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斯特鲁普任务:一个你无法征服的心理测验 – 译学馆
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斯特鲁普任务:一个你无法征服的心理测验

The Stroop Task: The Psych Test You Cannot Beat

Go to UniverseUnboxed.com
在UniverseUnboxed.com
to learn about SciShow science kits!
了解更多科学秀科学工具包的信息!
And stick around to the end of this episode
坚持看到视频末尾
to hear more about this exciting new SciShow project!
了解更多有关这个给力的科学秀新项目的信息!
In order to deal with all the information
为了处理这个世界丢给我们的
the world throws at us,
所有信息
human brains have developed cognitive ‘shortcuts’.
人类大脑便进化出了认知“捷径”
Usually, these shortcuts are helpful,
这些捷径通常非常有用
and you’re totally unaware of them.
而你完全意识不到它们
But sometimes, they can slow you down,
但有时候 它们会拖你后腿
or even be your downfall.
甚至使你失败
Today on SciShow,
今天的科学秀中
find out how your brain can betray you.
我们将看看大脑如何背叛你
One of the most famous and well-studied examples
斯特鲁普任务是一个有关大脑的自动处理
of how our brains’ automatic processing
如何给我们使绊子的
can trip us up
最为知名
is the Stroop task.
且饱经研究的案例
Its name comes from American psychologist J.R. Stroop,
它的名字来自美国心理学家J·R·斯特鲁普
who designed the test way back in the nineteen thirties.
他在20世纪30年代设计出了这套测验
And the set up is—or seems—really simple.
测验的背景看似非常简单 其实亦然
You’re presented with a series of words
给你一系列的词
and asked either to name the color
你需要说出写这个单词
of the ink the word is written in
所用的墨水的颜色
or simply read the word.
或单纯读出该词
Easy enough, right?
太简单了 对吧?
Sometimes, though, the ink is the
但有的时候 墨水的颜色
same color as the word,
和词义相同
like, red ink for the word red.
比如 用红墨水写的“红”字
This is considered a congruent trial.
这叫做“字色一致”
Other times, it isn’t—
有时候却并非如此——
like, the word red written in green.
比如 用绿墨水写的“红”字
Those are incongruent trials.
那种就叫做“字色矛盾”
And then there are neutral trials,
还有一种“字色无关”问题
where the word and color are unrelated,
即单词和颜色无关
like the is word dog,
就像“狗”这个词
and the color is, you know…
它的颜色 你也知道…
it’s not dog colored, I guess.
我觉得不是“狗”色
Stroop found that even when participants
斯特鲁普发现 即使被试者
were instructed to ignore that was written
被要求忽略所写的单词
and just focus on the color of the ink,
而只关注墨水的颜色
it took them longer to answer
他们也需要花更长的时间
during incongruent trials.
来完成字色矛盾的问题
Sometimes, they even read the word by mistake!
有时他们甚至错读出了单词!
That’s because reading words in a language
这是因为用你熟练掌握的语言
you’re fluent in
读出单词
is an automatic process.
是一个无意识的过程
Whether you like it or not,
无论你想不想
that information gets into your brain.
那种信息都会进入你的大脑
So when the infomation you get
所以 当你通过读出单词
from reading the word
获取的信息
is different from the color of the ink,
与墨水的颜色不同时
these two conflicting pieces of information
这两条互相矛盾的信息
end up fighting it out in your brain.
最终会在你的大脑中打起架来
This is called interference,
这叫做“干扰”
because one cognitive process
因为一个认知过程
is slowing down another.
在拖慢另一个认知过程
And this effect is so strong
这个影响非常强烈
that some say US intelligence services
有的人甚至说在冷战期间
used the Stroop task
美国情报局
to spot Russian agents during the Cold War.
用斯特鲁普任务来检测出俄罗斯特工
The idea was that
原理是
these agents were pretending to be Americans,
这些特工想假扮成美国人
when really, they were from Russia
但他们其实是俄罗斯人
and their first language was Russian.
母语是俄语
So, the suspected spies
所以这些被怀疑的特工
were given the Stroop task in Russian.
要进行俄语版的斯特鲁普任务
People who don’t speak Russian
不说俄语的人
should be able to rattle off the colors
应该能轻而易举地飞速说出
of the words with ease,
单词的颜色
as they won’t be tripped up
因为他们不会
by the color-word mismatches.
被字色不一致所困扰
So, if the suspected spy was slow to answer
所以 如果可疑的间谍回答得很慢
or got tripped up by words written in Russian,
或被俄语单词绊住了
the jig was up.
他就暴露了
Of course, this would only have worked
当然 这只对那些
for spies that weren’t supposed to know Russian.
不会说俄语的间谍起作用
Bilingual people get Strooped
讲两种语言的人会被两种
in both languages they speak.
自己会说的语言都绊住
So it’s probably not all that useful for detecting spies,
所以该方法可能在检测间谍时不那么有效
unless you’re talking, like, the deep undercover types.
除非你是那种深入的卧底
The real question, though,
但真正的问题在于
is why this happens at all.
为什么这种现象会发生
You see, Stroop quickly realized interference
你看 斯特鲁普迅速意识到了
wasn’t the only thing happening.
除了干扰之外
There’s also facilitation—
还有促进作用
when one cognitive process
一个认知过程
helps another process along.
促进另一个过程
That occurs when multiple pieces of information
这种情况发生在多条信息
complement each other or work together –
互相补充或共同起作用时——
like when we read the word red in red ink.
就像我们读用红色墨水写的“红”字时
And understanding how and why
理解事情如何 和为何
things interfere with or facilitate one another
互相干扰或促进
could explain a lot about
可以在很大程度上解释
how our brains handle information.
我们的大脑如何处理信息
We have a general sense of what’s happening,
我们大体知道什么在发生
which is to say,
也就是说
we know the key parts of the brain involved.
我们知道大脑的哪些关键部分被涉及到了
While Stroop didn’t have access
虽然那时斯特鲁普
to neuroimaging in his time,
无法做神经影像
we now know that the Stroop effect
但现在我们知道了 斯特鲁普效应
involves an interplay between a few key areas:
涉及到几个关键区域的相互作用:
the prefrontal cortex or PFC,
前额皮层 简称PFC
the anterior cingulate cortex or ACC,
前扣带皮层 简称ACC
and the ventral tegmental area or VTA.
和腹侧被盖区 简称VTA
If you’ve seen our video about multitasking,
如果你看过我们讲多任务的视频
you already know that this network
你就已经知道了 这个网络
is responsible for executive control functions:
负责行政控制
processes like working memory, planning,
即工作记忆 规划
attention, and problem-solving.
注意和解决问题之类的过程
With regards to the Stroop test,
就斯特鲁普任务而言
the prefrontal cortex is thought to be
我们认为前额皮层
responsible for goal representation.
负责目标陈述
Basically, what the rules of the current task are,
基本上也就是 当前任务的规则如何
like, saying the word or saying the color.
比如 是说出单词还是说出颜色
Meanwhile, the ACC
同时 前扣带皮层
seems to be involved in error detection.
似乎与错误检测有关
You see, studies have found ACC activity
研究发现前扣带皮层
is higher during incongruent trials
在字色矛盾时
as compared to congruent or neutral trials.
比字色一致或无关时活动更剧烈
That suggests that the ACC is essentially flagging
这表明 在你很有可能犯错误时
when you’re most likely to make a mistake
前扣带皮层一般就会出现疲乏
and is probably responsible
从而可能导致你
for your hesitation in answering.
吞吞吐吐地作答
Then, if we get it right,
如果我们没想错的话
the VTA provides a reward
腹侧被盖区会以好的多巴胺的形式
in the form of good old dopamine.
提供报酬
But brain activity in certain areas
但特定区域的大脑活动
doesn’t really tell us as much as you’d think about
并不像你想的那样
how the information is being processed.
能告诉我们如何处理信息
There are a number of different models
大量不同的模型
that aim to explain that,
旨在解释这一点
none of which are perfect.
但无一完美
For example, there’s the Parallel Distributed Processing model,
比如 并行分布处理模型
which became popular in the late nineteen seventies
在20世纪70年代末到80年代初
to early nineteen eighties.
流行了起来
It imagines the brain much like a computer network,
该模型认为 大脑酷似计算机网络
with different cognitive processes,
但认知过程不同
like word reading and color identification,
就像读出单词和辨别颜色
occurring in parallel.
同时发生
The path with the strongest activation
活动最剧烈的路径
is the one that ends up prevailing
是最终占上风的那条
and that’s naturally reading,
这当然指的是读出单词
because we spend so much time
因为我们花了好多时间
learning how to do it and doing it,
学习怎么读和自己去读
while we don’t tend to spend as much of our lives
而并未花费同样多的时间
pointing out the colors of things.
来辨别事物的颜色
Other models posit
其他模型假定
that it’s not the strength of a given pathway,
我们一般读出单词比辨别颜色更快
but rather the speed at which a process occurs
这并不取决于某条路径的强度
and that we read faster than we ID color, basically.
而取决于一个过程发生的速度
And still others argue that word-reading
还有一些人认为读出单词
simply doesn’t take the same amount of focused attention
所需要的专注程度单纯和辨别颜色
as color-naming.
不同罢了
But none of these seem to line up with perfectly
但这些模型似乎都无法完美分析出
with what’s happening in the brain.
大脑内部的活动
That’s why more recent methods
这就是最近出现的更多
for understanding the Stroop effect
理解斯特鲁普效应的方法
include developing artificial networks
包含了模拟大脑活动的
to mimic what’s going on.
仿真网络的原因
Basically, researchers are trying to
基本上 研究员们在试着
write a computer program
写一个像人类一样
that responds to the Stroop task
响应斯特鲁普任务的
in the same way humans do,
电脑程序
which could help connect the neuroanatomy
这有助于将神经解剖学
and the proposed models.
和提出的方法相结合
Because one thing we know for sure is that
因为我们确定地知道
this is hardwired into your brain.
这个过程被固定在你的大脑中
You can’t see the word green written in red
你不能因为看到了一个红色的“绿”字
and just totally ignore the word itself.
就完全忽略词义本身
But you might be able to hack these processes a bit.
但你也许能稍微应付一下这个过程
You see, different people experience
不同的人会受到
different degrees of this effect.
该效应不同程度的影响
People who struggle with impulse control
比如 需要努力控制冲动的人
in general are more susceptible
和他人相比 总的来说
to the Stroop effect than others, for example.
更容易受到斯特鲁普效应的影响
And there are definitely things
当然 有的东西
that will make you worse,
会让你状态更差
like intoxication.
比如醉酒
News alert: being drunk makes you bad
新闻快报称 醉酒会让你
at a lot of things,
不擅长许多事
especially impulse control.
特别是很难控制冲动
There are ways to get better at the Stroop task, too.
但也有一些方法让你更擅长斯特鲁普任务
Practice does improve performance, for example,
比如练习就会提高你的表现
so you might be able to get a little bit faster.
这样你就能进行得更快了
But you’ll probably never be perfect…
但你可能永远无法至臻至善…
unless you undergo hypnosis, apparently.
当然了 除非你接受催眠
You see, one 2002 study found that
2002年的一项研究发现
when put under hypnosis,
当人被催眠时
some people could master the Stroop task
有的人能通过说服自己
by becoming convinced
那些完全真实
that the totally real and normal English words
且正常的英文单词毫无意义
they were presented, were gibberish.
来使自己征服斯特鲁普任务
Which, along with being pretty spooky,
虽然这有点可怕
provides evidence that at least
但仍向我们证明了
some automatic processes,
至少一些无意识过程
like reading, can be overcome.
比如阅读 是能被征服的
There’s just a lot we still don’t understand
我们尚不知道许多
about how and why our brains do the things
大脑日常活动的
they do every day.
原理和原因
And that’s why researchers are still
这也就是研究员们还在使用
using this super old test
这个老掉牙的测验的原因
because even after almost a century,
因为即使过去了将近一个世纪
it’s still revealing the fundamentals
这个测验仍能揭示大脑
of how our brains work.
运转的基本原理
And you can see how you do with the Stroop task,
你也可以看看你的斯特鲁普任务做得如何
because it’s one of the experiments
因为这是我们宇宙速递感官科学工具箱
in our Universe Unboxed Sensory Science kit!
的实验之一
Universe Unboxed is SciShow’s very own line
宇宙速递是科学秀独家的
of science experiment kits
科学实验工具包
for kids, elementary school-aged, and older.
儿童 小学生 以及更年长者均适用
They’re packed with all sorts of fun experiments
里面包含各种有趣的实验
which teach specific science concepts.
可以让他们学到具体的科学概念
Each also has a video demonstration, starring me,
每个实验还附带由我出演的视频演示
so you can see how it’s done
以便你在学到背后的科学之前
and guess what happened
看看实验如何进行
before you learn the science behind them.
再猜猜会发生什么
And in the Sensory Science kit,
感官科学包里
there’s a Stroop task that you can do right at home,
则有斯特鲁普任务 足不出户即可完成
since it teaches us a lot about
因为它能告诉我们许多
how our brains process visual information.
大脑如何处理图像信息的知识
You can even see how I did
你可以通过附带的视频
by watching the accompanying video!
看看我是怎么做的
Hint: not great.
先说下:做的不怎么样
In addition to explaining the experiments,
除了讲解实验之外
we also explain how scientists actually
我们还会讲解科学家们其实
use the scientific concepts you’re learning
是如何运用你在现实生活中学到的
in the real world.
科学概念的
So you’re not only learning how science works,
所以你不仅能学到科学原理
you’re learning why it matters,
还能知道为什么它很重要
just like you do
就像你在
when you watch SciShow episodes like this one.
看这段科学秀节目时一样
To buy one of these kits
若想为你自己
for yourself or your favorite kid,
或为你最爱的孩子
or to find them in a store near you,
购买一种工具包或是想在附近商店找一个
check out UniverseUnboxed.com.
请访问UniverseUnboxed.com

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