The Solar System is not at all like you think it is. The Earth is round,
Mercury is the hottest planet, and the Sun is yellow.
现在看来 这些都是简单的 不可否认的事实
It would seem that these are all simple, undeniable facts
即使是不懂天文学的人也知道 然而 是时候重新思考一下了
known even to those with no real knowledge of astronomy. However, it’s time to think again.
Number seven – does the Moon have a dark side?
The view that the sun’s rays shine only on one side of the moon leaving the other side in permanent darkness is quite widespread.
This belief results from the fact that our satellite only ever has one side facing the Earth, while the other is
impossible to observe from the ground.
In fact, the sun shines and warms both the visible and invisible parts of the moon.
The truth is that the period the moon takes to revolve on its axis
coincides with the amount of time it takes to orbit the Earth.
That’s why we only see one side of it.
Number six – is the temperature of Mercury higher than on other planets?
Everything seems logical here. Mercury is closest to the
Sun, therefore, its surface temperature must be higher than all the other planets.
然而 太阳系中最热的行星其实是金星 尽管事实上
However, the hottest planet in the solar system is actually Venus, despite the fact
it’s 31,070,000 miles, or 50 million kilometers, further away from the sun than its neighbor.
The average daytime temperature on Mercury is around
662 degrees Fahrenheit,
or 350 degrees Celsius.
Whereas it can reach 896 degrees Fahrenheit,
or 480 degrees Celsius, on Venus.
The reason for this is Venus’s atmosphere.
Mercury has practically no atmosphere to speak of,
whereas Venus has a very thick one made up almost entirely of carbon dioxide.
This creates a strong greenhouse effect trapping all the Sun’s heat and making Venus incredibly hot.
Number five – is the sun just a big ball of fire?
Everyone knows that the temperature of the Sun’s surface is unimaginably high,
more than 10,290 degrees Fahrenheit,
or 5,700 degrees Celsius.
So it’s logical to assume that it’s simply like a giant bonfire.
However, this isn’t an accurate comparison.
我们所认为的火 实际上 能量以光和热的形式
What we think of as fire is, in fact, energy in the form of heat and light,
produced by the thermonuclear reactions occurring in the star’s core.
A thermonuclear reaction involves changing some elements into others,
and it’s accompanied by the ejection of heat and light energy.
This energy passes through all the layers of the sun to reach the surface,
the photosphere, which to us seems like it’s burning.
Number four – is the Sun really yellow?
Everyone who knows a little about astronomy will tell you that the Sun belongs to the category of stars known as yellow dwarves.
In turn, it’s logical to assume it is yellow.
但是 就像其他所有黄矮人恒星一样 太阳完全是白色的
However, like all other yellow dwarf stars, the Sun is completely white.
So why do human eyes see it as yellow?
这都归因于地球的大气层 众所周知 光在光谱中黄色和红色部分 有很长的波长
It’s all down to Earth’s atmosphere. As is well known, light which has a long wavelength, in the yellow and red part of the spectrum,
passes through the atmosphere best of all.
Light in shorter wavelengths, in the green to violet part of the spectrum,
(which is what the sun mainly emits), gets dissipated to a greater degree by the atmosphere.
The effect of this is to make the sun appear yellow.
If you were to leave the atmosphere, the sun would take on its “true” color.
Number three – would a human being explode in space without a space suit?
这是个错误的观点 当然 由于各种好莱坞电影的描述
This mistaken view is, of course, the result of various Hollywood movies depicting
what would supposedly happen if a person found themselves outside a spaceship.
实际上 我们的皮肤足够柔软 让我们所有的内部器官在原位
In reality, our skin is flexible enough to keep all our internal organs in place.
The walls of the blood vessels would also prevent the blood from boiling thanks to their elasticity.
此外 在没有外部压力的太空环境里 血液沸腾的温度
Moreover, in the absence of external pressure in the space environment, the temperature at which blood boils
rises to 115 degrees Fahrenheit or 46 degrees Celsius,
which is significantly higher than the temperature of the human body.
相反的 这是我们皮肤细胞里的水 在真空中开始沸腾
Instead, it is the water contained in the cells of our skin that begins to boil in a vacuum.
结果是 人体在这样的环境下会膨胀 但不会爆炸
The result is that the human body would expand in size in such an environment, but it definitely wouldn’t explode.
The main reason why a person would die is the lack of oxygen.
Just 15 seconds after entering a vacuum without a space suit,
the individual would lose consciousness, and they would be dead in two minutes.
Number two – is the Earth further from the sun in winter than in summer?
Here’s one more myth that initially seems logical.
如果冬天比夏天冷 一定意味着地球远离它的热量来源 对吗
If winter is colder than summer, that must mean Earth is farther from its source of heat, right?
然而 事实却是相反 在一年中最冷的时候 我们的星球
However, the reality is the opposite: during the coldest part of the year, our planet is
3,107,000 miles or five million kilometers closer to the Sun than in summer. How can this be?
所有一切都归结于 除了绕太阳公转 地球也进行自传的事实
It all comes down to the fact that in addition to orbiting the Sun, the Earth also completes rotations around its own axis.
That’s why we have the change from night to day
The axis of the planet which passes through the North and South poles is not exactly
perpendicular to its orbit, and the sun’s rays which fall on it.
在半年时间里 太阳的温暖 大部分都落在南半球
In turn, for half of the year, a large portion of the Sun’s warmth falls on the Southern hemisphere,
而另一半时间 它落在北半球 这就产生了四季变化
while in the other half, it falls on the Northern one, which produces a change of seasons.
As is well known, the summer in the Southern hemisphere is warmer than it is in the North.
This is the result of the fact that the Earth comes closest to the Sun in January
That is, when the Southern part of the world is experiencing summer.
Number one – is the Earth perfectly spherical?
这是真的 然而矛盾的是 又不尽然
This is true, yet paradoxically not true at the same time.
The shape of our planet is constantly changing due to the constant movement of the continental plates.
当然 它们移动的速率是很小的 每年平均两英尺或五厘米
Of course, the rate at which they move is tiny – on average about two inches or five centimeters a year.
但是 这仍对星球“外观”有影响 故实际上远远不是完美的圆
However, this still has an effect on the planet’s “appearance”, which is in fact far from perfectly round.
然而 我们应该指出 那张展示了地球真实形状的难以置信的图片
However, we should point out that the incredible image that supposedly shows the real shape of the Earth
is actually a model of the planet’s gravity.
It was created from satellite data and doesn’t show the true shape of our home.
Instead, it merely demonstrates the differences in the strength of the Earth’s gravity at different points around it.
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