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烟草的奇怪历史 – 译学馆
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烟草的奇怪历史

The Strange History of Tobacco

今天 差不多所有你认识的人
Today nearly everyone you know
都会警告你吸烟的危害
will warn you about the dangers of smoking.
然而 尽管政府 激进组织以及医疗机构尽了他们最大的努力
However, despite the best efforts of governments, activist groups, and the medical profession,
仍有大约四千二百万美国人 经常性地抽烟
about 42 million Americans smoke regularly.
为什么有些东西明明对你有害却仍然大受欢迎呢
How is it that something so bad for you is still so popular?
烟草的历史要追溯到几千年以前
Tobacco has a history going back thousands of years,
而抽烟的危害并非一直都为人所知
and the dangers of smoking were not always known.
最先使用烟草的记载 是在公元600年
The first use of tobacco is recorded as far back as 600 AD.
烟草的产地是美国
The plant is native to the Americas,
起初本地人种植烟草用作各种用途
and was first cultivated by the natives for various uses.
通常 他们种植烟草并非为了消遣
Often they did not use tobacco recreational,
而是为了宗教和社会仪式
but for religious and social rituals.
使用剂量过大 烟草就会变成迷幻剂
In large doses, tobacco can be a hallucinogen,
被神秘主义者用于制造幻觉
used by mystics to induce visions.
今天 我们应该说 有些东西像香烟一样是美国的
Today, we should say something is as American as cigarettes.
苹果派并不诞生于美国
Apple pie isn’t particularly American,
并且美国是世界第二大烟草生产国
and the US is the world’s second largest producer of tobacco.
居住在美国的第一批英国殖民者来此寻找黄金
Some of the first English colonists in America came searching for gold.
不久后发现弗吉尼亚州并没有黄金时
When they quickly learned that Virginia doesn’t have any gold,
他们转向生产烟草来获得利润
they turned to tobacco growing to make the profits.
而且这一做法十分有效
And it worked too!
还有什么比让人上瘾的产品更好的呢
What’s better than a product that people get literally addicted to?
烟草是一种奇特的农作物
Tobacco is an odd crop.
它只有在特定的密度下才能生长
It can grow only at a certain density
因此 种植越多的烟草 就需要更多的土地
and so more land would always be needed to grow more tobacco.
同时 烟草使其他植物没法生存
It also doesn’t mix well with other plants
并且也破坏了它生长所需的土壤
and destroys the soil it grows upon
烟草的生产是一个劳动密集型的过程
The whole growing process is very labour intensive,
所以 弗吉尼亚的种植园主要么欺骗他们的英国同伴
and so Virginia plantation owners needed to either trick their fellow Britons,
要么绑架美国人作为奴隶 以保持烟草产量的稳步上升
or kidnap Africans as slaves in order to keep production up.
这也就说得通了 为什么类似托马斯•杰弗逊之类的开国元勋
It makes sense then why the founding fathers like Thomas Jefferson
用“拥有土地 并有奴隶劳作”来定义美国梦了
defined the American dream by owning land and working it with slaves.
烟草并没有得到广泛的喜爱
tobacco didn’t enjoy unanimous love.
英国的第一任国王詹姆斯就特别讨厌烟草
King James the First of England in particular despised Tobacco,
并且出版了一整篇论文来阐述烟草是如何的令人恶心
and published an entire treatise about how disgusting it was.
时间再近一些 你或许知道纳粹的反吸烟运动
More recently, you might know about the anti-smoking campaigns of the Nazis.
德国人首次发现癌症与吸烟有关
The Germans were some of the first to figure out the link between cancer and smoking,
而且德国的独裁政府对这一发现 反应十分强烈
and the response from the authoritarian government was very strong.
为了保护纯种德国人的生殖健康
With the intent of maintaining the reproductive health of the pure German people,
纳粹党禁止人们在许多公共场所吸烟
the Nazis banned smoking from many public places,
他们组织大型教育活动
ran large education campaigns
甚至限制其军队的烟草供应量
and even limited tobacco rations to their soldiers.
就像任何与纳粹有关的政策一样
Like anything associated with Nazi policy,
反对吸烟的措施在几十年里 对世界产生了长久的消极影响
anti-smoking measures had a sour taste in the world’s mouth for a number of decades.
实际上就在最近
It is actually rather recently
吸烟才被完全地贴上了不健康的标签
that smoking was definitively labelled as unhealthy.
一项由医学研究委员会于1949年发表的关于肺癌患者的研究
A study by the Medical Research Council of lung cancer patients in 1949
证实十年来吸烟与肺癌之间高度相关的证据
confirmed a decade of building evidence that smoking and lung cancer were highly correlated.
在1951年到1954年间
Between 1951 and 1954,
他们调查了全世界大约60000名医生
they surveyed almost 60,000 doctors from around the world.
到1956年 科学是毋庸置疑的
By 1956, the science was incontrovertible.
然而 这并不会成为吸烟的结局
This would not be the end of smoking however.
任何看过《广告狂人》第一集的人
Anyone who has seen the first episode of Mad Men
都会知道 香烟制造商为了使人们能更长时间的抽烟
will know that cigarette manufacturers went to long lengths
而做出了多大的努力
to get people smoking as long as possible.
这涉及传播误导信息 发布广告
This involved misinformation campaigns, advertising,
以及游说政府官员 让他们干涉“吸烟危害健康”的信息的传播
and lobbying of government agencies to meddle the information about the health hazards of smoking.
尽管有压倒性的证据证明吸烟有害健康
Despite overwhelming evidence,
但是在美国大约十年的时间里
for nearly a decade in the US,
关于吸烟是否有害健康的问题 根本没有卫生局官方回应
there was no official word from the Surgeon General about this topic.
在1964年 卫生局发布了第一条吸烟有害的警告
In 1964, the first Surgeon General’s warning on the dangers of smoking came out to the public,
并且最近50年也不利于烟草的种植
and the last fifty years have not been good for the plant.
在全世界
Around the world,
吸烟有害的宣传活动
awareness campaigns,
对吸烟的限制
restrictions of smoking,
以及西方真正共识的建立
and true consensus building
对吸烟者造成了打击
have hurt smoking ’ s numbers in the west.
很多人认为 这是改变人们行为习惯方面最成功的运动之一
Many consider it one of the most successful campaigns to change behavior in a population.
虽然在这场运动中 有一些我们必须克服的缺陷
This campaign has had a couple drawbacks we must contend with.
但是西方的吸烟人数确实下降了
While smoking has decreased in the west,
那些插手烟草管制政策信息的公司
the same companies that meddled with the information in the politics of tobacco restrictions here,
同样出现在亚洲一些新兴的经济体中
are at it again in the growing economies in Asia.
在中国和印度尼西亚 吸烟率高得吓人
China and Indonesia have staggering smoking rates,
他们正试图用这种方式在那些国家保持吸烟率高的状况
and they’re trying to keep it that way in those countries.
我们也转向指责吸烟者对烟草的成瘾
We also have turned to blaming the smoker for their addiction.
吸烟者是药物的瘾君子
Smokers are addicts to a drug
他们很难将烟草戒掉
that is notoriously hard to quit,
并且需要人们的关爱和支持才能戒掉吸烟
and need your love and support to get them to stop.
在研究经费的抗争中
In the fight for research money,
用于研究治疗肺癌的研究经费低到令人沮丧的地步
this translates to depressingly low amounts of funding for research to treat lung cancer.
放到今天来说
To bring it to today,
我们需要谨慎对待政治领域的科学争论
we need to be careful about scientific debates in political realms.
当不同的政治团体对科学领域的一些问题争执不休时
When different political parties are arguing over something in the realm of science,
这往往意味着这一问题涉及大量的金钱
it likely means that a lot of money,
经济利益在其中起到很重要的作用
and economic interests are playing a role.
你自己应该谨慎地识别信息
Check out the information for yourself.
这一视频是否让你重新审视了烟草或吸烟呢
Does this make you think of tobacco or smoking differently?
在下方的评论区告诉我吧
Let me know down below!
请在Twitter和Facebook上与我联系
Connect with me on Twitter and Facebook all down in the description.
如果你喜欢这个视频 分享它吧
If you liked this video, share it with someone.
点个赞也没有什么坏处
Thumbs up don’t hurt either.
如果你想了解更多与历史有关的炫酷视频
If you want more cool history videos,
请返回后订阅这个频道吧
subscribe to the step back channel.

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视频概述

烟草的起源、发展你知道多少呢?人们对烟草的态度转变,烟草背后涉及的大量利益纠葛,本视频带你一一揭晓。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-wBkOcgprzs

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