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美国枪支暴力现状的18项指标

The state of gun violence in the US, explained in 18 charts

“剧场内请求支援 大量民众受伤”
“We need rescue inside the auditorium. Multiple victims.”
美国存在枪支暴力问题
The United States has a problem with gun violence.
布什:我们会牢记死难者
BUSH: We hold the victims in our hearts.
克林顿:我们可能从未真正了解过枪击案
CLINTON: Perhaps we may never fully understand it.
“一名持半自动枪的男子”
“A man with a semiautomatic weapon.”
民众枪击事件发生后 我们总会讨论这个问题
We talk about it after mass shootings.
但它比那些所讨论的内容
But it’s much larger,
更加严重 也更加复杂
and more complicated than those debates allow.
以下就是你所需要知道的
Here’s what you need to know about
有关美国枪支暴力的现状
the state of gun violence in America.
相对其他发达国家而言
It’s true that the US sees many more mass shootings
美国确实经历了更多的民众枪击事件
than these other developed countries.
2000年到2014年间
Between 2000 and 2014,
在人群密集的公共区域内发生的民众枪击事件就达到133起
there were 133 mass shootings in public, populated places.
而这还不包括帮派暴力与恐怖主义活动
That’s excluding gang violence and terrorism.
的确 美国是个体量更大的国家
Of course, the US is a much larger country
但即使你对人口规模进行调整
but if you adjust for population size,
它的排名依然很高
it still ranks higher.
所有这些国家中 芬兰位居第二
Of these countries, Finland is next
14年来仅发生了两起枪击案
with just 2 shootings over 14 years,
但它的人口却少得多
but a much, much smaller population.
这种悲剧在美国似乎成了家常便饭
And this type of tragedy seems to be happening more often in the US.
每个方块代表了一场死亡人数达到4人及以上的公共民众枪击事件
Each of these squares represents a public mass shooting with 4 or more fatalities.
2011年以前 这类事件平均每6个月发生一次
Before 2011, they happened 6 months apart on average
但从那时起 这类事件每2个月就会发生一次
but since then, only 2 months go by between them.
奥巴马:我衷心祈祷 在我的任期内
OBAMA: I hope and pray that I don’t have to come out
不用再次出面
again during my tenure as president
向受害家庭表示慰问
to offer my condolences to families in these circumstances.
那是2015年10月1日
That was October 1, 2015.
而仅仅2个月之后
And just about 2 months later,
奥巴马:昨天 悲剧降临在圣贝纳迪诺
OBAMA: Yesterday, a tragedy occurred in San Bernardino.
我们首先要做的
Our first order of business is to
就是向受害家庭致以慰问和关切
send our thoughts and prayers to the families of those who’ve been killed.
公共场合的民众枪击事件受到了许多关注
Public mass shootings get all the attention
因为它们之间总是没有差别的
because they’re often so indiscriminate
但事实是 民众枪击事件和美国其他的枪击致死事件并不相同
but the truth is mass shootings are unlike most gun deaths in America.
以下就是对此的分析:
Here’s how it breaks down:
最新的数据表明
According to the most recent data,
平均每天会有92人死于枪杀
92 people are killed with guns every day on average.
其中30人死于凶杀
About 30 of those are homicides
其中最多只有1.5人能被认定为与民众枪击事件有关
of which maybe 1.5 at most can be considered part of mass shootings.
大部分死者 平均每天58人 都是自杀
Most of those killed, 58 people a day, are suicides.
其余则死于意外枪杀
The rest are accidental shootings,
警方行动 以及其他意外事件
police actions, and undetermined incidents.
自杀事件在国家间的数据对比中也有体现
Those suicides – they show up in international comparisons too.
这些是联合国人类发展中心公布的自杀率排名前十的国家
These are the 10 countries ranked highest on Human Development by the UN.
其中美国的自杀率位列榜首
The US has the highest suicide rate among them,
而这条深色条形柱显示了用枪自杀的人数
and this darker bar shows how many of those are with guns.
有些人认为自杀与枪支问题无关
Some people think suicide isn’t reallyrelevant to the gun issue.
洛特:但是想想 大家讨论的那些控枪规定
LOTT: But to go and think that some type of gun control regulations
它们能阻止某人自杀吗
that are being talked about are gonna stop somebody from committing suicide
自杀方式完全有更多选择啊
when there are so many other ways for people to commit suicide.
但人们选择的方式仍然很重要
But the methods that people use are important
因为自杀的想法经常来自于一时的冲动
because suicide attempts often stem from temporary crises.
绝大部分自杀未遂的人
The vast majority of people who survive suicide attempts
最终都不会再去自杀
don’t end up dying from suicide.
但枪支的存在使人们失去了反悔的机会
But guns make it nearly impossible to get that second chance.
枪击自杀的受害者多数是男性 其中大部分又是白人男性
The victims of gun suicides are overwhelmingly men, and mostly white.
美国的枪击自杀率在不断上升
And the rate of gun suicides has been increasing in the US.
与此同时 枪击凶杀率却在不断下降
At the same time, the rate of gun homicides has been decreasing,
尤其是90年代以来 犯罪率普遍较高的情况下
especially since the 90s when crime rates in general were higher.
但如果你对比美国和其他发达国家
But if you compare the US to other developed countries,
就会发现这其实并不算是好消息
it doesn’t look like good news.
这些是按人口规模调整后的凶杀率
These are homicides adjusted for population size.
美国即使没有枪支 也可能会有很高的凶杀率
The US would probably have a higher homicide rate even without guns,
但你现在能够理解 枪支暴力如何推高
but you can see how gun violence pushes that rate
美国的凶杀率 使之远高于其他国家了
far beyond the other countries here.
枪击案的受害者们
The victims of these shootings –
他们并不是你在国家新闻中经常看到的那些人
they’re not the ones you often see on the national news.
他们几乎都是黑人男性青年
They’re disproportionately young black men.
珊德拉•罗宾森:你们可以离开并继续自己的生活
SHUNDRA ROBINSON: You guys can leave hereand go on with your lives,
但我们只能回到家 去面对空荡荡的房间
but we gotta go home to empty rooms.
因为我们孩子的生命 已经被人无情夺去
Because our children’s lives were taken away
而那些人本不应该拥有枪支
by people who should not have had guns anyway.
一个可能的解释是
One possible explanation is that
美国只是罪案比其他国家多而已
the US simply has more crime than those other countries.
但如果你暂时不去考虑凶杀案
But if you set aside homicides for a moment
而是看看抢劫
and look rates of burglary,
以及性骚扰的犯罪率
or assault
你就不会看到类似凶杀率的高峰
you don’t see the same spike that you see with homicide.
不是说美国罪案更多
It’s not that America has much more crime.
而是美国的罪案更致命
It’s that crime in the US is much more lethal.
从2000年到2013年 美国的枪击案死亡人数加起来
Altogether, the number of gun deathsin the US from 2000 to 2013
已经超过死于艾滋病
exceeds the number of Americans killed by AIDS,
死于非法过量使用毒品
by illegal drug overdoses,
死于伊拉克战争与阿富汗战争
the Iraq and Afghanistan wars,
以及死于恐怖主义的总人数
and terrorism, combined.
现在应该清楚的是 相对其他发达国家而言
It should be clear by now that this level of gun violence
如此程度的枪支暴力已经成为美国特有的难题
is a uniquely American problem among the developed world.
以下就是其中一个原因
And here’s one reason why.
美国存在大量的枪支
There are a ton of guns in the US.
这张图表显示估算出的各个国家的枪支总量
This chart shows the estimated numberof guns by country.
这些估算按照人口规模进行了调整
It’s adjusted for population size
但还是远远达不到真实数字
and it’s still not even close.
俄勒冈枪击案凶手的父亲:我想问的问题是
OREGON SHOOTER’S FATHER: The question that I would like to ask is
他到底是如何能携带13把枪的
how on earth could he compile 13 guns?
这怎么可能发生
How can that happen?
如果你再回顾一下这10个国家
If you take a look back at the 10 countries
它们都达到了人类发展的最高水平
with the highest levels of human development
你就会明白 在美国拿到枪相对来说有多容易
you can see that it’s relatively really easy to get a gun in the US.
所有其他国家对大部分枪支的购买都需要许可
All of the other countries require a license to purchase most guns
并且这些购买都会有官方记录
and those purchases are recordedinto an official registry.
为获得这份许可
To get that license
购买者必须写明购买枪支的原因
people have to state a reasonfor why they want a gun,
而且在大多数国家
and in most of these countries,
他们必须通过安全测试
they have to pass a safety test
并且还要依法安全保管自己的枪支
and are required by law to store their guns safely.
部分由于其宽松的法律
In part because of its lax laws,
美国目前枪支总量远超过3亿 而且数量还在增加
there are well over 300 million guns in the US and counting.
这张图表无法反映私人枪支交易
This chart doesn’t reflect private sales
但它表明了背景调查的数量
but it shows the number of background checks,
这是所有联邦政府授权的经销商必须遵守的
which all federally licensed dealers have to run.
它说明 自奥巴马执政以来
It suggests the demand for guns has been increasing steeply
枪支需求就开始急剧增长
since Barack Obama took office.
我们已经看过了枪杀受害者和枪支持有者的数据统计
So we’ve looked at gun deaths and at gun ownership.
这张图表把它们放在了一起
This chart puts them together.
它表明 在高度发达的国家中
It shows that among highly developed countries,
国内持枪量越大 枪杀受害者也就越多
the more guns in a country, the more gun deaths.
你能看到 像瑞士这类的国家
You can see that countries like Switzerland,
相对像荷兰这样的国家 枪支的数量更多
which have relatively more guns than a country like the Netherlands,
也相应地有更高的枪支致死率
also have a higher gun death rate.
而美国在这里
And here’s the US.
同样的 拥有更多枪支的美国各州也会有更多的枪击案件
Likewise, US states with more guns have more gun homicides.
这里会有类似爱达荷州的例外情况
There are outliers like Idaho,
持枪率很高 但枪案发生率却很低
which has high rates of gun ownership but low rates of gun murders.
但总体来看 持枪率和枪案发生率还是呈正相关的
But overall, there’s a correlation between gun ownership and homicide rates
这种关系在研究中始终存在
and that relationship has held up in studies
尤其是有关控制贫困 失业和犯罪等方面的研究
that control for things like poverty,unemployment, and crime.
枪支持有率与枪杀致死率之间的关系在自杀案中尤其明显
The correlation between gun ownership andgun deaths is even stronger for suicides.
也是有道理的
It make sense.
持枪者的抑郁远比没有枪的人危险
Depression with a gun is more dangerousthan depression without one.
同样的 打斗 家庭纠纷 路怒 以及醉酒
Likewise, fights, domestic disputes, road rage, drunkenness –
所有这些只要有枪存在 就会更危险
all much more dangerous with a gun than without.
也就是说 你可能需要不同的政策
That said, you might need different policies
让枪支远离那些潜在的民众枪击事件的枪手
to keep guns away from potential mass shooters
而不止用来使城市内部的帮派无法获得枪支
than you’d need to keep themout of inner city gangs
或是夺走某人的枪以防止其自杀
or out of the hands of someone who might hurt themselves.
美国不是有一种枪支问题 而是几种
America doesn’t have a gun problem,it has several of them.

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视频概述

近期的拉斯维加斯暴力事件震惊全球,为何美国总是伤的最重的?请看本期视频

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

4CObst

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bX4qUsgHa4Y

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