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心理学如何在谈判的时候帮上你

The simple psychological trick to exploit when bargaining

砍价很难
Haggling is hard.
难受的是
It’s uncomfortable too.
如果你要买房子,汽车或者只有某些定价高的
But whether you’re buying a house, a car or just some the overprice souvenir,
你无法承担的礼物就得避开它
you can’t afford to shy away from it.
那么 心理学如何能帮你促成更好的交易呢
So how can psychology help you get a better deal?
研究发现 有一种强大的潜意识是你可以利用的
Well, turns out there’s a powerful subconscious process you can exploit.
并且尽管人人身上都有这种潜意识
And while it’s happened to everyone,
人们却几乎从未提起过
it’s hardly mentioned,
它被称为抛锚
it’s called ‘anchoring’.
锚定是指 在一个不熟悉的环境下
Now, anchoring states that in unfamiliar situations,
我们的思维对第一眼看到的信息非常信赖
our minds rely too heavily on the first piece of info we see,
所有之后接收的想法和信息都会在那个最初信息的基础上来解读
all thoughts and information that comes afterwards are interpreted based of that initial info.
一般来说这会给我们带来正确的估计
Normally this gives us the good estimate,
但是 问题就在于 如果这第一个展示出来的信息是不相关
but the problem arises when the first piece of info is a irrelevant or wrong
或是错误的
to show you.
想象一下 你正看着一双最火的鞋
Imagine you’re eyeing a hottest pair of shoes,
你看了一下价签
you check the price tag
不幸的是 这上面写着300美金
and unfortunately it’s $300,
这对你来说太贵了
which is too expensive.
但是 就在那个时刻
But at that exact moment
一个销售员走过来 告诉你这鞋降价到150美元
a sales person approaches you telling you these shoes are marked down to 150.
这就比较划算了 对吧?
That’s a bargain, right?
你可能就一冲动想买了
You’re probably tempted to buy it.
好吧 现在再想象一下 相同的场景
Okay, now imagining the same scenario,
但这回 这双鞋子一开始就标价150美元
but this time that pair of shoes starts off at 150.
没有降价
No markdowns.
瞬间你就觉得这并不划算了
Suddenly it’s not a bargain,
你就会犹豫要不要买它了
and you more hesitant to buy it.
虽然这完全是不合理的
And yet this is completely irrational,
因为最终的价格完全一致
because it’s the exact same final price.
这就是了
What’s happening
第一个例子中 你的锚定在300美金
is in the first example you mind is anchored to the $300
那么 当你把300美金和150美金比较的时候 后者显然更加合理
and when you compare it to 150 it just feels more reasonable.
事实上 营销人员总会利用你的这个认知缺陷
In fact, marketer is constantly exploit you with this cognitive flaw
因为这非常强大
because its powerful,
无法察觉 甚至基本上无法避免
undetectable and almost unavoidable.
例如 美国市场营销协会发布的一项研究中提出
For instance, in a study published by the American Marketing Association,
超市尝试了一个新策略来销售罐装汤
the supermarket tried a new tactic to sell canned soup.
他们告诉每个人罐装汤有9折的折扣
They told everyone that there was a 10 percent discount of the canned soup
并且每个顾客限购12罐
and enforced a limit of 12 cans per customer.
现在你可能会想 不管怎样我都不会想要买12个罐头的
Now you might be thinking I wasn’t gonna buy 12 cans anyway.
但这不是重点
But that wasn’t the point.
重点是让你在无意中锚定了12这个数字
The point was to secretly anchor you to the number 12,
并且 果然
and sure enough,
有了12罐的限制 顾客们平均购买量是7罐
with the limit of 12, shoppers bought 7 cans on average,
这是没有限购时的两倍
twice as many as they bought when there’s no limits.
就这个简单的标志让利润翻倍了
That simple sign doubled profits.
那么 你如何在谈判的时候用上锚定呢?
So how can you use anchoring in negotiations?
第一个窍门是出价
Well, the first trick is to make the initial offer.
一个基于16个不同研究的分析发现
And an analysis of 16 different studies found that
无论你在讨价还价的对象是什么
regardless of what you’re haggling over,
一开始就出价总是对你有利的
you always better off offering first.
因为出价就定下了谈判的空间
This is because the initial price sets the playing field for negotiation.
你率先出价
By offering first,
另一方就锚定了你的出价
the other party is anchoring to your initial price,
而不是反过来
not the other way around.
第二个窍门就是提出一个精确的报价
The second tip is to make a precise offer.
不幸的是 你已经被这个窍门坑过了
Unfortunately you’ve ready fallen for this trick.
你是不是曾经好奇过为什么你从来没看到车以17000这样的整数出售
Ever wonder why you never see cars sell for a round number like 17000?
永远都是16995
It’s always 16995.
弗罗里达大学的研究人员发现
Well, researchers from the University of Florida found that
一个精确的报价会让人们锚定在精确的数量级
a precise offer and anchor people to precise scale,
这个的意思就是 如果你以30美元这样的整数销售玩具
what this means is if you sell a toy for a round number like $30,
人们就会把这个数字放在10美元这个数量级
people might place that on a scale of tens of dollars,
那么当他们调整他们的锚定金额时
so when they adjust their anchor,
他们就会步子比较大 也许会压价到20
they’ll take larger steps and maybe counter offer 20.
但是 如果原价是29.75美元
But if it’s $29.75,
他呢下意识地以分为单位考虑 压价幅度也会比较小
they subconsciously consider the cents and adjust in smaller steps,
因此他们的价格跟出价更接近
therefore, they stay closer to bid
而你也可以得到更好的交易
and you get a better deal.
总之
Overall,
最棒的谈判策略就是简简单单提出一个精确的出价
the great negotiation tactic is simply to make the precise first offer.
下次谈业务的时候记得要小心锚定
So be cautious with anchoring the next time you doing business.

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视频概述

谈判时候的锚定理论是个神奇的东西,你在生活中也经常见到哦!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

可可天使

审核员

译学馆审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xSe604627c

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