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斯皮尔伯格式一镜一底

The Spielberg Oner

-谢谢 先生-好的 待会见 谢谢
– Thank you, sir. – Alright. See you later, thanks.
嗨 我是托尼
Hi, my name is Tony
这里是帧影帧画节目
and this is Every Frame a Painting.
今天的主题是一镜到底 又名长镜头
Today’s topic is the oner, AKA a long take.
这大概是电影制作中最能让人高潮的镜头
This is probably the most jerked-off-to type of shot in filmmaking.
不过基本上 它也就是指
But basically, all it means
在一个完整镜头中拍摄一段完整的场景
is doing an entire scene in a single, unbroken shot.
让我们一起来看看吧 这真的精妙绝伦
And let’s face it, it’s pretty awesome.
我们都有自己最爱的
We all have our favorites.
在网上能找到六打这样的列表
There’s six dozen lists on the internet about this.
但是我们倾向于关注那些高调使用的导演们
But we tend to notice the ones that draw attention to themselves.
所以这次我们跳过这些人
So let’s skip all of these guys
找一个总是使用一镜到底的电影制作人
and go to one filmmaker who does oners all the time,
不过他的目标是让你察觉不到
except his goal is to remain invisible.
这个男人
This dude.
坦诚说 斯皮尔伯格的长镜头也不是那么长
Truthfully, Spielberg’s takes aren’t even that long.
他总让它们保持在三分钟以内
He tends to keep them less than 3 minutes.
实际上 他非常喜欢将长镜头一分钟到两分钟的范围
In fact, he really likes that one minute to two-minute zone,
足够长可以容纳一个完整场景
which is long enough to cover an entire scene,
又足够短保证节奏灵活
but short enough to keep the pace brisk.
而其他导演则
And while other directors seem to have
有更明显的正式技术来拍长镜头
a dominant formal technique to their long takes —
比方说 韦斯•安德森偏爱横移拍摄
for instance, Wes Anderson likes to move laterally,
唯一能定义斯皮尔伯格式一镜到底的
the only thing that really defines a Spielberg oner
就是它让你察觉不到它的存在
is that it’s supposed to be invisible.
所以也许我说它存在都是鬼扯
So maybe I’m full of shit for even saying it exists.
现在 我会在这个视频中将这些片断剪短
Now, I’m gonna cut these shots down for this video,
如果你想看完整的镜头
but if you want to see the full scenes,
我将它们放在下面两个不同视频链接中
I’ve put them all in two separate videos linked below.
首先是来自《夺宝奇兵》的镜头
First off, a shot from Raiders of the Lost Ark.
这是一段单一完整的90秒拍摄
This is a single unbroken, 90-second take.
最棒的是它基本包涵了四种不同的拍摄手法
The great thing about it is that it’s basically four different shots in one:
这里有一个推进 两对单镜 和一个插入
there’s a push-in, two matching singles, and an insert.
斯皮尔伯格将四者融入了一个精妙的镜头移动中
So Spielberg combines all four into a single moving master.
非常简洁又优雅
It’s really simple and elegant,
这大概节省了一大把的准备时间
and it probably saved a bunch of time on set.
而且 也非常适合这个场景
Also, it really works for the scene,
因为这正处在饮酒比赛的焦灼状态下
because there’s suspense in the drinking contest.
而且我不论看多少次
And no matter how many times I watch it,
总会忘记它发生的确切时间
I still forget the exact timing,
所以每次发生的时候都觉得很逗
so it’s always funny when this happens.
下一镜头来自《少数派报告》
Next up is a shot from Minority Report.
这次 镜头来自摄像机稳定器
This time, they’re on a steadicam.
不过注意这里相机从不会无目的的移动
But notice how the camera never moves unmotivated.
它总是追随着某个动作或行为
It’s always following a motion or an action.
麻烦等等
Hold that, please.
这种节奏太妙了
The pacing is fantastic,
你看到这个场景如同它就是在你眼前展开的
you really get the sense that the scene is unfolding in front of you,
而不是摄影师踩点拍摄的
rather than a cameraman hitting his marks.
你卷进不少麻烦里了 约翰
You’re in a lot of trouble, John.
演员的走位非常流畅
The blocking of the actors is really fluid
镜头的焦点从这个演员
and the shot goes from favoring one character…
移向另一个演员
…to favoring another.
我好像找到了个瑕疵
Seems I’ve found a flaw.
我们往回看 这是《大白鲨》
Flashing back in time, this is Jaws.
这部里最有趣的就是限制
The great thing about this one is how restrained it is.
摄像师基本没有移动
The cameraman barely moves.
所有的运动都在演员的动作中
All of the movement is in the blocking of the actors
而且特别的是 这个非常巧妙的拍摄地点
and specially, the really smart choice of location.
是在一个真实的渡口拍摄的
By shooting on a real ferry,
斯皮尔伯格利用背景的运动保证节奏活跃
Spielberg can use the background action to keep the pace snappy.
使我忘记这个镜头的长度原因之一
One of the reasons I forgot how long this shot is
是因为背景总是在变
is because the background keeps shifting
你总能看到些新东西
and you’re always looking at something new.
你要是喊“鲨鱼”
You yell “shark”,
6月4号那天会一片混乱
we’ve got a panic on our hands on the 4th of July.
下一段 《拯救大兵瑞恩》
Next up, Saving Private Ryan.
斯皮尔伯格式一镜到底的印记
One of the hallmarks of a Spielberg oner
就是他偏爱将特效和视觉特效都放在主镜头里
is that he tends to do almost all of his special FX or his vis FX in the master.
这一段尤其精彩
And this one’s a doozy.
爆炸 碎石 尘土 烟雾 炮火 枪击 还有你知道的
Explosions, rubble, dust, smoke, gunfire, squibs, and you know…
一辆坦克
A tank.
我的天
Good shit.
现在 我想强调
Now, I do want to emphasize,
斯皮尔伯格并不是创造这种拍摄手法的人
Spielberg did not invent this type of shot.
实际上 这种拍摄手法非常常见
In fact, it used to be a very common choice.
要不要来点 帅哥
How about you, handsome?
我们以前是不是在哪见过?
Haven’t I seen you somewhere before?
在40,50或是60年代
In the 40s and 50s and 60s,
电影导演们经常会采用
studio directors frequently employed
一段适中长度的长镜头推动剧情
a moderate-length oner to move the story along.
你觉得这个怎么样?我已经找不到其他托辞了
How do you like this? I’m running outta alibis.
不过说真的 从《历劫佳人》开始
But really, beginning with Rope and Touch of Evil,
长镜头成了导演们的标志
the oner became a calling card for directors.
观众们发现
Audiences noticed it,
影评人和学习者们疯狂的追捧它
film critics and students got raging hard-ons for it,
在最近50年里 它变成了高明者的游戏
and for the last 50 years, it’s been a game of one-upmanship.
你用了3分钟?那我们就拍17分钟
Yours is 3 minutes? Well mine’s 17.
希区柯克拍了部看起来像完全长镜头的电影?
Hitchcock did a movie seemingly in one take?
那我们就真的做一部
Well we did it actually in one.
现在 我并不是说这些长镜头不好
Now, I’m not saying that these long takes are bad.
大部分都各外有趣
Most of them are fun as shit.
所有的都有点令人敬畏
All of them are a little awe-inspiring.
不过它曾经是非常典型的镜头 至少在美国电影中是……
But there used to be a real type of shot in at least American cinema that was…
找不到更合适的词形容 真的很扎实
for lack of a better word, really robust.
比如 它没有中断
Like, it didn’t break down.
它起作用了 达到了拍摄目的
It worked, it got the job done.
每次看起来都很有意思
It was always interesting to watch.
但又不会让你刻意注意它
It didn’t call attention to itself.
你知道的 你可以跟着镜头感受
You know, you could rely on it.
现在 开始分化了
Now, it’s split.
你能看到一大批电影制作人
You got one branch of filmmaking
尝试更快更短更混乱的剪辑
that is trying to go faster, shorter, more chaotic.
有人却固执的做完全相反的事
And another that is almost willfully doing the opposite.
还有一些人选择折中
Some people are still in the middle.
阿方索•卡梅隆
Alfonso Cuarón comes to mind
则尝试开发长镜头的紧张刺激感
as someone trying to mine the long take for dramatic purposes.
但即便是阿方索也不想低调使用长镜头
But even Alfonso isn’t trying to be invisible.
见鬼 甚至是斯皮尔伯格有时也会刻意让你注意到
Hell, even Spielberg sometimes wants you to notice.
这段来自《少数派报告》
This one from Minority Report
实际上是德帕尔马或希区柯克式镜头
is practically a De Palma or Hitchcock shot.
这段来自《决斗》 我觉得它更像是杀人狂电影
This one from Duel is, I mean, it’s almost like a slasher movie.
这段来自《直到永远》
This one from Always,
一部糟糕的电影
which is a terrible movie,
长镜头中伴随着一架波音747
is done in sync with a 747.
这部就太疯狂了
And this is just insane.
不过除此之外 斯皮尔伯格用起来还是很低调的
But otherwise, Spielberg plays it quiet.
说起来很古怪 因为你知道的 斯皮尔伯格嘛
Which is weird to say, because you know, Spielberg.
不过跟他的同行相比
But compared to his peers,
这一技术 到目前为止他已经用了40年
this technique, which he has been doing this for 40 years at this point,
使他在他们中出类拔萃
makes him stand out all the more.
你准备上哪辆车?
Which car were you planning on?
你在的那辆
Whichever one you are.
所以我觉对斯皮尔伯格式一镜到底最贴切的定义大概是
So I guess that’s maybe the closest I can get to defining a Spielberg oner.
用一切手段让你察觉不到它的存在
It uses any and all possible tricks to remain invisible.
所以如果你是个导演
So if you’re a director
你想拍斯皮尔伯格式的一镜到底
and you want to pull off a Spielberg oner,
你只有遵循下面简单的几条
there’s only a few simple rules to follow.
第一 让演员动起来
First, move your actors.
到处走动
Move ’em around.
不要让他们只是站在那说话
Don’t just have them stand there and talk
像2014年的卖座片一样
like they’re in a 2014 blockbuster.
别在意他
Don’t mind him.
-英式幽默?-苏格兰威士忌
– English humor? – Scottish whiskey.
第二 跟拍这些动作
Second, follow that movement.
相机不需要固定不动
The camera doesn’t have to follow on a leash,
它可以旋转 可以反向
it can swing around, it can move counter to them,
可以侧拍 都行
it can track laterally, whatever.
不过要注意场景 将相机放在对应的位置上
But watch the scene and place the camera accordingly.
第三 分断拍摄
Third, break down the shot
将它们分成许多块或是更细的拍摄角度
into multiple compositions and smaller angles.
你大概需要将五至六个不同镜头连接成
You are essentially linking five or six different shots
一个活动主镜头
into a single moving master.
你可以考虑将一系列的
So you can think in terms of
单镜 过肩镜头 插入 全景
single, over-the-shoulder, insert, wide.
串联在一起
It all flows together.
哦 弗兰克
Ah, Frank.
哦,如果你能做到所有这些
Oh, and if you can accomplish all this
甚至不用移动相机
without even moving the camera?
自然更好了
Even better.
你们所有人?
All of you?
第四 利用视觉特效或是特效
Fourth, do your vis FX or special FX,
任何需要来保证惊喜感
anything you need to keep the “magic” alive,
利用全景
do it in the wide shot.
不要蒙骗或是通过拼凑
Don’t cheat and construct your elements
近景和切出镜头构建场景
out of close-ups and cutaways,
将他们放入全景中让它们与演员互动
put ’em in the wide shot and let the actors interact with them.
别整绿幕那一套 用真东西
And don’t fucking green screen shit that should be practical
观众看得出
The audience can tell
演员对实际存在的东西时的反应
when an actor is reacting to something that’s there
与它不存在时不一样
versus something that isn’t.
第五 如果有必要 拍摄出切换镜头
Fifth, if you need to, shoot a cutaway.
这个视频中的片断都是完整连贯的拍摄镜头
All of the shots in this video are completely unbroken takes,
但是斯皮尔伯格并不傻
but Spielberg isn’t stupid.
他总会在长镜头中放入一个插入镜头或是切换镜头
He often shoots an insert or a cutaway for a oner
即便他确定长镜头就可以用
even if he’s sure they nailed it.
这使他在需要时可以用做紧凑的剪辑
This gives him the ability to tighten in editing if he needs to,
或是开头用一段长镜头
or perhaps use the beginning of one take
再用其他镜头结束
and the end of another.
这同样适用于 如果他需要某人
It also helps if he needs someone
投掷到某个特别困难的位置
to hit a particularly difficult mark,
像是将枪抛至右侧的特定点
like making a gun land in the right spot.
…我是个谨慎的人
…cautious fellow I am.
最后 保证它够短
And last, keep it short.
不要得寸进尺
Don’t outstay your welcome.
斯皮尔伯格式一镜到底是为了快速掠过场景
The Spielberg oner is designed to get through scenes quickly
保持影片节奏
and keep the pace up.
你不应该花一整天
You should not be spending an entire day
就为了让镜头完美
trying to get it perfect.
只有这种烂片才会干
That’s for shit like this.
所以最后总结
So in conclusion,
我理解有时候会有大量的反对评论
I understand that there’s sometimes a lot of backlash
若将斯皮尔伯格作为一位严肃的大师来看
with regards to talking about Spielberg as a serious artist.
我是指 有时候那些无病呻吟的东西确实有点难看
I mean, sometimes the sentimental stuff is a little hard to swallow.
我不会讨论他的历史地位
I’m not gonna talk about his legacy,
不过我觉得他应该因他的长镜头被记住
but I do think he should be celebrated for his oners.
特别是考虑到它是一门技术
Especially considering it’s a technique
通常被主流导演们抛弃了的
generally abandoned by mainstream directors
不论它是不可思议的胡扯
for either this kinda incomprehensible bullshit
还是它真的有那么好 不过依然是特别值得关注的风格
or this really good, but also really noticeable style.
讽刺的是 这个男人
Ironically, this dude,
曾经是被认为摧毁了70年代好莱坞电影的人
who was once considered responsible for destroying 70’s Hollywood filmmaking,
大概是最厉害的还在世的
is probably the greatest living practitioner
经典好莱坞传统电影人
of a classic Hollywood tradition.
我想知道他会不会对此感到难过
I wonder if he feels sad about that.
拉倒吧 他有钱的很!
Fuck that, he’s rich!

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译制信息
视频概述

黑泽明里提到的斯皮尔伯格式一镜到底出炉啦!你不来看看么๑乛v乛๑嘿嘿 这期主要讨论斯皮尔伯格的长镜头拍摄手法的特点。 托尼这次好像换了个风格,语速好快。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Nullyl

审核员

Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8q4X2vDRfRk

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