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奇奇怪怪的科学之不可能的汉堡 – 译学馆
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奇奇怪怪的科学之不可能的汉堡

The Strange Science of the Impossible Burger | WIRED

未来的食物长这样
The future of food looks like this.
这是一家名叫“不可能的食物”的公司开创的技术
It’s a new operation run by a company called Impossible Foods,
搅碎某物 让它们看上去 感觉上
that’s churning out something that looks, feels,
尝起来 闻起来都像搅碎的牛肉
tastes and smells like ground beef.
天 甚至像还在渗血的半熟汉堡
Hell, it even bleeds like a medium-rare burger.
但这块肉饼实际上是培养出来的
But this patty is actually all plant,
是基因工程的一款产品
a product of genetic engineering.
这是努力承接
It’s the first step in an effort to take on
数十亿计肉类工业的第一步
the multi-billion dollar meat industry.
你不会对这款牛排失望的
You won’t be disappointed at this steak meat.
未来食物——不可能的汉堡
Future Food-THE IMPOSSIBLE BURGER
传统汉堡的魔力难以言表
It’s hard to overstate the magic of a traditional burger.
包括它的口感 气味和肉质
The taste for one, but also the smell and texture.
这要感谢各种各样的蛋白质
That’s thanks to lots of different kinds of proteins,
最重要的是肌红蛋白 富含亚铁血红素
most importantly myoglobin, which contains something called heme,
这是你尝到铁味儿的原因
that’s the taste of iron you get.
当你烹饪一块肉时
When you’re cooking a piece of meat, what happens is
蛋白质携带着亚铁血红素 你肌肉里的肌红蛋白打开
the protein that’s carrying the heme, myoglobin in your muscle,
亚铁血红素就被释放出来了
opens up, the heme comes out,
催化一系列反应产生挥发性化合物
and catalyzes a bunch of reactions that create the volatile compounds
这就是香味和风味 让肉变得非常美味
that really give that smell, that flavor that makes meat so compelling.
传统素食汉堡不能完全接近那种味道
Your traditional veggie burger can’t get the taste anywhere near right,
因为它们没有那种亚铁血红素
because they ain’t got that heme.
但培养的肉类就可以像动物一样富含那种球蛋白分子
But plants contain globin molecules just like animals do.
对“不可能的食物”公司来说
Specifically of interest to Impossible Foods is
他们对大豆根特别感兴趣 因其富含豆血红蛋白
the root of the soy plant, which contains leghemoglobin.
它可以协助运输氧
This helps ferry oxygen around it.
也同样富含神奇的亚铁血红素
It also contains that magical heme.
为了生产足够的亚铁血红素
But the amount of soy roots these scientists would need,
科学家们所需的大豆根数量远远不够
in order to produce enough heme, would be outlandish.
我们想出了一个更有效的方法
A more efficient approach that we came up with
依靠酵母
was to engineer a yeast,
这样就可以生产大量的亚铁血红素
and have that produce a very high quantities of that heme.
公司发明了一台微小的亚铁血红素机器
What Impossible Foods has invented is a tiny heme machine.
而且是无肉的
And with meat-free heme,
这是人造牛肉汉堡的基础
it has the foundation of a stunning imitation of a beef burger.
来看看他们是怎么做到吧
So let’s find out how they do it.
这里是让我们明白肉的实质的地方
This is where we really try to understand what makes meat meat,
测试每一个关键参数
test each of the kind of key parameters.
公司在尝试先分离 再重造
Impossible is trying to isolate and then recreate
尽量多的肉类成分
as many meat-like components as they can.
他们就是依靠这台机器
And this machine is helping them do it.
我现在向你展示的是气相色谱质谱仪
So what I have in front of you is a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer.
我们用它来采集样本
What this does is allows for us to be able to take a sample,
比如一个牛肉样本 放在底部
so say a beef sample, put it in here.
然后移动样本
We’ll move this sample.
我们有一款良好的自动装置
We have a nice little robot.
携带样本去炉灶
They’ll take that sample and move it into a cooker.
然后我们就可以烹饪这些样本了
So then we could cook this sample
在任意我们想要的温度下
at whatever temperature we want to understand
生产出烹饪过程中的味道
what flavors are generated upon cooking.
这些气味也是肉类风味
So those aromas again is what creates the flavor of meat.
所以我们有牛肉中
So we will now have kind of a fingerprint
每一种气味的指纹
of every single aroma that is in beef.
然后我们可以看看“不可能的汉堡”有多接近
And then we can say how close is the Impossible Burger,
在这里我们可以通过改良和重复
where can we make improvements and iterate
来确认如何制作每一种独特的风味成分
to identify how to make each of those particular flavor compounds.
汉堡另一个重要的部分是
The other part that’s really important in
所有的组织成分都是肉
a burger that are all meats is the textural component.
肉的主要本质结构是什么
What are the things that are driving texture in meat?
是蛋白质 我们想表征这些独特的蛋白质
Those are proteins and we want to characterize those particular proteins.
随着我们确定了这些独特的蛋白质特性是什么
Then as we identify what those particular proteins properties are,
我们将从植物中培养这些蛋白质
we go and look at plants for plant proteins
它们会拥有相同的特性
that have those same properties.
在我身后 是我们的科学家之一米歇尔
And then behind me, I have Michelle who’s one of our scientists,
她负责提取每个蛋白质并描述出特征
who really takes each of those individual proteins and characterizes it,
了解它是否有弹性
understands is it stretchy,
它的抗拉强度是多少
how much tensile strength does it have,
它能保存多少水分
how much water does it hold.
通过描述每一个蛋白质的特征
And by characterizing each of those particular proteins,
我们知道了其在汉堡中如何起作用
we then understand how it will behave in our particular burger.
所以它们全部归为这些因素
So it all comes down to these ingredients,
包括亚铁血红素 小麦蛋白质结构
which include the heme, wheat protein for texture
和作为脂肪替代物的椰肉
and coconut as a stand-in for fat.
把它们全部加在一起 它们会越来越像一块牛肉饼
Add them all together and it starts to look more and more like a beef patty.
最后我们将得到一个令人心服口服的无肉汉堡
The result is a meatless burger that’s so convincing.
它可能跟肉一样好吃
It may as well be meat.
好了 非常令人惊叹
All right, pretty impressive.
我们甚至叫驻地厨师尝一下它的味道
We even asked our resident chef to give it a taste.
它太像真的了 中心层饱满多汁
So it’s really simulating that juicy center layer
你得到了一个美味的半熟汉堡
that you would get in a nice mid-rare burger.
还有 你可以从外面看到
So on, you can see on the outside,
肉饼外层呈金黄色
we’ve got that nice golden crust,
但中心还在渗血 呈半熟状态
but in the center, it’s still bloody and rare,
只不过呢 是植物造成的渗血
except this time it’s plants do the bleeding.
那我们来尝尝味道怎么样
So let’s see how it tastes.
不错 哇呜
Okay…Wow.
比我想象中好太多了
That is a lot better than I thought it would be.
哇呜
Wow.
那为什么一个素食汉堡需要带血呢
So why does a veggie burger need to bleed?
因为它并不是为素食者和绝对素食者设计的
Because this isn’t targeted to vegetarians and vegans,
而是为了吸引肉食者
it’s designed to convert meat-eaters.
挺好的 不错 真的
Okay, so it’s good. Sure.
但这个转基因食物安全吗
But is this engineered food safe?
有个问题是 当人们在食用大量大豆的时候
The thing is while humans eat plenty of soy,
他们通常不会食用根部
they don’t typically eat the roots
然而这里面富含豆血红蛋白
which is where you’d find this leghemoglobin.
所以这是食物供应中的一种新的组成成分
So this is a brand new ingredient in the food supply.
法律并没有规定该公司
Well, the company isn’t required by law
要向食品及药物管理局(FDA)报告新成分的使用情况
to report its use of a new ingredient to the FDA,
它在生产大豆血红蛋白上是自愿的
it did so voluntarily with soy leghemoglobin.
FDA查明“不可能的食物”公司还没有向机构提交
But the FDA determined that Impossible Foods had not yet presented
足够的证据确认其安全性
sufficient evidence for the agency to recognize it as safe.
然而 那不是说FDA已经确定大豆血红蛋白不安全
However that is not to say the FDA determined that leghemoglobin is unsafe.
公司表明已有专家确认
And Impossible Foods says it’s had experts confirmed
人造肉是理想的消费品
the meatless meat is perfectly fine to consume,
而且在大鼠饲养实验研究中并没有发现不良反应
and found no adverse effects in a rat feeding study.
它和我们一直以来消费的蛋白质具有结构相似性
It is structurally similar to proteins that we consume all the time.
但批评人士说FDA的反对意见希望未来对“不可能的汉堡”进行测验
But critics say the FDA’s objections want further testing of the Impossible Burger.
同时 公司将生产规模
In the meantime, the company is scaling its production
从每月30万磅扩大到每月100万磅
from 300,000 to 1 million pounds a month.
终有一天 肉类生产效率低下
At the end of the day, meat production is flat-out inefficient.
而且随着人口的膨胀
And as our population expands,
我们需要越来越多的可持续性食物来满足需求
we’re going to need more sustainable foods to meet the demand.
所以“不可能的汉堡”只是
So the Impossible Burger is just the beginning
一种高科技食物的开始
of a new breed of high-tech eats.
知道他们怎么说吗 “不流血 无创新”
And you know what they say, “If it bleeds, it leads”.

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视频概述

看起来像肉,闻起来像肉,尝起来也像肉的无肉汉堡!

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

阿明amingyo

审核员

审核员 NA

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nIiLqNQOgPA

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