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这道简单的问题50%的哈佛学生竟然都答错了 – 译学馆
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这道简单的问题50%的哈佛学生竟然都答错了

The simple riddle that 50% of Harvard students get wrong

Consider this simple question,
思考一下这个简单的问题
that more than 50 % of Harvard students got wrong.
超过50%的哈佛学生都答错了
A bat and a ball costs $1.10.
一个球拍和一个球共花了1.10美元
The bat costs one dollar more than the ball.
球拍比球多花了1美元
So, how much does the ball cost?
所以这个球花了多少钱?
Ten cents, right? Well,
本能告诉你是10美分 对吗?
that may be your initial instinct, but the correct answer is five cents.
但正确答案是5美分
This trick question is the first
这个问题是
one that appears on the Cognitive Reflection Test,
认知反射测试中的第一个问题
a simple test, with only three questions.
这是一个简单的测试 只有三道题目
Professor Shane Frederick from Yale University
来自耶鲁大学的教授谢恩·弗雷德里克
Designed the measure to test how well people could suppress their initial reaction
设计了这个测验来测试人们抑制本能反应
in favor of a more thoughtout answer.
以得到一个更严谨的答案的能力
Now, he gave this test to about 3,500 people.
至今 他让大约3500人做了这个测试
Most of them being college students. Yet,
多数都是大学生
in the end he found
然而 结果发现
that only 17 % could get all three correct.
只有17%的人能3题全答对
This is concerning. Because other researchers have found
这令人担忧 因为其他研究者发现
that the worse you perform on this test,
你在这个测试中表现越差
the more prone you are to cognitive biases.
你就越容易产生认知偏差
Furthermore, your score on this test
而且 你在这个测验中的分数
also correlates with your SAT score.
也和SAT的分数有关联
So, for only three questions it is quite a revealing measure.
所以 这3个问题一定程度上揭示了一些现象
Yet, there is a surprisingly simple way
有一个非常简单的方法
to improve your performance on this test,
能让你在这个测试中得到高分
if you present the questions in a harder to read font.
即以更难读的字体来呈现这些问题
This time, 65% of people get all three questions correct.
这次 65%的人能3题全对
It is a staggering improvement.
这进步多么惊人
What’s more surprising is that this strange effect
更令人惊讶的是
of font shows up in a variety of other circumstances.
这种奇怪的字体在很多场合使用
For example, fonts that are harder to read also improve memory and learning.
例如 难读的字体同样能提高记忆和学习效率
In one public school in Ohio researchers asked teachers to change the font used
俄亥俄州的公立学校要求老师
in their worksheets and powerpoint presentations.
改变他们工作表和PPT演讲的字体
Instead of the usual Times New Roman or Arial,
而不是用新罗马字体或Arial字体
students would now have to read fonts like Monotype Corsiva Now,
现在的学生得看Monotype Corsiva字体
you’d think that this would actually
现在 你会认为
hinder the learning process, right? Yet,
这可能会妨碍学习 是吗?
compared to classes with the normal font,
然而 通过和常用的字体对比
these students scored significantly higher in their later tests. So,
这些学生后来的成绩明显更高
why does this happen? Well,
为什么会这样呢?
this effect reveals an interesting fact about how our brains process information.
该结果反映了一个关于我们大脑如何处理信息的有趣现象
You may have heard that we have two distinct patterns of thinking.
你可能听说过我们有两种不同的思维模式
System 1 and System 2.
模式1和模式2
System 1 thinking is quick, intuitive and effortless.
模式1下思考迅速 凭靠直觉容易得出答案
It’s the type of processing that helps you instantly
这个处理信息的模式能
recognize faces, answer questions like 1+1, and say
帮助你快速辨别面孔 回答像1+1之类的问题
10 cents to the bat and ball problem.
包括回答买球拍和球问题中10美分买到球的答案
On the other hand, system 2 thinking is slow,
另一方面 模式2思维更慢
analytical and more effortful.
需要认真分析得出答案
This is the one that kicks in when you concentrate on a problem.
当你认真思考问题的时候 就会调用这个模式
And the one that said 5 cents to the bat and ball problem. Now,
也就是模式2下你说出了5美分这个答案
it’s important to know that most
现在 关键要知道
of the time our brains are operating on system 1 thinking. But,
我们大脑的大部分时间都在模式1下运作
there are a few things that
但是 有些时候一些事物
will alert the brain to switch to system 2.
能让你快速转换到模式2去思考
One of them is cognitive strain.
其一是认知紧张
If something is hard to process,
如果问题难以理解
your brain will switch to a more deliberate type of thinking.
你的大脑会转换成更严谨的思维模式来思考
And so, one way
所以
of increasing cognitive strain is to use a harder to read font.
提高认知紧张度的方法之一是用更难读的字体
This is why people normally fail the cognitive reflection test,
这就是为什么大家通常认知反应测试不及格的原因
but when you use a harder to read font,
但当你用更难读的字体时
they are suddenly thinking more carefully.
他们的思考就会突然变得严谨
As for the effect it has on learning, here
关于难读字体在学习方面的影响
a harder to read font would induce a deeper processing
更难读的字体会让人对获取的信息深加工
of information, leading to a better understanding. Now,
来更好的理解问题
unfortunately this effect can also be used to fool you.
不幸的是 这个效应现在也用来愚弄你了
For example, if researchers present a statement like Adolf Hitler was born
比方说 如果研究者用较易读的字体阐述
in 1892 in a more readable font,
阿道夫·希特勒出生于1892年
participants will rate it is
参与者会认为这是真实的
as being truer and will believe it comes from a more expert source.
并相信它有一个更权威的出处
This is because without that cognitive strain,
这是因为我们没有认知紧张
we are less likely to question these types of statements. So,
不会质疑这些陈述
how can you use this effect to your advantage? Well,
那么 怎样将这些效应为己所用呢?
here’s one trick you can apply it to.
这有个小把戏你会用到这个效应
Let’s say that you’ve written your
比如说你写了简历
resume or an essay and need to proofread it,
或论文 然后需要仔细校对
since the words are so familiar to you,
由于这些字体看起来太熟悉了
a lot of typos fall through. However,
许多错字你会看漏
next time try changing the size
而下次你尝试改变字体大小
and font to a more difficult to read one.
并换成更难读的字体
By increasing cognitive strain,
通过提高认知紧张度
you use more of your system 2 thinking and hence be better at spotting typos. Also,
你会以模式2来思考问题因而找到更多错字
in case you were wondering,
当然了 怕你惦记着
here are the 2 other questions in the Cognitive Reflection Test.
认知反应测试的另两个问题也告诉你吧
2. 5台机器制作5个部件需要5分钟 那100台机器制作100个部件需要多长时间?
3. 湖上的睡莲叶每天增加一倍 如果盖满整片湖需要48天 那盖满半片湖需要多长时间?

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视频概述

我们的大脑有两种思维模式,是什么决定我们日常思考能力呢?

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