to productivity,
但也可能会是新创造的摇篮
but it can be a virtue for creativity.
各位在原创者身上看到的特质
What you see with a lot of great originals
就是他们开头做得很快最终完成却要很久
is that they are quick to start but they’re slow to finish.
这就是我错过瓦比·帕克的一点原因
And this is what I missed with Warby Parker.
当他们拖拖拉拉六个月之后
When they were dragging their heels for six months,
我对他们说:
I looked at them and said,
“你们知道 很多其他公司 已经开始在线销售眼镜了”
“You know, a lot of other companies are starting to sell glasses online.”
他们失去了先动者优势
They missed the first-mover advantage.
但是我没有意识到他们在那一大段时间里
But what I didn’t realize was they were spending all that time
在尝试想出该如何
trying to figure out how to get people
帮助人们更轻松的在线购买眼镜
to be comfortable ordering glasses online.
后来我才发现先动者优势其实只是个流言
And it turns out the first-mover advantage is mostly a myth.
有一个很经典的研究项目调查了超过50个类别的商品
Look at a classic study of over 50 product categories,
将开辟市场的先动者
comparing the first movers who created the market
与改进市场的改变者相比较
with the improvers who introduced something different and better.
你可以看到先动者的失败率是47%
What you see is that the first movers had a failure rate of 47 percent,
与之相比 改变者失败率只有8%
compared with only 8 percent for the improvers.
让我们看看Facebook它想在Myspace和Friendster之后
Look at Facebook, waiting to build a social network
打造一个新的社交网络
until after Myspace and Friendster.
再看看谷歌 等待了很多年才在AltaVista和雅虎之后面世
Look at Google, waiting for years after Altavista and Yahoo.
改进其他人的想法
It’s much easier to improve on somebody else’s idea
比从零开始创造想法要更简单
than it is to create something new from scratch.
我从中学到的就是: 想做原创者 你不必最先行动
So the lesson I learned is that to be original you don’t have to be first.
你只需要做得不同 做得更好
You just have to be different and better.
但这不是我 拒绝瓦比·帕克的唯一理由
But that wasn’t the only reason I passed on Warby Parker.
他们自己充满困惑
They were also full of doubts.
他们准备了一系列后备方案
They had backup plans lined up,
这让我十分怀疑 他们是否具有原创的勇气
and that made me doubt that they had the courage to be original,
因为我对原创者的想象 大概是这样的
because I expected that originals would look something like this.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
从表面上看
Now, on the surface,
很多的原创者看上去很自信
a lot of original people look confident,
但是在背后
but behind the scenes,
他们也像所有人一样感受恐惧和疑虑
they feel the same fear and doubt that the rest of us do.
他们只是以不同方式来面对
They just manage it differently.
让我展示一下:这是个流程图
Let me show you: this is a depiction
讲述了大部分人的创造过程 是如何进行的
of how the creative process works for most of us.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
现在 根据我自己的研究 我发现疑虑分为两种
Now, in my research, I discovered there are two different kinds of doubt.
自我疑虑 和 想法疑虑
There’s self-doubt and idea doubt.
自我疑虑会使人麻痹
Self-doubt is paralyzing.
它让你思维冻结
It leads you to freeze.
但是想法疑虑是激励性的
But idea doubt is energizing.
它促使你去测试 实验 改进
It motivates you to test, to experiment, to refine,
就像马丁·路德·金一样
just like MLK did.
所以说做原创者的关键
And so the key to being original
其实非常简单
is just a simple thing
就是避免从第三步走到第四步
of avoiding the leap from step three to step four.
你不去说“我超烂”
Instead of saying, “I’m crap,”
而是说“最初的想法都是超烂的
you say, “The first few drafts are always crap,
我只是还没做完而已”
and I’m just not there yet.”
所以你怎样继续做呢?
So how do you get there?
其实我发现有一个小事
Well, there’s a clue, it turns out,
有关你用的网页浏览器
in the Internet browser that you use.
我们可以预测你的 工作表现或是责任承担情况
We can predict your job performance and your commitment
只需要了解你用哪款浏览器
just by knowing what web browser you use.
你们中有些人肯定不会喜欢 这个研究的结果——
Now, some of you are not going to like the results of this study —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
但是我们找到了确凿证据, 说明火狐和谷歌Chrome用户
But there is good evidence that Firefox and Chrome users
表现显著好于 IE浏览器和Safari用户
significantly outperform Internet Explorer and Safari users.
好耶!
Yes.
(掌声)
(Applause)
顺便提一句他们的在职时间也要长15%
They also stay in their jobs 15 percent longer, by the way.
为什么?这不是一个技术性的优势
Why? It’s not a technical advantage.
用这四种浏览器的人 平均打字速度差不多
The four browser groups on average have similar typing speed
而且他们都对电脑 有相同程度的了解
and they also have similar levels of computer knowledge.
这有关你如何获取这些浏览器
It’s about how you got the browser.
因为如果你用IE或者Safari
Because if you use Internet Explorer or Safari,
那些已经预装在电脑上了
those came preinstalled on your computer,
你自然接受了厂商提供的默认选择
and you accepted the default option that was handed to you.
如果你想换火狐或Chrome你得要质疑默认选择
If you wanted Firefox or Chrome, you had to doubt the default
问问自己 是否有其他选择
and ask, is there a different option out there,
然后就稍稍随机应变一下去下载个新的浏览器
and then be a little resourceful and download a new browser.
所以听说这个研究的人反应就是
So people hear about this study and they’re like,
“棒极了 如果我想工作得更好我只需要升级下浏览器就行了?”
“Great, if I want to get better at my job, I just need to upgrade my browser?”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
不对 这与你是什么样的人有关
No, it’s about being the kind of person
你是否主动地去质疑默认选项
who takes the initiative to doubt the default
然后寻找一个更好的选择
and look for a better option.
而且如果你找得不错
And if you do that well,
你就将自己置于 “似曾相识”感的对立面
you will open yourself up to the opposite of déjà vu.
它其实有个名字, 叫做“识相曾似”感
There’s a name for it. It’s called vuja de.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
“识相曾似”感的意思是 你再次面对一个无比熟悉的事物
Vuja de is when you look at something you’ve seen many times before
但是突然用一种新的眼光去看待
and all of a sudden see it with fresh eyes.
有个电影剧本作家她看着一份电影剧本
It’s a screenwriter who looks at a movie script
它超过半个世纪都没被获准拍摄
that can’t get the green light for more than half a century.
在之前的每一个版本里故事主角都是个邪恶的女王
In every past version, the main character has been an evil queen.
但是这位詹妮弗·李开始思考 这个想法是否合理
But Jennifer Lee starts to question whether that makes sense.
她重写了第一幕
She rewrites the first act,
把那个恶棍重新塑造成 一位受尽苦难的英雄
reinvents the villain as a tortured hero
于是《冰雪奇缘》成为了 历史上最卖座的动画电影之一
and Frozen becomes the most successful animated movie ever.
这个故事传递了一个简单的信息
So there’s a simple message from this story.
当你感到困惑 切勿“随它去吧”
When you feel doubt, don’t let it go.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
恐惧又如何呢?
What about fear?
原创者也会感到恐惧
Originals feel fear, too.
他们害怕失败
They’re afraid of failing,
但是他们与我们其他人所不同的是
but what sets them apart from the rest of us
他们更害怕不去尝试
is that they’re even more afraid of failing to try.
他们知道可以因 创业公司倒闭而失败
They know you can fail by starting a business that goes bankrupt
他们更知道可以因 不尝试创业而失败
or by failing to start a business at all.
他们知道 从长远来看我们最大的悔恨不是自己做了什么
They know that in the long run, our biggest regrets are not our actions
而是自己没做什么
but our inactions.
就科学这个领域有些事我们希望能重做一遍
The things we wish we could redo, if you look at the science,
就是把握溜走的机会
are the chances not taken.
埃隆·马斯克最近告诉我他并不指望特斯拉会成功
Elon Musk told me recently, he didn’t expect Tesla to succeed.
他非常确信SpaceX公司的前几次发射
He was sure the first few SpaceX launches
一定不会进入预定轨道更不会重新回收
would fail to make it to orbit, let alone get back,
但是不去尝试才是最失败的
but it was too important not to try.
对于我们中的大多数人当我们有一个重大的想法
And for so many of us, when we have an important idea,
我们往往懒得尝试
we don’t bother to try.
但是我有些好消息
But I have some good news for you.
他人衡量你的标准不是你的坏主意
You are not going to get judged on your bad ideas.
很多人都以为是这样的
A lot of people think they will.
当你走访各大行业
If you look across industries
然后问问其中的人他们最重大的想法 建议是什么
and ask people about their biggest idea, their most important suggestion,
85%的人保持沉默 不敢发声
85 percent of them stayed silent instead of speaking up.
他们害怕自己难为情 看上去很蠢
They were afraid of embarrassing themselves, of looking stupid.
但是你猜怎么着? 原创者有很多的糟糕想法
But guess what? Originals have lots and lots of bad ideas,
事实上是一大堆
tons of them, in fact.
举个例子 发明这个的人
Take the guy who invented this.
你会在意他发明了这个 超恐怖的会讲话的洋娃娃吗?
Do you care that he came up with a talking doll so creepy
这个玩意儿不止吓到小孩还吓坏了成年人啊
that it scared not only kids but adults, too?
不会!你歌颂托马斯·爱迪生因为他发明了灯泡
No. You celebrate Thomas Edison for pioneering the light bulb.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
如果你研究各个领域
If you look across fields,
伟大的原创者是那些失败最多的人
the greatest originals are the ones who fail the most,
因为他们是尝试得最多的人
because they’re the ones who try the most.
以一些最好的古典作曲家为例
Take classical composers, the best of the best.
为什么有些人在百科全书里 内容比其他人多
Why do some of them get more pages in encyclopedias than others
而且他们的作品被重新录制更多遍?
and also have their compositions rerecorded more times?
其中一个最好的预测
One of the best predictors
就是他们产出的作品的量有多大
is the sheer volume of compositions that they generate.
你产生的输出越大你的作品种类越多
The more output you churn out, the more variety you get
你就越有可能做出 一些真正原创的东西
and the better your chances of stumbling on something truly original.
即使是三位古典音乐伟人—— 巴赫、贝多芬、莫扎特
Even the three icons of classical music — Bach, Beethoven, Mozart —
都必须写出数百份作品
had to generate hundreds and hundreds of compositions
才能获得相当少量的杰作
to come up with a much smaller number of masterpieces.
你们可能在想
Now, you may be wondering,
这个家伙没做多少事又是怎么获得成功的呢?
how did this guy become great without doing a whole lot?
我不知道瓦格纳怎么做到的
I don’t know how Wagner pulled that off.
但是对于大部分人如果我们想要变得更有原创性
But for most of us, if we want to be more original,
我们必须产生更多的点子
we have to generate more ideas.
瓦比·帕克的创始人当他们思考如何命名公司的时候
The Warby Parker founders, when they were trying to name their company,
他们想要找相对复杂 特别的词而且没有负面的歧义
they needed something sophisticated, unique, with no negative associations
以此打造一个零售品牌
to build a retail brand,
他们尝试了超过两千种可能性
and they tested over 2,000 possibilities
最后才找到两个词拼在一起:
before they finally put together
“瓦比”和“帕克”
Warby and Parker.
如果你综合来看你会发现原创者
So if you put all this together, what you see is that originals
与我们其他人差别并不是那么大
are not that different from the rest of us.
他们也会害怕 疑虑他们犯拖延症
They feel fear and doubt. They procrastinate.
他们有糟糕的想法
They have bad ideas.
而且有的时候 这些特质不仅没有造成阻碍
And sometimes, it’s not in spite of those qualities but because of them
反而帮助他们成功
that they succeed.
所以当你们看到这些时千万别犯像我这样的错误
So when you see those things, don’t make the same mistake I did.
不要无视他们
Don’t write them off.
如果这个人是你你也别无视了自己
And when that’s you, don’t count yourself out either.
你要知道快速地开始 缓慢地结束
Know that being quick to start but slow to finish
可以提升你的创造力
can boost your creativity,
你可以通过质疑自己的想法 来激励自己
that you can motivate yourself by doubting your ideas
勇敢地面对放弃尝试的恐惧感
and embracing the fear of failing to try,
并且知道自己想到很多坏主意后 才能获得几个好主意
and that you need a lot of bad ideas in order to get a few good ones.
做原创者并不容易
Look, being original is not easy,
但是我对此深信不疑:
but I have no doubt about this:
这是改变我们周围世界的最好方式
it’s the best way to improve the world around us.
谢谢各位
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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译制信息
视频概述

中度拖延症竟然有利于创新!你所了解的成功创新者都是错的够多、患有中度拖延症的人!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

知易行难

审核员

【MR】拾月

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fxbCHn6gE3U

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