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刚果河下游的神奇盲鱼

The Strange Blind Fish of the Lower Congo River

Thanks to Brilliant for supporting this episode of SciShow.
感谢Brilliant对本期《科学秀》的支持
Go to Brilliant.org/SciShow to learn more.
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《科学秀》
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事实速览
The Congo River is one of the largest rivers in the world,
刚果河是世界上最大的河流之一
stretching thousands of kilometers across Africa.
绵延数千公里 横跨非洲大陆
And the last three hundred kilometer stretch of the river,
最后三百公里的河段
referred to as the lower Congo River,
被称为刚果河下游段
empties into the Atlantic ocean in an incredibly dramatic way
以汹涌澎湃之势注入大西洋
— turbulent and treacherous rapids. And it’s deep, too.
急流激荡 水深莫测 凶险异常
But inhospitable as it may seem,
尽管看起来条件恶劣
over three hundred species of fish
却有超过三百种鱼类
are thriving in the lower Congo River,
在刚果河下游生长繁衍
and many are found nowhere else on Earth,
很多种类都是地球上别处见不到的
including some that are… frankly bizarre.
也包括一些 可以说很怪异的鱼类
For these fish, in a sense,
对这些鱼类来说
the lower Congo isn’t one river.
刚果河下游段已不只是一条河
Its a bunch of isolated habitats.
而是一片独立的栖息地
Incredibly powerful rapids separated by stretches of calm water
平静水面之间的强大的湍流
have kept fish populations apart long enough
把鱼群长时间分隔在不同的水域
that they can’t breed with one another.
足以使其不能相互交配
This isolation causes new species to evolve side by side,
隔离使新物种在相邻区域分别进化
a process called allopatric speciation.
这个过程叫“异地物种形成”
Normally it’s caused by much larger barriers,
这通常是由更大的地形阻隔产生
like, a mountain range, but in the lower Congo,
比如山脉 但在刚果河下游
some of these populations are only separated by a kilometer or so.
有些分隔的鱼群仅相距约1公里
And this isolation is happening in 3D.
这种隔离也发生在三维的层面
The Congo is the deepest river in the world,
刚果河是世界上最深的河流
measured at well over two hundred meters in places.
部分水域深度超过200米
That’s roughly equivalent to a sixty-story building.
约相当于60层楼的高度
And researchers have discovered one fish species
研究人员发现了一种鱼
that is seemingly so isolated from the surface,
似乎远离水面
in deep underwater canyons,
生长在深水峡谷之中
that it’s led to some extreme adaptations.
这使它进化出一些极端的适应特征
There’s a species of cichlid
有一种慈鲷
that unlike its colorful aquarium cousins,
与它们在水族馆中五彩的表亲们不同
shares characteristics with fish found in caves.
却与洞穴中发现的鱼有相同的特征
For one thing, they have no pigment.
首先 它们的身体不含色素
Delightfully, the local fisherman refer to these weird pale fish
有趣的是当地渔民把这种奇怪的淡色鱼
as mondeli bureau,
称为“mondeli bureau”
which translates to write man in an office weight like me
翻译后是“坐办公室的白人”正像我一样
And their eyes are basically nonfunctional
它们的眼睛基本没有功能
— underdeveloped and covered in skin.
发育不全 覆盖着皮肤
And when they come to the surface,
当慈鲷浮出水面时
these cichlids rapidly die of decompression sickness.
它们很快会死于减压病
But it’s not just cichlids that are blind,
但在刚果河下游
white, and weird looking in the lower Congo.
这类眼盲的白色怪鱼并不止慈鲷一种
This river is also a perfect place to study convergent evolution.
这条河也是研究趋同进化的理想之地
That refers to the way species
趋同进化是指
that aren’t closely related can evolve very similar adaptations
亲缘关系较远的物种 因生存的环境相似
because of the conditions they’re in.
而进化出了相似的适应特征
Pale, blind species of distantly related fish have been found in the river,
这条河中 发现了亲缘关系较远的淡色盲鱼
including the cichlid, along with elephantfish,
其中包括慈鲷 象鱼
members of different catfish families,
分属鲇鱼的不同科
and spiny eels.
还有棘鳗
We’re talking so distantly related,
我们说的是非常远的亲缘关系
they’re as genetically distinct as armadillos are from blue whales.
它们基因上的差别 就像犰狳和蓝鲸一样
These characteristics developing in caves make a lot of sense.
洞穴鱼类进化出此类特征是很有道理的
They are pretty dark, after all.
毕竟洞穴里黑暗无光
But aside from the cichlid,
但是除慈鲷之外
these other cave-like fish are found alive,
这些喜洞穴鱼类被发现时都是活的
which means they don’t have the same deepwater adaptations,
这意味着它们没有同样的深水适应特征
and are likely living somewhere a lot shallower.
可能生活在较浅的水域
Discovering these species tells us
这些物种的发现告诉我们
that there are likely other low-light microhabitats in the river
这条河中 可能有其他微光环境的小栖息地
– and that they’re stable and isolated enough
其环境足够独立而稳定
to drive the evolution of low light-adapted species.
以促进适应微光环境物种的进化
But while the strange fish that live in the lower Congo River
尽管生活在刚果河下游的怪鱼
can tell us a lot about
可以提供很多关于
how the river’s conditions are driving evolution,
河流环境是如何推进物种进化的线索
it’s such a dangerous place for humans that
但由于这里的环境对人类太过凶险
there’s still a lot we don’t know.
还有很多东西我们并不知道
Like, where exactly are these other fish living?
比如 这些鱼确切的栖息地
We’re really just starting to piece together a bigger picture
对于那里正在发生的情况
of what’s going on there.
我们只是刚开始拼凑出一张大图景
Hydrologists, geologists, and ichthyologists
水文学家 地质学家和鱼类学家
are working together to better understand
正在共同努力 以更好地了解
the unique biodiversity, geology and hydrology of the river,
该河独特的生物多样性 地质和水文特征
And there are still tons of questions to answer.
还有很多问题需要解答
Like, what genes are driving the evolution
比如 是什么基因的驱动
of these cave fish characteristics?
进化出了这些洞穴鱼特征
It could be the same ones each time —
可能每次都是相同的基因
or totally different ones producing similar outcomes.
或完全不同的基因造成了相同的结果
So while we don’t know yet,
虽然还没有定论
these researchers are working hard to find out.
但研究人员正在努力寻找答案
This research is super collaborative —
这项研究是需要密切协作的
the product of lots of researchers from multiple institutions working together.
是多机构的大量研究人员们共同努力的结果
So it’s a good thing great scientists think alike.
优秀的科学家们能达成共识是一件好事
You, too, can learn the language of science with Brilliant’s
您也可以通过Brilliant的关于科学思维的
in-depth course on scientific thinking.
深度课程来学习科学的语言
It’s a course that uses various problems to give you an intuitive feel
这门课程运用各种问题 让你对物理定律
for the laws of physics and the principles of engineering.
和工程原理有一个直观的感受
Brilliant offers loads of courses
Brilliant提供了大量的课程
to help you hone your STEM skills
来帮助你训练STEM技能
— from math to computer science to engineering.
从数学到计算机科学 再到工程学
Each one has interactive elements to help you learn.
每个课程都有互动环节来帮助你学习
Right now, you can save 20% on an annual premium subscription
现在 如果你是首批注册的200人之一
if you’re one of the first 200 people to sign up at Brilliant.org/SciShow.
可以节省20%的高级订阅年费
So you can head over there and keep learning!
希望你可以去那里继续学习

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视频概述

刚果河下游河段水深浪急,平静的水面被急流分隔成独立的栖息空间,进化出各种奇怪的鱼类。尤其在深水的微光环境中进化出各类淡色的无眼盲鱼,引起了科学家的研究兴趣。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

melan

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4av7R7Qgb4

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