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The Solar System Is Not Like You Think It Is

The Solar System is not at all like you think it is. The Earth is round,
太阳系不全是如你所想的那样 地球是圆的
Mercury is the hottest planet, and the Sun is yellow.
水星是最热的行星 太阳是黄色的
It would seem that these are all simple, undeniable facts
现在看来 这些都是简单的 不可否认的事实
known even to those with no real knowledge of astronomy. However, it’s time to think again.
即使是不懂天文学的人也知道 然而 是时候重新思考一下了
Number seven – does the Moon have a dark side?
第七 月亮也有黑暗的一面吗
The view that the sun’s rays shine only on one side of the moon leaving the other side in permanent darkness is quite widespread.
太阳光线只在月球一侧 另一侧处在永恒的黑暗中的观点十分普遍
This belief results from the fact that our satellite only ever has one side facing the Earth, while the other is
这种信念源自我们的卫星只有一边面相地球 而另一边
impossible to observe from the ground.
In fact, the sun shines and warms both the visible and invisible parts of the moon.
实际上 太阳发光发热都是月球可见和不可见的部分
The truth is that the period the moon takes to revolve on its axis
真相是 这一时期月球自转
coincides with the amount of time it takes to orbit the Earth.
That’s why we only see one side of it.
Number six – is the temperature of Mercury higher than on other planets?
第六 水星的温度比其他行星高吗
Everything seems logical here. Mercury is closest to the
这的一切看起来合乎逻辑 水星离太阳最近
Sun, therefore, its surface temperature must be higher than all the other planets.
因此 它的表面温度一定比其他所有行星高
However, the hottest planet in the solar system is actually Venus, despite the fact
然而 太阳系中最热的行星其实是金星 尽管事实上
it’s 31,070,000 miles, or 50 million kilometers, further away from the sun than its neighbor.
比它的邻居更远离太阳三千一百零七万英里 或五千万公里
The average daytime temperature on Mercury is around
662 degrees Fahrenheit,
or 350 degrees Celsius.
Whereas it can reach 896 degrees Fahrenheit,
or 480 degrees Celsius, on Venus.
The reason for this is Venus’s atmosphere.
Mercury has practically no atmosphere to speak of,
whereas Venus has a very thick one made up almost entirely of carbon dioxide.
This creates a strong greenhouse effect trapping all the Sun’s heat and making Venus incredibly hot.
这造成强烈的温室效应来捕获所有的太阳热量 让金星难以置信的热
Number five – is the sun just a big ball of fire?
第五 太阳只是个大火球吗
Everyone knows that the temperature of the Sun’s surface is unimaginably high,
每个人都知道 太阳的表面温度是无法想象的高
more than 10,290 degrees Fahrenheit,
or 5,700 degrees Celsius.
So it’s logical to assume that it’s simply like a giant bonfire.
However, this isn’t an accurate comparison.
然而 这不是个准确的比喻
What we think of as fire is, in fact, energy in the form of heat and light,
我们所认为的火 实际上 能量以光和热的形式
produced by the thermonuclear reactions occurring in the star’s core.
产生的热核反应 发生在恒星内部
A thermonuclear reaction involves changing some elements into others,
and it’s accompanied by the ejection of heat and light energy.
This energy passes through all the layers of the sun to reach the surface,
the photosphere, which to us seems like it’s burning.
对于我们来说 光球层好像在燃烧
Number four – is the Sun really yellow?
第四 太阳真的是黄色的吗
Everyone who knows a little about astronomy will tell you that the Sun belongs to the category of stars known as yellow dwarves.
每个懂一点天文学的人都会告诉你 太阳属于那类被称作黄矮人的恒星
In turn, it’s logical to assume it is yellow.
反过来 假设它是黄色的是合乎逻辑的
However, like all other yellow dwarf stars, the Sun is completely white.
但是 就像其他所有黄矮人恒星一样 太阳完全是白色的
So why do human eyes see it as yellow?
It’s all down to Earth’s atmosphere. As is well known, light which has a long wavelength, in the yellow and red part of the spectrum,
这都归因于地球的大气层 众所周知 光在光谱中黄色和红色部分 有很长的波长
passes through the atmosphere best of all.
Light in shorter wavelengths, in the green to violet part of the spectrum,
光谱中在绿色到紫色部分 即在较短波长
(which is what the sun mainly emits), gets dissipated to a greater degree by the atmosphere.
The effect of this is to make the sun appear yellow.
If you were to leave the atmosphere, the sun would take on its “true” color.
如果你离开大气层 太阳将呈现它真正的颜色
Number three – would a human being explode in space without a space suit?
第三 人类不穿太空服在太空中会爆炸吗
This mistaken view is, of course, the result of various Hollywood movies depicting
这是个错误的观点 当然 由于各种好莱坞电影的描述
what would supposedly happen if a person found themselves outside a spaceship.
如果人们发现他们自己在宇宙飞船外面 可能会发生什么
In reality, our skin is flexible enough to keep all our internal organs in place.
实际上 我们的皮肤足够柔软 让我们所有的内部器官在原位
The walls of the blood vessels would also prevent the blood from boiling thanks to their elasticity.
血管的外壁 由于弹性也会防止血液沸腾
Moreover, in the absence of external pressure in the space environment, the temperature at which blood boils
此外 在没有外部压力的太空环境里 血液沸腾的温度
rises to 115 degrees Fahrenheit or 46 degrees Celsius,
上升到115℉ 或46℃
which is significantly higher than the temperature of the human body.
Instead, it is the water contained in the cells of our skin that begins to boil in a vacuum.
相反的 这是我们皮肤细胞里的水 在真空中开始沸腾
The result is that the human body would expand in size in such an environment, but it definitely wouldn’t explode.
结果是 人体在这样的环境下会膨胀 但不会爆炸
The main reason why a person would die is the lack of oxygen.
Just 15 seconds after entering a vacuum without a space suit,
the individual would lose consciousness, and they would be dead in two minutes.
这些人将失去意识 并且他们将在两分钟内死亡
Number two – is the Earth further from the sun in winter than in summer?
第二 地球在冬天比夏天离太阳更远吗
Here’s one more myth that initially seems logical.
这有不止一个神话 最初好像有道理
If winter is colder than summer, that must mean Earth is farther from its source of heat, right?
如果冬天比夏天冷 一定意味着地球远离它的热量来源 对吗
However, the reality is the opposite: during the coldest part of the year, our planet is
然而 事实却是相反 在一年中最冷的时候 我们的星球
3,107,000 miles or five million kilometers closer to the Sun than in summer. How can this be?
比夏天更靠近太阳3107000英里或五百万公里 这是怎么做到的呢
It all comes down to the fact that in addition to orbiting the Sun, the Earth also completes rotations around its own axis.
所有一切都归结于 除了绕太阳公转 地球也进行自传的事实
That’s why we have the change from night to day
The axis of the planet which passes through the North and South poles is not exactly
行星的轴 经过南北极时不确定是否
perpendicular to its orbit, and the sun’s rays which fall on it.
垂直它的轨道 以及太阳光线是否落到上面
In turn, for half of the year, a large portion of the Sun’s warmth falls on the Southern hemisphere,
在半年时间里 太阳的温暖 大部分都落在南半球
while in the other half, it falls on the Northern one, which produces a change of seasons.
而另一半时间 它落在北半球 这就产生了四季变化
As is well known, the summer in the Southern hemisphere is warmer than it is in the North.
众所周知 南半球的夏天比北半球更热
This is the result of the fact that the Earth comes closest to the Sun in January
That is, when the Southern part of the world is experiencing summer.
换言之 是当南半球正在经历夏天的时候
Number one – is the Earth perfectly spherical?
第一 地球是完美的球型吗
This is true, yet paradoxically not true at the same time.
这是真的 然而矛盾的是 又不尽然
The shape of our planet is constantly changing due to the constant movement of the continental plates.
由于大陆板块的不断运动 地球的形状在不断变化
Of course, the rate at which they move is tiny – on average about two inches or five centimeters a year.
当然 它们移动的速率是很小的 每年平均两英尺或五厘米
However, this still has an effect on the planet’s “appearance”, which is in fact far from perfectly round.
但是 这仍对星球“外观”有影响 故实际上远远不是完美的圆
However, we should point out that the incredible image that supposedly shows the real shape of the Earth
然而 我们应该指出 那张展示了地球真实形状的难以置信的图片
is actually a model of the planet’s gravity.
It was created from satellite data and doesn’t show the true shape of our home.
它是由卫星数据创造出来的 并没有显示出地球的真实形状
Instead, it merely demonstrates the differences in the strength of the Earth’s gravity at different points around it.
相反 它只是展示了地球引力在不同的点上的不同之处
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