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迷人的人体解剖学艺术 – 译学馆
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迷人的人体解剖学艺术

The spellbinding art of human anatomy | Vanessa Ruiz

作为人体解剖学的爱好者
As a lover of human anatomy,
我很高兴我们终于开始关注人体之美了
I’m so excited that we’re finallyputting our bodies at the center of focus.
从预防医学、
Through practicessuch as preventive medicine,
病患赋权、
patient empowerment
自我监测
and self-monitoring —
到现在我们甚至痴迷于每天走多少步
down to now obsessingover every single step we take in a day.
所有这一切
All of this works to promote
都旨在让我们与自己的身体建立良好关系
a healthy connectionbetween ourselves and our bodies.
尽管有如此多对于自身健康的关注
Despite all this focuson the healthy self,
大众对于解剖学的了解仍十分匮乏
general public knowledgeof the anatomical self is lacking.
很多人还不了解重要器官的位置
Many people don’t knowthe location of their vital organs,
甚至不知道它们怎么发挥功能
or even how they function.
这是因为人体解剖学
And that’s because human anatomy
是门非常复杂 耗力劳神的学科
is a difficult and time-intensivesubject to learn.
在座多少人拿到了解剖学学位?
How many of you heremade it through anatomy?
哇哦
Wow, good —
好的——各位大都是学医的
most of you are in medicine.
我和你们一样 花了大量时间熟记上百种身体结构
I, like you, spent countless hoursmemorizing hundreds of structures.
没有视觉辅助 同学们不可能做到
Something no student of anatomycould do without the help of visuals.
因为最终
Because at the end of the day,
不管每个结构记没记住
whether you rememberevery little structure or not,
这些医学插画都会成为解剖学迷人的地方
these medical illustrations are whatmakes studying anatomy so intriguing.
看着这些图
In looking at them,
其实就是看着一本关于自身的说明书
we’re actually viewinga manual of our very selves.
但课程完成之后呢?
But what happens when we’re done studying?
这些美丽的插画
These beautiful illustrationsare then shut back
便尘封于医学课本里
into the pages of a medical textbook,
或某个APP中
or an app,
只在需要的时候才有人查看
referenced only when needed.
而对于普通人来说
And for the public,
医学插画可能只是偶尔在
medical illustrationsmay only be encountered passively
医生办公室的墙上瞥见过
on the walls of a doctor’s office.
自现代医学诞生以来
From the beginnings of modern medicine,
医学插画
medical illustration,
和随后的人体解剖学
and therefore anatomy,
就主要存在于医学教育中
have existed primarily withinthe realm of medical education.
但是一些不可思议的事情正在发生
Yet there’s something fascinatinghappening right now.
艺术家们正在让解剖学走出医学领域
Artists are breaking anatomyout of the confines of the medical world
闯入公众的视野
and are thrusting itinto the public space.
过去九年间 我一直在进行编目
For the past nine years,I have been cataloguing and sharing
并与大众分享解剖艺术的兴起——
this rise in anatomical artwith the public —
仅以一位医学插画家的视角不过
all from my perspectiveas a medical illustrator.
在讲述艺术家如何掌握解剖学之前
But before I get into showing youhow artists are reclaiming anatomy today,
有必要先了解艺术在过去是如何影响解剖学的
it’s important to understandhow art influenced anatomy in the past.
解剖学本质上是一门视觉科学
Now, anatomy is by itsvery nature a visual science,
而第一批有这种想法的解剖学家生活在文艺复兴时期
and the first anatomists to understandthis lived during the Renaissance.
他们求助于艺术家
They relied on artists
向同行公开展示自己的新发现
to help advertise their discoveriesto their peers in the public.
这种对寓教于乐的向往
And this drive to not only teachbut also to entertain
带来了一些极其诡异的解剖插画
resulted in some of the strangestanatomical illustrations.
解剖学陷入科学、艺术、文化的三角关系中
Anatomy was caught in a strugglebetween science, art and culture
已经500多年了
that lasted for over 500 years.
艺术家将解剖的尸体画成活人
Artists rendereddissected cadavers as alive,
上演一场场幽默的解剖“脱皮舞”
posed in these humorousanatomical stripteases.
设想你们如今在课本也能看到这些会怎样
Imagine seeing thatin your textbooks today.
同样 也可以画得很逼真——
They also showed them as very much dead —
被硬剥去外皮
unwillingly stripped of their skin.
脱离躯干的肢体通常作为静物写生的对象
Disembodied limbs were oftenposed in literal still lives.
一些插图甚至还能看到流行文化的影子
And some illustrationseven included pop culture references.
这是克莱拉
This is Clara,
18世纪中叶游历欧洲的明星犀牛
a famous rhinoceros that wastraveling Europe in the mid-1700s,
那时犀牛非常罕见
at a time when seeing a rhinowas an exciting rarity.
把它画进画里就相当于今天找明星代言
Including her in this illustrationwas akin to celebrity sponsorship today.
色彩的应用
The introduction of color
带来全新的清晰度和层次感
then brought a whole newdepth and clarity to anatomy
令解剖插画焕然一新
that made it stunning.
20世纪初
By the early 20th century,
科学与艺术的完美平衡 因医学插画家
the perfect balance of scienceand art had finally been struck
的出现而实现了
with the emergenceof medical illustrators.
他们创造了一套通用解剖表现手法
They created a universalrepresentation of anatomy —
无关生死
something that was neither alive nor dead,
也不受艺术文化的影响
that was free from those influencesof artistic culture.
这种毫无夸张的准确性
And this focus on no-frills accuracy
使医学教育从中受益
was precisely for the benefitof medical education.
这也是我们如今使用的教学材料
And this is what weget to study from today.
但为何医学插画
But why is it that medical illustration —
从古至今都能
both past and present —
激发我们的想象力呢?
captures our imaginations?
我们天生懂得欣赏人体之美
Now, we are innately tunedinto the beauty of the human body.
医学插画依然是静态艺术
And medical illustration is still art.
任何事物都无法像人体一样
Nothing can elicitan emotional response —
表达诸多情感——
from joy to complete disgust —
从快乐到厌恶至极
more than the human body.
当今
And today,
艺术家正运用这一情感
artists armed with that emotion,
带着解剖学从医学走出来
are grasping anatomyfrom the medical world,
通过艺术的无限想象力让解剖学焕然一新
and are reinvigorating it through artin the most imaginative ways.
一个典型的例子是西班牙当代艺术家费尔南多·韦森特
A perfect example of this is Spanishcontemporary artist Fernando Vicente.
他将一副19世纪男性解剖插画
He takes 19th century anatomicalillustrations of the male body
用女性的感性重新呈现
and envelops them in a female sensuality.
画中的女性迫使我们揭开表皮一探究竟
The women in his paintings taunt usto view beyond their surface anatomy,
透着一股浓郁的女性气质
thereby introducing a strong femininity
在以前的解剖表现手法中前所未见
that was previously lacking in the historyof anatomical representation.
艺术技巧还能体现在人体修复上
Artistry can also be seen in the repairand recovery of the human body.
这张X光片的主人是位女性 轮滑时摔伤
This is an X-ray of a womanwho fractured and dislocated her ankle
导致踝关节骨折错位
in a roller-skating accident.
为了纪念这场灾难
As a tribute to her trauma,
她请求蒙特利尔建筑师费德里科·卡瓦哈尔
she commissioned Montreal-basedarchitect Federico Carbajal
用金属丝给她受伤的小腿做雕塑
to construct a wire sculptureof her damaged lower leg.
请注意这些放大的红色螺丝钉
Now, notice those bright red screwsmagnified in the sculpture.
那都是脚踝重塑手术中使用过的医用螺丝钉
These are the actual surgical screwsused in reconstructing her ankle.
医疗器械在艺术中被重现了
It’s medical hardwarethat’s been repurposed as art.
大家总问我如何选择作品
People often ask me how I choosethe art that I showcase online
在网上或画廊中展出
or feature in gallery shows.
我觉得重点是要平衡技巧
And for me it’s a balancebetween the technique
和突破解剖学自我认知的理念
and a concept that pushes the boundariesof anatomy as a way to know thyself,
这也是迈克尔·里迪的作品打动我的地方
which is why the workof Michael Reedy struck me.
他画的严肃的人像透着一丝幽默
His serious figure drawingsare often layered in elements of humor.
比如这幅 看看画中女孩的脸
For instance, take a look at her face.
注意这些红色印记
Notice those red marks.
迈克尔将这种对皮肤状态的强烈不安感
Michael manifests the consuminginsecurity of a skin condition
用疯狂卡通怪物表现出来
as these maniacal cartoon monsters
在背景中不受控制
annoying and out of controlin the background.
惹人心烦而一旁的镜面人像
On the mirrored figure,
是一整幅解剖图
he renders the full anatomy
闪闪发光
and covers it in glitter,
看起来像糖果
making it look like candy.
这样一来
By doing this,
迈克尔淡化了人们对解剖学的普遍理解——
Michael downplaysthe common perception of anatomy
它原本和疾病死亡紧密相关
so closely tied to just disease and death.
下一个理念可能不太好懂
Now, this next conceptmight not make much sense,
不过人体解剖学不仅仅局限于人体
but human anatomyis no longer limited to humans.
在孩童时期
When you were a child,
你希望过玩具有生命吗?
did you ever wishthat your toys could come to life?
杰森·福瑞利通过解剖玩具
Well, Jason Freenymakes those dreams come true
让这成为现实
with his magical toy dissections.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
有人可能觉得对于孩子天真的童年来说
One might think that thiswould bring a morbid edge
这种做法有点变态
to one’s innocent childhood characters,
但杰森说:
but Jason says of his dissections,
“没有哪个孩子被我的解剖玩具吓到过 ”
“One thing I’ve never seenin a child’s reaction to my work is fear.”
孩子的反应都是好奇、
It’s always wonder,
惊讶
amazement
想研究一下
and wanting to explore.
对解剖的恐惧不是天生的
Fear of anatomy and gutsis a learned reaction.
这种解剖艺术也蔓延到了政治和社会话题上
This anatomization also extends topolitically and socially charged objects.
在诺亚·斯凯林的《解剖战争》中
In Noah Scalin’s “Anatomy of War,”
我们看到内部有着人体器官的枪
we see a gun dissectedto reveal human organs.
但仔细看
But if you look closely,
你会发现枪没有大脑
you’ll notice that it lacks a brain.
再仔细看 你还会发现
And if you keep looking,you might also notice
诺亚良巧妙地设计让
that Noah has so thoughtfullyplaced the rectum
枪口对应的是直肠
at the business end of that gun barrel.
下一位艺术家我已追随多年
Now, this next artistI’ve been following for many years,
看着他如何使公众为解剖学而疯狂
watching him excitethe public about anatomy.
丹尼·阔克是位年轻艺术家
Danny Quirk is a young artist
他笔下的人物都在做自我解剖
who paints his subjectsin the process of self-dissection.
他改变医学插画的原则
He bends the rules of medical illustration
采用极富戏剧性的光影
by inserting a very dramaticlight and shadow.
呈现的3D效果
And this creates a 3-D illusion
非常适用于直接画在人的皮肤上
that lends itself very wellto painting directly on the human skin.
丹尼的画作看起来就像表皮真的被揭下一样
Danny makes it look as if a person’sskin has actually been removed.
这一效果——很酷
And this effect —
很像纹身
also cool and tattoo-like —
能很方便的被用作医学插画
easily transitionsinto a medical illustration.
丹尼正在世界各地
Now Danny is currentlytraveling the world,
通过人体彩绘为民众普及解剖学知识
teaching anatomy to the publicvia his body paintings,
这也让我在得知他被
which is why it wasso shocking to find out
医学插画项目拒绝的时候深感意外
that he was rejectedfrom medical illustration programs.
不过他照样很享受现状
But he’s doing just fine.
还有些艺术家
Then there are artists
将解剖学从艺术和医学中抽离
who are extracting anatomy from boththe medical world and the art world
直接带上了街头
and are placing itdirectly on the streets.
位于伦敦的SHOK-1展示了关于流行文化的巨幅X光片的涂鸦
London-based SHOK-1 paintsgiant X-rays of pop culture icons.
这些X光片表现出文化怎样拥有自己的解剖学
His X-rays show how culturecan come to have an anatomy of its own,
而相反地 文化如何演变成人体解剖的一部分
and conversely how culture can becomepart of the anatomy of a person.
你喜欢他的涂鸦
You come to admire his work
因为手绘复制X光片已经很难了 更不用说喷漆
because reproducing X-rays by hand,let alone with spray paint,
简直难上加难
is extremely difficult.
不过他不但是街头艺术家
But then again this is a street artist,
还拥有应用化学的学位
who also happens to holda degree in applied chemistry.
Nychos 一位奥地利街头艺术家
Nychos, an Austrian street artist,
将“爆炸式分解”带上了新高度
takes the term “exploded view”to a whole new level,
他肢解的人体和动物涂鸦在世界各地的墙上
splattering human and animal dissectionson walls all over the world.
受漫画和重金属的熏陶
Influenced by comics and heavy metal,
Nychos为解剖学注入了青春诱人的力量
Nychos inserts a very youthfuland enticing energy into anatomy
让我爱不释手
that I just love.
街头艺术家坚信艺术是大众的
Street artists believethat art belongs to the public.
街头解剖学之所以迷人
And this street anatomy is so captivating
是因为它离医学最远
because it is the furthest removedfrom the medical world.
它迫使你注视
It forces you to look at it,
令你直面自己对解剖学的理解
and confront your ownperceptions about anatomy,
不管你觉得好看恶心
whether you find it beautiful,
变态
gross,
还是
morbid
和我一样觉得叹为观止
or awe-inspiring, like I do.
之所以会有如此多感受
That it elicits these responses at all
是因为我们与解剖学亲密又无常的关系
is due to our intimateand often changing relationship with it.
今天给大家介绍的所有艺术家
All of the artiststhat I showed you here today
都借鉴了医学插画进行艺术创作
referenced medicalillustrations for their art.
但对他们而言
But for them,
解剖学不是死记硬背的东西
anatomy isn’t just something to memorize,
而是作为一种了解人体意义的基础;
but a base from which to understandthe human body on a meaningful level;
用我们能联想到的方式描绘出来
to depict it in ways that we can relate,
可以是卡通
whether it be through cartoons,
人体彩绘
body painting
也可以是街头艺术
or street art.
解剖艺术有着
Anatomical art has the power
超越医学课本范畴的力量
to reach far beyondthe pages of a medical textbook,
它能点燃大众的热情
to ignite an excitement in the public,
重燃医学界的热忱
and reinvigorate an enthusiasmin the medical world,
最终通过艺术 将身体与我们内心深处连接起来
ultimately connecting our innermost selveswith our bodies through art.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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