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迄今为止发现的最奇特的星球 – 译学馆
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迄今为止发现的最奇特的星球

The Strangest Planets Ever Discovered

宇宙充满了秘密和神秘
The cosmos is full of secrets and mysteries.
我们凝视的深渊越深 就会产生越多
The deeper we gaze into the abyss, the more questions arise
现代科学还不能回答的问题
that modern science cannot yet answer.
今天 我们有幸见到了
Today we have the honor of meeting
两颗非常非常奇特的行星
two very, very, very strange planets.
然而 称它们为行星
Although, even calling them planets
仍是个困难的命题
is a difficult proposition.
对象CFBDSIR 2149-0403
Object CFBDSIR 2149-0403,
或随便称其为CF21
or more casually known as CF21.
这可能是这个已知宇宙中
This is probably one of the most
最不可思议的东西之一了
incomprehensible things in this known universe.
我感觉它只在合适的时间
I feel like this one’s just for us
为我们所知
and at just the right time.
起初 这颗奇特的宇宙天体被误以为是一颗星际行星
At first this peculiar cosmic body was taken for a rogue planet,
这意味着在某种程度上 一颗行星
meaning a planet which was somehow gravitationally ejected
被其它行星或一些经过的恒星
from its native system by other planets
从其原生星系中驱逐出去
or by some passing star.
这颗行星距离地球有100光年
It was found a hundred light-years from Earth,
2012年 由天文学家菲利普•德洛姆
discovered in 2012 by an international team of astronomers
带领的国际天文学家团队发现
led by one Philippe Delorme.
首次研究表明
The first study showed that
它的质量是木星的5到9倍
that its mass is 5 to 9 times the mass of Jupiter.
但这颗行星很热
But the planet is hot,
它本不该这么热的
and it’s not supposed to be.
但我说这话有点过早了
But I’m getting ahead of myself.
我们按顺序来顺一下
Let’s do this in the proper order.
总的来说 这些孤立的行星
In general, these orphan planets
在宇宙中是很常见的现象
are a quite frequent phenomenon in the universe.
它们有时也被
They are also sometimes
放在planemos的物体中
placed in a group of objects known as planemos.
科学家们相信 事实上有很多行星
Scientists believe that in fact there are quite a lot of them,
有些行星比这颗神秘的隐士
and some of them are much closer to the Earth
还更靠近地球
than this mysterious recluse.
但它们很难被发现
But they are extremely difficult to find
因为它们通常都不发光
because they often have zero luminosity.
因此 当科学家们发现
So when scientists found out
这颗星际行星很热时
that the possible rogue planet was hot,
关于它是行星类天体的理论
the theory as to
就让人产生了疑问
its being a planetary class body came into question.
要想知道这是场什么游戏
To understand exactly what kind of game this is,
你需要向褐矮星求助
you need to turn to brown dwarfs for help.
褐矮星是一种
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects
比恒星还小的次恒星
that means “smaller than a star”,
和大多数星体不同 它没有足够的质量
which don’t have sufficient mass
来承受核心的压力和温度
for a pressure and temperature in the core to trigger thermonuclear fusion
从而触发氦核聚变
of hydrogen to helium like most stars.
为了启动
In order to initiate
一个以氢为基础的热核反应
a thermonuclear reaction based on hydrogen,
幸亏几乎所有的恒星都会发光
thanks to which almost all stars shine,
你需要约为木星质量80倍的东西
you need something with about 80 times the mass of Jupiter.
这仅仅是太阳质量的8%
That’s only about 8% of the mass of our Sun,
但也足够了
but it’s enough.
只有木星质量的13倍也足够
But only about 13 times the mass of Jupiter is enough
产生熔化锂和氘的
to produce a thermonuclear reaction
热核反应
that can fuse lithium and deuterium.
因此 褐矮星被认为是一种
So, brown dwarfs are considered to be gas objects
有13到80个木星那么重的气体物质
with a mass of between 13 and 80 Jupiters.
想想看 比行星大 比恒星小
Think, bigger than a planet, smaller than a star.
如果这颗神秘物体C21
If the mysterious object C21
比13个木星还轻
weighs less than 13 Jupiters,
那我们就清楚它是怎么来的了
which it does as far as we can tell,
那么它很可能会变成
then it will most likely turn out to be
一颗类似于木星的星际行星
a Jupiter-like rogue planet,
被扔出巢穴 从银河角度来说
thrown out of its nest and drifting unobtrusively,
在离我们不远的地方飘着
not far from us, galactically speaking.
但是等一下 它变得更有趣了
But wait, it gets more interesting.
C21在红外线中发光
C21 glows in the infrared,
这意味着它向太空辐射热量
meaning it radiates heat into space.
一颗年轻的新行星发热又发光
A young newly-formed planet is hot and glowing,
它会发光直至冷却
and it will glow until it cools,
这种冷却可以持续几百万年
and this cooling can last for millions of years.
据发现这个神秘物体
According to the first observations
之后的第一次观察
after the discovery of this mysterious object,
它似乎与附近一群叫做
it seemed to be moving with a nearby group of stars
AB多拉图斯的恒星一起运动
called the AB Doratus moving group.
科学家得出这个结论
Scientists came to this conclusion
是因为它与这个星团很接近
because of its apparent proximity to this cluster,
所以我们的神秘物体肯定是从那里飞走的
and so surely our mysterious object must have flown from there.
多拉图斯群的恒星都很年轻
All these stars in the Doratus group are very young,
几乎同时出现
appeared around the same time,
它们之间的距离相对较近
are in relative proximity to each other.
在过去 它们因引力可以相互影响
In the past they could have influenced each other gravitationally,
改变邻近恒星的行星轨道
changing the orbits of the planets of neighboring stars,
形成了我们所说的planemo
giving rise to the appearance of our planemo.
也就是说 如果C21来自于AB多拉图斯
That is, if C21 came out of AB Doratus,
那它可能是一颗年轻的行星
then it is probably a young planet
只是还没冷却下来
which hasn’t cooled down yet.
然而 经过更详细的观察后
However, after more detailed observations
在智利的欧洲超大望远镜
with the help of Europe’s Very Large Telescope in Chile,
夏威夷的加拿大-法国望远镜
the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope,
斯皮策太空望远镜
the Spitzer Space Telescope
和视差效应的帮助下
and the use of the parallax effect
通过测量地球绕太阳公转
which calculates more accurate distances to faraway objects
的不同地方数据来
by taking measurements when the Earth
计算出与偏远物体间更精准的距离
is in different places in its orbit around the Sun,
原来C21与地球
it turned out that C21
相距大约130光年
is about 130 light-years from Earth.
这比之前所想的还要远些
This is somewhat further than originally thought.
起初 科学家们认为这个神奇的物体
At first scientists assume that this little miracle object
与前面提到的恒星系的距离是差不多的
was about the same distance as the star system mentioned earlier,
都距离地球大约75光年
about 75 light-years from Earth.
现在 远在恒星形成的所有中心外
Now, far from all centers of star formation,
这颗行星不可能如此年轻
this possible planet can’t possibly be young.
它得有5亿多岁
it must be over 500 million years old.
如果它是planemo的话
and if it is a planemo,
它不可能在那里的
it couldn’t possibly exist there.
据我们所知
As far as we know,
行星只能在恒星的轨道上形成
planets can only be formed in the orbit of stars.
在55光年外的AB多拉图斯
At 55 light-years away from AB Doratus,
如果它从那里飞来
if it came from there,
飞了这么长时间
flying for so long,
它肯定会冷却下来
it would surely have had time to cool down.
但这并不一定与现实相符
But this does not necessarily correspond with reality.
这位神秘旅行者
The temperature of the mysterious traveler
超过400度
is over 400 degrees.
如果它比我们想象的要远两倍
And if it is almost two times farther than we thought,
事实上它会更亮
that in fact it’s even brighter.
如果它更亮
And if it is brighter,
意味着它会更重
that means it’s heavier.
根据精密的计算
and according to refined calculations,
这个物体有
the mass of the object
2到13颗木星那么重
is between 2 and 13 masses of Jupiter.
重量上限使它能在锂上进行
The upper limit just allows it to start
最简单的热核反应
the most undemanding thermonuclear reaction on lithium.
但是 同样的
But, all the same,
有如此重量是很少见的
most likely the mass is less,
最可能的是大约有7个木星那么重
at about seven Jupiters.
这到底是怎么回事?
What the heck is going on here?
此外 研究还发现
Additionally, studies have revealed
它含有大量的重元素
that it has a high content of heavy elements,
所有的元素都不是氢和氦
all the elements that are not hydrogen and helium.
通常褐矮星中 这类元素含量更少
And usually brown dwarfs have fewer such elements,
但在这个例子中
but the presence of these elements in this case
行星中具备这些元素的少之又少
is too little for a planet.
所以我们不能绝对肯定它是一颗行星
So we cannot say with absolute certainty that this is a planet,
但几乎所有的数据都得出了这个结论
but almost all the data leads to this conclusion.
了解这个奇怪物体的唯一方法
More observations are the only way
是更多的观察
to get a better understanding of this strange object.
研究会继续 我们对宇宙的了解也会增进
Research will continue, our understanding of the universe will grow,
我们的知识也会增长
and knowledge will increase.
这次我们不知道它的来历
At this time, we don’t understand what it is.
但早晚有一天
But, sooner or later,
人类会收到这个问题的答案的
mankind will receive an answer to this question.
也许你 我亲爱的观众们
Perhaps you, my dear viewers,
对这个奇怪的东西有自己的看法
have your own opinion as to what this strange object is.
你可在评论区写下你的所有猜想
You can write all your assumptions in the comments.
我期待着能读到你的评论
I’m looking forward to reading what you have to say.
同时 让我们继续下一个
In the meantime, let’s move on to the next
不那么奇怪但仍无法解释的物体
no less strange and still unexplained object.
Kelt-11b是一个巨大的塑料泡沫行星
Kelt-11B is a giant plastic styrofoam planet.
是的 你没听错
Yes, you heard that right.
它是最近才被发现的
It was discovered just recently,
它惊人的特性让人诧异
and its amazing properties were quite the surprise.
这颗巨大的系外行星
This giant exoplanet, located
距地球320光年 非常臃肿
320 light-years from Earth, is incredibly bloated.
它比我们的木星大40%
It’s 40 percent larger than our Jupiter,
但质量却只有木星的1/5
but has only about 1/5 its mass.
如此大的尺寸和极轻的质量
Such an impressive size and an extremely low mass
使其在密度上与聚苯乙烯泡沫相似
make it similar in density to styrofoam.
事实上 这颗星球的
In reality, there’s no foam
构造中没有泡沫
in the composition of the planet.
这只是个比喻
It’s just an analogy.
这颗不寻常的蓬松的
This unusual fluffy world
星球在我们所发现的所有
has the third lowest density
已确定了准确质量和半径的
among all the exoplanets that we have discovered,
外行星中密度第三低
of which we have managed to determine the exact mass and radius.
我希望它能揭示
I hope it will shed light
这些神秘的物体是如何诞生的
on how these mysterious objects are born
以及它们在进化过程中会出现什么情况
and what happens to them next in their evolution.
除了异乎寻常的密度外
In addition to the unusual density,
Kelt-11b也因其它方面而与众不同
Kelt-11B has distinguished itself for something else.
在很短的时间内 它就会消失
In a very short time, it will disappear.
你看 这颗系外行星围绕着
You see, the exoplanet revolves
正向红巨星转变的
around the super bright star Kelt-11,
超亮恒星kelt——11旋转
which is in the process of transitioning into a red giant.
这意味着在热核反应过程中
This means that within the context of the thermonuclear process,
这颗恒星已经开始在其核心外燃烧氢
the star has begun to burn hydrogen outside its core.
据研究人员说
According to researchers, the outer layers of the atmosphere
Kelt-11恒星的外层大气
of the Kelt-11 star
将在未来1亿年内膨胀
will expand over the next 100 million years,
最终这颗恒星将完全吸收行星Kelt-11b
and eventually the star will completely absorb the planet Kelt-11B.
而且 由于我们的神秘系外行星
And since our mysterious exoplanet
在仅仅5个地球日里
performs one revolution around its parent star
围绕它的母星进行一次旋转
in just five terrestrial days.
这意味着它距母星非常近
This means that it is extraordinarily close to the star,
因此从天文学上讲 很快就会吸收掉
and hence the absorption will happen quite soon, astronomically speaking.
但也没那么糟
But it’s not all that bad.
由于Kelt-11是我们
Due to the fact that Kelt-11 is the brightest
南半球最明亮的恒星
of the famous stars in our southern hemisphere,
在它灭亡之前 这个奇怪的泡沫星球
before its demise, this strange foamy world
能够告诉我们很多
will be able to tell us much
有关它的大气层成分的信息
about the composition of its atmosphere.
寻找新外行星的过境方法
The transit method of searching for new exoplanets
是天文学家最喜欢做的事之一
is one of the most popular among astronomers.
由于行星在其母星
Due to the passage of a planet
和我们的望远镜之间有段距离
between its parent star and our telescopes,
我们观察到的恒星亮度降低了
the brightness of the observed star decreases.
这向科学家们表明
This indicates to scientists
在那一刻 一颗外行星
that an exoplanet can be
可以出现在恒星前面
in front of the star at that moment.
然而 这次超亮行星
However, the reduction in luminosity
Kelt-11的亮度降低地
of the super-bright Kelt-11
是如此的微不足道
turned out to be so insignificant that this time,
天文学家们无法立即用千度极小
astronomers could not immediately confirm the existence of the planet
望远镜来证实这颗行星的存在
using the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope,
这个望远镜由两个机械望远镜组成
which consists of two robotic telescopes,
一个在亚利桑那州 另一个在南非
one in Arizona and the other in South Africa.
作为一个整体望远镜
They work at the same time in unison
它们同时运转
as one whole telescope,
就像巨大的双筒望远镜一样 有地球那么大
like giant binoculars the size of the Earth.
宾夕法尼亚大学的天文学家说乔士华•佩柏说:
Astronomer Joshua Pepper of the University of Pennsylvania said,
“这个发现很具挑战性
“The discovery was very challenging.
对这颗恒星最初的kelt观测
The original Kelt observations of the star,
它的光曲线
its light curve, showed
仅仅暗示了通过的路线
only a hint of the transit,
略低于0.3%的亮度变化”
a little under 0.3% change in brightness.”
很难获得可靠 完整的观察确认
It was very difficult to obtain reliable, complete confirmation observations.
值得庆幸的是 新的观测证实了
Thankfully, new observations confirmed
神秘的外行星存在
the existence of the mysterious exoplanet.
科学家们正在想尽一切办法
Scientists are now trying in every possible way
弄清楚Kelt-11b的秘密
to figure out what the secret of Kelt-11B is.
为什么这颗行星如此膨胀 如此臃肿
Why is this planet so inflated, so bloated,
以及是什么造成它在其它系外行星上 有这么大的密度
and what generally causes such extreme density on other exoplanets?
研究人员还对这颗恒星进行了进一步研究
The researchers have also taken up further study of the star,
希望能更好地了解
hoping to better understand how such stellar bodies behave
恒星在生命周期结束时的行为
at the end of their life cycle.
当然 我已经迫不及待
And of course, I’m already eagerly
要知道这些最新研究的结果了
awaiting the results of these newest studies.
在此期间 我将为你们
In the meantime, I’ll go make a couple more
做一些更疯狂有趣的视频
insanely interesting episodes just for you.
谢谢大家的关注 再见 亲爱的朋友们
Thanks for your attention and see you soon, my dear friends.
如果你对接下来的视频有任何想法
If you have any ideas for future episodes,
请在下方评论
please leave them in the comments below.
视频将附上
The author of the best idea
最佳想法提供者的名字
will have their name presented in the video.
别忘了点赞哦
Don’t forget to put a thumbs-up,
万分感谢
with my sincere gratitude.

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视频概述

迄今为止发现的最奇特的星球

听录译者

日落蓝

翻译译者

李门牙😄

审核员

审核员V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Trly9KwWwIM

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