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四个非凡发明背后的故事 – 译学馆
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四个非凡发明背后的故事

The Stories Behind Four Extraordinary Inventions

GREAT BIG STORY
伟大的故事
Strap on your thinking cap …
开动脑筋
… and get ready to explore …
准备去探索
… the who, what, how and why …
这些重要发明的缘由
… of important inventions.
及其背后的故事
This is the IBM Personal Computer.
这是一台IBM个人电脑
It was the most advanced computing machine ever created.
它曾是当时最先进的计算机
However, this isn’t a story about a computer,
然而 这并不是一个关于计算机的故事
but a story about when a computer stops working,
而是关于有人创造了一种方法
and the man who created a way to start it all over,
可以在计算机宕机时重启的故事
the man who invented Ctrl-Alt-Del.
正是他发明了Ctrl+Alt+Del
THE THREE-FINGER SALUTE
向他致敬
Let’s get into it.
让我们开始吧
Hi, I’m Dr. Dave Bradley,
你好 我是Dave Bradley博士
but you can call me Dr. Dave.
可以叫我Dave博士
Back in 1980, I worked on the IBM Personal Computer.
1980年 我在IBM电脑公司工作
My particular job on the IBM PC was writing the basic input/output system.
我负责为IBM电脑编写基本的输入/输出系统
Even with an elite team of engineers and designers,
即使拥有一支由工程师和设计师组成的精英团队
not everything goes smoothly when you’re building a computer.
也不能确保制造计算机的过程中一切顺利
We had programs that ran most of the time.
我们大多数时间都在运行程序
But when they failed,
但是当程序崩溃时
the only way to reset the system was turn the power off,
重启系统的唯一方法只有关闭电源
wait a while, turn the power back on.
等一会 再重新接上电源
And it would go through a very long self-test.
然后进行时间很长的开机自检
But the system might die every 5 to 10 minutes.
但是系统可能每5至10分钟就崩溃一次
What he needed was a way to shortcut the restart process.
所以需要一个缩短重启过程方法
One of the things we discussed was putting a reset button on it.
我们讨论出的方法之一是安装一个重启按钮
But if you put it on the system board,
但如果在主机板上安装
there was a chance that you could hit it by mistake,
就会有误按的可能
and all your data gets lost.
这样所有的数据都会丢失
So what we did was came up with a three-key sequence,
所以我们想出了三个组合键
that would reset the computer and you couldn’t hit by mistake.
既可以重启电脑又不会错按
A single Ctrl key, a single Alt key
Ctrl键 Alt键
and than all the way over at the right hand side, a single Del key.
最后按下右手边的Del键就都解决了
When you hit that Ctrl-Alt-Del,
当你按下Ctrl-Alt-Del后
you’re deleting everything that you’re working on right now and starting new.
你将删除当前正在处理的所有内容并重新开始
I was also able to skip over many of the tests,
这样做能够跳过许多测试
so instead of taking a minute or two, it was 10 or 15 seconds.
重启就只需要10-15秒而不是1-2分钟
But it wasn’t the big deal at that time.
可这在当时并不是件大事
It was like number 17 on a list of hundred different things I had to fix.
就像数百个待修复问题清单上的第17个
Even though it was built only as a development tool,
尽管它只是作为开发工具而构建的
programmers began incorporating the feature into their applications.
但程序员们开始将该特点体现在他们的应用程序上
From there, it was released into the wild,
这之后 它被投放到市场
but didn’t immediately reach pop culture status.
但一开始并没有成为主流
For years, it was no big deal.
多年来 都不受重视
And then at the 20th anniversary of the IBM PC,
后来在IBM公司成立20周年时
that’s when Ctrl-Alt-Del became sort of a cultural icon.
Ctrl-Alt-Del成为了一种文化符号
It was the simplest and easiest way to fix your problem.
这是解决问题最最简单的方法
Hit Ctrl-Alt-Del, start all over.
按下Ctrl-Alt-Del 重新启动
Despite all this, Dr. Dave doesn’t think much of this contribution to computing history.
尽管如此 Dave博士认为这对计算机历史的贡献不大
I get lots of things with IBM,
我在IBM公司做了很多东西
but all everybody remember is Ctrl-Alt-Del.
但大家只记得Ctrl-Alt-Del
But I’ll take that.
我接受这个事实
The fame of Ctrl-Alt-Del means that
Ctrl-Alt-Del声名远扬
I worked on a very successful product.
意味着我做了一件成功的产品
And I’m very proud of having been able to do that.
我为能够做到这一点感到非常自豪
伟大的故事
Ever toiled over a Rubik’s Cube?
你曾费力破解过魔方吗?
Thank this guy.
感谢那个发明魔方的家伙吧
There are 43 quintillion possible combinations.
魔方有43亿种可能的组合
Now imagine you have no websites, no books
想象一下 如果没有网站 没有书籍
and no one to show you how to solve it,
也没有人告诉你如何破解
because you invented it.
因为这是你发明的
魔方之父 造就神话
But you didn’t invent the Rubik’s Cube,
幸而发明魔方的人不是你
this guy did.
而是这个人
My name is Erno Rubik.
我是厄尔诺·鲁比克
I was born here in this beautiful city of Budapest.
我出生在布达佩斯这个美丽的城市
It was 1974, 30-year-old Erno Rubik was just beginning his career in academia.
1974年 30岁的厄尔诺·鲁比克刚刚开始他的学术生涯
I was lecturing design and architecture.
我讲授架构设计
I was very similar in age with the students.
我和学生们年龄相仿
I was very ambitious to find new ways to teach them,
我信心满满想要找到新的教学方法
especially about space and three-dimension[s].
尤其是空间与三维这部分
I made a cube as a teaching aid,
我做了一个立方体来辅助教学
and for myself, to learn something from it.
我也从中受益良多
Once the physical cube was put together,
有一次立方体被放在了一起
Erno began hunting for its secrets.
厄尔诺开始探寻其中的奥秘
The question was not, “[Is it] possible to solve it?”
问题并非是“有没有可能破解?”
But, The question was,
相反 问题是
“[Is it] possible to find a method to do that?”
“有可能找到一种方法来破解吗?”
There are 26 small cubes.
26个小立方体
It looks the same,
看起来相同
but in the structure of the cube, they have different rules.
但在魔方的结构中 有不同的规则
Erno racked his brain for a strategy,
厄尔诺绞尽脑汁想制定出一个解决方案
twisting and turning the cube in his hands
他在手中来回旋转扭动这个立方体
and his head to unlock his creation.
突然灵光一闪
After I started to understand the nature of the structure and the movements,
在我开始明白其中的结构和运行规律后
I found the way for a solution, it’s not a straight way.
我找到了破解方法 不是一种直接的方式
And after a month, he cracked the code.
一个月后 他破解了魔方
But the story doesn’t end there.
但是故事到这里并没有结束
I had the feeling [of] the potential of the object.
我感觉到了魔方的潜在价值
I found it very simple to manufacture,
制作魔方很容易
and the result of that, it can be an object, which is available for everyone.
既然如此 它可以供所有人使用
In 1980, Erno would finally bring his cube to the world.
1980年 厄尔诺把他的魔方推向世界
And from there, it took off,
在那之后 它大受欢迎
becoming one of the best selling toys of all time
成为有史以来最畅销的玩具之一
Because of the content of the cube, the world discovered it’s not a gadget.
魔方的内在让世界发现它不仅是一个玩具
It’s something that is more valuable, [has] more long life.
而是更有价值 更耐用的东西
And after almost 40 years,
在那之后近四十年
Rubik’s Cube has seen a comeback,
魔方再度流行
with hundreds of competitions every year across the world.
每年全世界都有数百场相关的比赛
For Erno, the cube that bears his name is more than just a toy.
对于厄尔诺来说 以他名字命名的魔方不仅是玩具
It’s a reminder to never give up.
而是一个永不言弃的暗示
There is always a way for a solution.
事情总会有解决办法
There’s always a way to find something else,
总有方法可以找到其他的
something new, something different, or find the result of you work.
与众不同的新东西 或是你问题的答案
If today is not everything is good,
即使今天诸事不顺
it doesn’t mean tomorrow cannot be better.
明天未必不能柳暗花明
Depends on you.
这都取决于你
伟大的故事
He’s dapper, 91 years young and holds over 3,500 patents.
他精明能干 91岁高龄 拥有超过3500项专利
Take that, Thomas Edison!
接招吧 托马斯·爱迪生
There is a wise old Japanese saying,
在日本有一句老话
“The nail that sticks out, gets hammered down”.
“木秀于林 风必摧之”
Well, down in Tokyo, there’s one nail that sticks out,
在东京就有这么一个人独秀于林
just about as far as you can imagine,
正如你所想象的那样
an inventor known across the country,
他是全国知名的发明家
a mad genius with a staggering number of patents.
一个疯狂的天才 拥有的专利数量惊人
I have over 3,572.
我有超过3572种发明
Three times more than Thomas Alva Edison!
是托马斯·阿尔瓦·爱迪生的三倍
That includes a wig for self-defense.
他的发明也包括他头上的自卫假发
Meet Yoshiro Nakamatsu.
让我们来认识一下中松义郎
You may notice his name is spelled NakaMats.
你可能注意到他的名字被拼成NakaMats
He dropped the letter U,
去掉了字母U
because he says an eight-letter name is easier to remember.
因为他认为八个字母的名字更好记
But he still wants you to pronounce it Dr. Nakamatsu.
但是他仍希望你称呼他为中松博士
You got it, Dr.
好的 博士
Dr. Nakamatsu’s quantity inventions brought him worldwide recognition.
中松博士众多的发明使他享誉全球
Inventions like the PyonPyon boots
比如他发明的弹簧鞋
with springs that put an extra bounce in your step.
脚底的弹簧使脚步更加轻快
There’s Dr. Nakamatsu’s Cerebrex.
这是中松博士的大脑智能椅
It looks like a lazy boy,
它看起来慵懒舒适
but the Dr. says the dark thing enhances brain power.
但博士说黑暗可以增强脑力
Then there’s the gold golf putter
还有一款金色的高尔夫推杆
that pings when you strike the ball.
在你击球时会发出呯的一声
Oh, would you look at that?
噢 你看到了吗?
You know you’ve made it when the streets are named after you.
当街道以你名字命名时 你就成功了
But make no mistake,
但是不要误会
Dr. Nakamatsu’s inventions aren’t all noisy golf clubs and bouncy shoes.
中松博士的发明不仅限于有声高尔夫球杆和弹簧鞋
He claims to have invented the floppy disk.
他说他发明了软盘
That’s right, that floppy disc.
没错 就是这种软式磁盘
Retractable landing gear,
飞机的伸缩式起落架
a widely used kerosene pump,
被广泛使用的煤油泵
and even the digital watch.
还有电子手表
To maintain his hyper-creativity,
为了保持超高的创造力
Dr. Nakamatsu keeps his mind and body in shape.
他总是让大脑和身体处于最佳状态
The lightweight inventor Thomas Edison said,
“小”发明家爱迪生说过
“Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration.”
“天才是1%的灵感加99%的汗水”
Is that your secret, Dr. Nakamatsu?
这是你的诀窍吗 中松博士?
No. The secret is “Ikispiration.”
不 我的诀窍是“灵感”
In order to creat many inventions, I have many different processes.
为了创造更多的发明 我有各种方法
What do I mean by this? I change my environment.
我所指的是 我改变了我周围的环境
I have the “sei” room, which is a “static” or “chill” room.
我有一间“禅房” 那是一个独立安静的房间
All the walls are gold.
所有的墙都是黄金砌的
That’s because gold blocks all TV and wireless frequencies completely.
这是因为黄金可以阻挡所有的无线电波和电视信号
“Dou” room–it means “movement” room.
“働屋”是指活动屋
I always listen to the 3rd movement of Beethoven’s 5th symphony
当我在活动屋完善我的发明时
when I am in the dynamic room finishing my inventions.
我经常听贝多芬第五交响曲的第三乐章
But sometimes, even that is not enough.
但是有时 那也是不够的
I have a secret method. No one else in the world uses it.
我有一个世上从没有人使用过的秘密方法
The technique is to go underwater.
那就是潜入水下
When underwater, the brain becomes deprived of oxygen.
在水下时 大脑会缺氧
I invented a waterproof notepad, which can be written on underwater.
我发明了一个可以在水下写字的防水笔记本
I go underwater, and when I have an idea, I can write it down.
在水下 每当有灵感时我都可以写下来
Unless I push myself to 0.05 seconds before death, the invention won’t come.
我只有在窒息而亡前的0.05秒 灵感才会迸发
It’s a choice between invention or death.
这是一个发明与死亡之间的抉择
Which one will it be?
究竟如何选择呢?
The ultimate form of generating ideas.
这是产生想法的极端方式
I feel ill with a very difficult and rare type of cancer.
因为这种罕见的癌症 我的身体大不如前
I thanked the heavens.
我感谢上天
Dr. Nakamatsu saw the cancer as an opportunity.
中松博士把癌症看作机遇
It was his greatest challenge to invent his way out of an impossible corner.
设法摆脱困境是他面对最大挑战
He developed his own personal cancer treatment.
他开发了他的个人癌症治疗法
This includes a meticulously documented diet,
包括精确的饮食方案
and a new invention to fight the cancer, he calls the “Gangan Robot”.
和一个他称为Gangan机器人的抗癌新发明
The doctors gave him one year to live. That was five years ago.
五年前 医生说他还可以再活一年
Even though I am 91 years old, I would never consider myself an old person.
虽然我91岁了 但我从不认为自己是一个老年人
I am young, and I am happy.
我还年轻 我很幸福
Perhaps when I turn 143 years old,
也许等我到了143岁时
I might worry about dying soon.
可能才担心快死了
I will invent untill the day I die
我会一直发明直到最后一刻
because I want to make people happy.
因为我想让人们更幸福
That’s what makes me happy.
这也是我快乐的原因
Let’s take this outside and meet the scientist …
让我们看看下一个科学家
… behind the Super Soaker.
超级水枪背后的故事
There’s this amazing picture of my coworker.
这就是我同事那张照片
It’s him reading a Ninja Turtles book,
他正在看忍者神龟的书
lying next to a Super Soaker.
旁边是超级水枪
When the Super Soaker came out,
超级水枪发明出来的时候
it was a game changer.
打破了传统游戏格局
The slogan “Wetter Is Better!”
“越湿越好”的口号
was essentially a mantra for kids during summer break.
基本上成为了暑期期间孩子们的口头禅
So when I went to Atlanta to interview the guy responsible for all that,
所以我去了亚特兰大采访了这位发明者
I had to show him the photo.
我给他看了这张图片
THE SCIENTIST WHO INVENTED THE SUPERSOAKER
发明超级水枪的科学家
That’s funny.
这太有趣了
Lonnie Johnson invented the Super Soaker back in 1982.
罗尼·约翰逊在1982年发明了超级水枪
But that is not his only invention.
但那不是他唯一的发明
I have over 100 patents.
我有100多项专利
Everything from the Nerf gun to a thermoelectric energy converter.
从NERF枪到热电能交流器
He also worked on NASA’s Galileo mission to Jupiter and alongside the US military.
他还在NASA与美军研究伽利略号木星探测器
The first Super Soaker actually I made in my shop in my basement,
实际上 首个超级水枪是我下班回家以后
in the evenings when I would come home from work.
在地下室的工作间里做出来的
And at the time, I was actually working with a stealth bomber program,
那时 我其实在做一个隐形轰炸机项目
back when it was highly classified.
在当时属于高度机密
And I actually couldn’t even tell my wife what I was working on during the daytime.
我甚至不能告诉我妻子我白天在做什么
It was that top-secret.
这是高度机密
The original name for the Super Soaker was the Drencher.
超级水枪最初叫Drencher
We ran into a challenge regarding the name
我们在命名时就遇到了挑战
because another inventor claimed that.
因为另一位发明家执意如此
So we changed the name the Super Soaker,
所以我们把名字改成了超级水枪
just to avoid having to deal with that.
就是为了避免矛盾
Super Soaker is definitely a way better name.
超级水枪显然是个更好的名字
When he started, Lonnie wasn’t trying to create a toy for kids.
最开始罗尼并没有想发明一款孩子的玩具
I was working on a new type of heat pump
我当时想制做一款新型蒸汽泵
that would use water as a working fluid instead of Freon.
可以用水取代氟利昂作为工作液体
And I was experimenting with signals that I had machined.
用我自己加工的机器实验了很多次
And I shot a stream of water across the bathroom,
我在浴室喷射出一股水流
and I thought, geeze, maybe I should put this hard science stuff aside,
然后我想 天啊 也许应该把自然科学放一边
and work on something fun like a water gun.
做一些有意思的东西 比如水枪
This still works.
这还能用
And this brings me back to a previous point–
这就回到了我们之前说的
Lonnie Johnson is a super genius scientist.
罗尼·约翰逊是一位卓越的天才科学家
This is his lab,
这是他的实验室
and this is what he’s working on now.
这就是他目前正在研究的
Yeah, right now, I’m working on advanced battery technology.
对 我正在研究先进电池技术
My goal is to develop a battery
我的目标是发明一种电池
that will store about three times the energy of a lithium-ion battery.
可以储存锂电池三倍的能量
In comparison, the Super Soaker might not seem as hard science,
对比来看 超级水枪也许不能被视为自然科学
but it was still a really really important invention.
但这也仍然是一个非常重要的发明

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视频概述

Ctrl-Alt-Del,魔方,软盘,超级水枪都是生活中熟知的东西,可你知道在这些发明背后的故事吗?

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

我叫豆豆飞

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MytVSb08cxA

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