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看到阳光就打喷嚏的基因 – 译学馆
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看到阳光就打喷嚏的基因

The Sun Sneeze Gene

我是一名太阳喷嚏人 它也被称为光喷嚏反应
I am a sun sneezer. Which is also known as having the photic sneeze reflex
或者说是体细胞显性遗传性强迫性日光视神经喷发综合症
Or, the autosomal dominant compelling helio ophthalmic outbursts syndrome.
这就意味着如果我从一个黑暗的地方到一个有明光的地方
Which basically means if I go from a dark area into somewhere that’s brightly lit ,
你懂的 就像 看着太阳
You know, like, looking at the sun
我会打喷嚏
I will sneeze
稍等一下……
Wait for it…
现在你看见了 我是一名太阳喷嚏人
There you go, I’m a sun sneezer.
但这个为什么会发生呢?
But why does this happen?
人们已经知道这个现象至少几千年
People have known about this effect for at least a few thousand years
亚里士多德可能是一名阳光喷嚏者
Aristotle was probably a sun sneezer
因为他在《问题集》中问道:为什么阳光会引起打喷嚏呢?
because in his book of problems he asked: why does the sun provoke sneezing?
他的结论是 因为太阳的热量引起了鼻子内出汗
And his answer was it was the heat from the sun which causes sweating inside your nose
所以你会为了排出汗液而喷嚏
and so you sneeze to get rid of the moisture.
但是几千年过后
But a couple millennia later
弗朗西斯•培根爵士论证了情况并非如此
Sir Francis Bacon demonstrated that this could not be the case
因为当他闭上眼睛面对太阳时
because when he closed his eyes and turned towards the sun
他并没有发生光喷嚏反应
well he did not experience that photic sneeze reflex
所以他的解释是因为眼睛流泪
so his explanation was that it was the eyes watering
然后一些眼泪开始下流至鼻子 使人鼻子瘙痒并打喷嚏
and then when some of that moisture got down into the nose that caused the tickle which makes you sneeze
但这个理论也有它的漏洞 因为眼部流泪是一个比光喷嚏反应慢得多的过程
But even this theory has its problems, because eye watering is a much slower process than the photic sneeze reflex
所以不可能是这个原因 在我研究光喷嚏之前
So it can’t be the cause. Before I started researching sun sneezing
我以为有此反应的人一定有某种进化优势才有光喷嚏反应
I thought that having the photic sneeze reflex must convey some sort of evolutionary advantage under the people who have it.
如果你这样想 喷嚏是传播疾病的一种方式
If you think about it sneezing is a way of transmitting disease.
你的鼻涕中可能有传播肺结核和咽喉炎的细菌
In your snot there can be the living bacteria that cause tuberculosis,and strep throat
或者麻疹腮腺炎风疹和流感的病毒
or viruses that cause measles mumps rubella and influenza
如果你生活在潮湿黑暗的洞穴 然后你打喷嚏
so if you’re living in a moist dark cave and you sneeze
你的鼻涕就粘在地面上 或者洞穴墙上 这些病原体会存活几个小时或者好几天
Where your snot lands on the floor or the walls of the cave and those pathogens can stay alive for hours or even days
增加传播给住在同一个洞穴的人的可能性
increasing the likelihood of spreading that disease to other people who live with you in your cave
然而如果你只在从洞穴的黑暗出来到明亮的阳光下的时候打喷嚏
Whereas if you only sneeze when you emerge from the darkness of the cave and into bright sunlight
然后粘液很快就干了 或者会因为它暴露在太阳的有杀伤力的紫外线下
Well, then that mucus will quickly dry out or because it’s exposed to the harmful UV rays of the sun
所有的病原体都被杀死
It will kill all of those pathogens
这大大减少了传播疾病的风险
Greatly decreasing the risk of spread of disease
60年代的一些研究揭示了光喷嚏反应的遗传特性
By the 1960s some studies were revealing the hereditary nature of the photic sneeze reflex
有一位父亲 当他到阳光下的时候会打两次喷嚏
There was a father who would sneeze two times when he entered bright sunlight
然后当研究团队测试他的四周大的女儿的时候
And when they tested his baby daughter who was just four weeks old
把她从黑暗的房间放到充满阳光的环境下时 她也打了喷嚏
Moving her from a dark room into full sunlight also caused her to sneeze
恰好也是两次 而在80年代人们很清楚这种特性是显性遗传
Exactly two times and by the 1980s it was clear that this trait was autosomal dominant
它意味着你只需要遗传
Meaning that you only needed to inherit one
来自你父母中的一个的这段基因就可显示其性状
copy of the gene from just one of your parents in order to exhibit the trait
但是研究人群之后发现 只有大概18%到35%的人有光喷嚏反射
But when studies the population have been done only about 18 to 35 percent of people actually have the photic sneeze reflex
所以我认为这不是一个进化优势 要不然所有人都应该有
So I don’t really think this gives a great evolutionary advantage, otherwise everyone would have it
你应该懂得它可能就是一个随着时间的推移而发生的随机突变然后一直保持它的存在
you know it could just be one of those random mutations that happens over time and sustains itself
因为从进化来说既不好也不坏
because it’s neither good nor bad evolutionarily speaking
所以它只影响到了四分之一的人
So it affects roughly one in four people
你能认出谁有光喷嚏反射吗
Can you spot the person with the photic sneeze reflex?
如今 人们确实发现了与光喷嚏反射有关的基因在第二条染色体上
Nowadays, it’s actually been found that the gene responsible for the photic sneeze reflex is on the second chromosome
它仅仅是DNA上一个碱基对的改变
And it’s a single letter of DNA that’s been changed
在我第二条染色体上,我的是C
On my second chromosome,I have a C
非太阳喷嚏人这个地方则是T
Where non sun sneezers have a T
而我们知道的根据是在2010年有一个大概有10000人参与的研究
and the reason that we know this is that back in 2010 there was a study of about 10,000 people
他们上网上传他们是否为太阳喷嚏人
where they went online and they reported whether they were sun sneezers or not
然后他们的DNA被分析和分组比较
and then their DNA was analyzed and the groups were compared
然后研究团队发现了太阳喷嚏人有一个共同的地方 就他们的DNA发生了一个特殊碱基对的改变
and what they found was the thing the sun sneezers had in common was this one particular letter change in their DNA.
我认为那真的让人惊奇
That I think is pretty amazing.
现在依然不清楚它是怎样影响你的生理机制然后使你对阳光喷嚏更加敏感
Now it’s unclear exactly how this change affects your physiology and makes you more susceptible to sun sneezes
但是现在最好的理论是反射涉及到了你最大的脑神经——三叉神经
But the best theory at the moment is that it involves the trigeminal nerve which is the largest cranial nerve
它牵涉着你面部所有的感觉 然后正如它名字那样说的
it Involves all of the feeling that you have in your face and as the name implies
它的确有三个分叉 其中一个用来传入你眼睛的刺激 另一个传入你鼻子的刺激
It actually has three branches one of which receives stimuli from your eye and another which receives stimuli from your nose
所以想法是当眼神经受到的真正刺激
so the thought is that this really active stimulation of the optic nerve
可能会传到颅骨神经的分支 使你发痒并打喷嚏
may cross over into the maxillary Branch causing that little tickle which gets you to sneeze
光喷嚏反应基本上是无害的 除非你开战斗机或者接受一些精细的手术
Photic Sneezes are generally pretty harmless unless you’re doing something like flying a fighter jet or performing some sort of delicate surgery.
但这个研究方法能让我们了解到很多不同的遗传性状和疾病
But this methodology can allow us to learn a lot about different heritable traits and diseases
只需通过研究很多人及其他们的基因型
just by studying lots of people and their genotypes
本集Veritasium频道的节目由23andme提供技术支持
This episode of veritasium was supported by 23andme.
这家公司事实上发现了基因多态性与光喷嚏反应有关
Which is actually the company that figured out that gene polymorphism responsible for the photic Sneeze reflex
23andme这家公司的名字来源于人类有23对染色体这个事实
the name of the Company 23andme comes from the fact that humans actually have 23 pairs of chromosomes and
这家公司的目的是让人们了解到自己的DNA
The purpose of the company is to give people insight into their own DNA
你所要做的是将唾液吐入一个小瓶里
So what you do is spit into a vial
当然它实际上要比听起来难得多 将瓶子送往实验室
which is actually much harder than it sounds and send it off to them
当然你的唾液里面有你的一些口腔内的细胞
and of course in your saliva are some of the cells from your mouth
他们会分析那些细胞的DNA
They analyze the DNA from those cells
然后他们将会给你一份报告 你可以找到大量关于你基因的事实
And then they send you a report where you can find out tons of stuff about your genes
像你的基因来自哪或者说你的祖先是什么样的?你有没有光喷嚏反应?
like where do your genes come from that is what’s your ancestry and do you have the photic sneeze reflex?
我们是不是在第二条染色体上有着同样的改变
Do we share the same Change of DNA on our second chromosome
你也可以了解到你的健康和其他身体表征 你有多少尼安德特人的基因
you can also learn about your health and other physical traits and how much Neanderthal you are
如果你想了解更多关于你的基因型你可以访问23andme.com/veritasium
so if you want to learn more about your genotype Then you should go to 23andme.com/veritasium,
所以我想感谢23andme的支持 还有 感谢你们观看我的视频
so I want to thank 23andme for supporting me And, I want to thank you for watching.

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视频概述

如果你从黑暗中到明亮的地方的时候会打喷嚏,那么恭喜你,你是一名太阳喷嚏人那么这是为什么呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

eyas闯江湖

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e69XZJ9DEj0

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