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榴莲的味道 – 译学馆
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榴莲的味道

The Smell of Durian Explained (ft. BrainCraft, Joe Hanson, Physics Girl & PBS Space Time)

PBS数位工作室
This is durian.
这是榴莲
The name comes from the Malaysian word for thorn,
名字来自马来语 意思是刺
which, yeah, checks out.
你看这刺
The fruit is native to southeast Asia,
这种水果原产于东南亚
and Thailand grows more than half a million metric
榴莲外形怪异
tons of these weird looking things every year.
泰国年产榴莲超50万吨
And as you might know, it has an odor. A strong one.
你可能知道 榴莲味道很大
And we’re going to tell you why.
我们将告诉你为什么榴莲味道这么大
Despite its smell, many people really love the stuff.
尽管味道很大 还是有很多人喜欢它
In Southeast Asia, they call durian the “King of Fruits”.
在东南亚 榴莲有着“水果之王”的美誉
Alfred Russel Wallace had this to say about durian:
艾尔弗雷德·罗素·华莱士这样评价榴莲:
“A rich custard highly flavoured with almonds gives the best general idea of it,
杏仁味浓郁的奶油蛋羹最能描述它的味道
but there are occasional wafts of flavour that call to mind cream-cheese,
但榴莲的味道偶尔也会让人想起奶酪
onion-sauce, sherry-wine, and other incongruous dishes.
洋葱酱 雪莉酒以及其他不相关的食物
There is a rich glutinous smoothness in the pulp which nothing else possesses,
它的果肉富有独特的黏性 口感顺滑
but which adds to its delicacy.”
这让它更加美味
But…that smell.
但是……味道实在太大了
It may be a beloved treat in southeast Asia,
在东南亚 它也许很受人喜爱
but that smell is strong, to say the least.
但怎么说它的味道都很大
It’s so strong that some hotels,
味道太大以至于一些酒店
subways and movie theaters ban it.
地铁和电影院都禁止携带
And we thought sulfurs were a problem.
我们认为问题可能出在硫
So what does it actually smell like?
它闻起来到底是什么味道?
Well, we got some our friends at PBS to give it a whiff on what we’re thinking on.
我们找了一些PBS的朋友来感受一下
I was guessing hot garbage and I’m met with hot garbage here.
我猜这是热垃圾 我正在尝热垃圾
So, I remember it smelling worse.
印象中它闻起来更糟
I’ve been in markets in Asia where they’ve had it and
我在亚洲的市场看到有人吃这种东西
It actually doesn’t smell as bad as what I thought it did.
实际上味道并没有我想象的那么糟糕
It’s kind of fine.
感觉还好吧
That… It smells like…Umm
它闻起来……呃
It smells like food garbage that’s been sitting for a couple of days.
闻起来像放了几天的食物垃圾
Yeah, it’s… You know
嗯……你知道的
I thought I’d hate it more, actually.
其实没我想象中的那么难闻
So why does it smell so… pungent?
为什么榴莲味道这么大?
Chemists have identified about 45 different molecules
化学家已经确定了榴莲的气味由大约
that make up durian’s odor.
45种不同的分子构成
They cover an impressive variety of smells:
涵盖了各种各样的味道
honey, roasted onion, caramel, skunk, broken egg, to name a few.
如蜂蜜 烤洋葱 焦糖 臭鼬 臭鸡蛋等
Incredibly, a recent study narrowed those down to just two molecules
惊讶的是 最新研究将范围缩小到了两个分子
the researchers say can mimic the fruit’s overall smell.
研究人员说可以模拟出榴莲的味道
A whole bunch of compounds on that list have sulfur atoms in them,
列出来的所有化合物都含有硫原子
some of which can smell pretty bad.
其中有一些很难闻
You know that special stink of rotten eggs?
你知道臭鸡蛋的味道吗
Yep. That’s Hydrogen Sulfide.
是的 那就是硫化氢
Humans are insanely good at smelling sulfur-containing molecules.
人类对含硫分子的气味很敏感
Your nose is one hundred million times more sensitive to ethanethiol than ethanol.
你的鼻子对乙硫醇的敏感度是乙醇的一亿倍
And there’s probably a good evolutionary reason for that too.
这很可能也是进化造成的
Rotten food, dead animals, poisonous gases and
腐烂的食物 死去的动物 有毒气体
even the sweat of some carnivorous predators
甚至一些食肉动物的汗水
all have sulfur-containing compounds,
都有含硫化合物
so it makes sense natural selection made us especially sensitive to them.
所以自然选择让我们对它们特别敏感也说的通
Our noses are so good at sniffing out sulfur
我们的鼻子对硫很敏感
thanks to what happens between sulfur compounds
源自于我们的嗅觉感受器中
and copper ions in our smell receptors.
含硫化合物和铜离子之间发生的反应
When scientists blocked copper from the noses of lab mice,
当科学家把小白鼠鼻子里的铜阻断后
they couldn’t tell the difference between the gross smelling (methylthio)methanethiol
他们分辨不出恶心的(甲基硫代)甲硫醇
from the more pleasant eugenol, which shows up in cinnamon and basil.
和更好闻的丁香酚 肉桂和罗勒中含有丁香酚
Sulfur helps to explain why durian smells so bad to some people.
硫解释了为什么对一些人来说榴莲很难闻
But why do people put up with this smell?
但是为什么人们能忍受这种气味呢?
Sometimes we can forgive a little stinkiness
有时候 如果食物真的很好吃
if the food tastes really, really good.
我们可以原谅它有一点臭
So how does it taste?
那么它吃起来口感怎么样?
The fruity stuff reminds me a little bit of maybe
榴莲的味道让我想到了
kiwi fruit or something like that.
猕猴桃之类的东西
It’s like a mushy pear or something like that.
它就像一个糊状的梨或类似的东西
If you took an apple
如果你拿一个苹果
and you dipped it in a landfill,
把它放在垃圾堆里
that’s… and then covered it in yogurt.
……然后把它泡在酸奶里
That is durian.
就成了榴莲的味道
Frankly, I don’t hate it.
坦率地说 我并不讨厌它
I’m going to have some more.
我还要再吃点
Can’t stop, won’t stop.
我停不下来 也不想停下来
You know, it could be an acquired taste.
你知道 这个味道是可以接受的
I hated coffee and chocolate for a really long time.
很长一段时间我都讨厌咖啡和巧克力
I don’t think it deserves a bad rap.
我认为它名声不应该这么差
like it’s… It’s fine.
还好吧
I mean it’s just a fruit, why are we picking on fruit?
我是说 它只是水果而已 我们为什么要这么挑剔?
Alright, alright. We hear you.
好吧 好吧 知道了
But to switch it up,
为了改变看法
we asked professional chef Parnass Savang,
我们请了专业厨师帕纳斯·萨旺
who cooks with durian and was raised eating it,
他用榴莲烹饪 是吃榴莲长大的
what he thought it tastes like.
看看他怎么认为
It’s hard to describe because
不好描述
it tastes sweet, it tastes custardy,
因为它尝起来甜甜的 入口即化
and it has like a funkiness that
但又带有一种其他水果所没有的臭味
like a fermentation tap funkiness that other fruits don’t have
有点像发酵产生的那种臭味
and it just distinguishes from other fruits and
这正是它有别于其他水果的地方
that one just sings to me so much
我很喜欢这种味道
So durian is clearly an acquired taste.
很显然 榴莲的味道是可以接受的
But why could some people get over that funkiness while others just couldn’t?
但为什么有些人能接受 有的人接受不了呢?
Not everyone smells or tastes things the same way.
每个人的嗅觉和味觉感受不完全一样
Our DNA has code for roughly 800 odor receptors,
我们的DNA有大约800个气味受体编码
though scientists think only about 400 of those actually function.
尽管科学家认为其中只有400个有用
Genetic variations in these receptors can change the way they function
这些受体的基因变异会改变它们的功能
and alter your perception of an odor,
从而改变你对气味的感知
so you might not smell durian the same way Joe did.
可能你跟乔闻到的榴莲的味道不同
And then there are people who can’t smell it at all.
还有一些人根本闻不到味道
Seriously, maybe that sounds great at first.
说真的 也许一开始听起来很棒
But most of what we call flavor isn’t really taste, it’s smell.
但是大多数我们所说的味道并不是味觉 而是嗅觉
Joe just might be missing out on the true complexity of this exotic delicacy.
乔可能感受不到这种异国美食的复杂气味
Plus, the way we react to smells is determined in part by our experiences.
此外 我们对气味的反应一部分取决于经历
Odors can stir up memories and emotions in people.
气味可以唤起人们的记忆和感情
So if you grew up eating durian, it
如果你从小到大都吃榴莲
might trigger fondness rather than revulsion.
你可能会喜欢这个味道 而不是反感
Some cheeses stink to the high heavens
有些奶酪臭气熏天
but people so love them some stinking cheese.
但还是有人非常喜欢发臭的奶酪
Or maybe we here in America just aren’t getting good durian.
也许只是因为美国人没有吃到好的榴莲
There are echelons of durian.
榴莲有不同的类别
There’s some durians that are highly prized where
有些榴莲饱受赞誉
the seeds are small, the meat is large.
核小肉多
And there’s some that are like good for transporting
也有一些榴莲方便运输
those aren’t always good.
但并不总是好吃
Parnass told us that he thinks durian gets a bad rap in
帕纳斯认为榴莲在美国名声不好
United States, because, well, we’re just not getting very high quality durian
是因为我们买不到高品质的榴莲
And that, my friends, is the science of a very odorous fruit.
朋友们 这就是关于榴莲味道很大的科学解释
Have you ever had durian?
你吃过榴莲吗?
What’s your verdict on the “king of fruits”?
你怎么看待“水果之王”?
Let us know in the comments.
请将观点写在评论区
I personally think it tastes like an avocado and a mango
我个人认为它尝起来就像鳄梨
had a baby, and then fed that baby nothing but garlic.
芒果和大蒜混合在一起的味道
Ends and words of Joey Tribbiani “I like it!”
以乔伊·崔比安尼的台词“我喜欢”结束
Be sure to hit the thumbs up and subscribe
在出发去寻找美食之前
before you head out to find one of these beauties for yourself.
记得先点赞并订阅哦
Thanks for watching.
感谢收看
化学反应
美国化学会

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视频概述

你吃过榴莲吗?你喜欢吃榴莲吗?榴莲为什么气味这么大?为什么有人喜欢有人厌恶?今天这个视频将会解开这些谜题

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0v0n6tKPLc

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