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是什么让我们飞的比风快 – 译学馆
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是什么让我们飞的比风快

The Simple Discovery That Let Us Fly Faster Than the Speed of Sound

现在的战斗机毫不费力便能超过音速
Modern day fighter jets can travel faster than the speed of sound without breaking a
但是 在70年前 1947年的10月14日 没人能够
sweat, but until, 70 years ago on October 14 of 1947; no human had ever traveled that
以这么快的速度飞行
fast.
那些近距离见过飞机失控 吓到颤抖的人们
Those who came close saw their aircraft become uncontrollable, or shake themselves to pieces,
使得一些人相信 载人飞行的速度不可能超过音速
leading some to believe that manned flight faster, than the speed of sound, was impossible.
似乎存在着“音障”
There seemed to be a “sound barrier.”
而我们想打破它
And we wanted to break it.
你可能会好奇 为什么音速在航天方面如此重要
You may be wondering why the speed of sound is important in aviation at all, and to understand
要了解这个 你首先要明白什么是音速
that you have to remember what sound is in the first place.
机灵鬼玩具的波动便是它的具象化
Watching a wave travel down a slinky is a good visualization.
在空气中 声音以纵向波形式传播 也就是说
In a gas, sound travels as a longitudinal wave, meaning that it propagates when air
分子聚集又散开 声音才得以传播
molecules bunch together and then space out again.
观察机灵鬼玩具的波动是不错的具象化选择
Watching a wave travel down a slinky is a good visualization.
[暂停]
[pause]
飞机在空中行驶会产生音波
As planes fly through the air, they create sound waves.
但如果飞行速度够快 就能追上自身产生的音波
But if the planes go fast enough, they start to catch up with their own sound waves.
空气分子无法相互避让 只得猛烈撞击对方
Air molecules get rammed into each other faster than they can get out of the way, and the
波积聚成一股强大的冲击波 — 这就是当一架超音速飞机经过时
waves pile up to form a powerful shock wave — that famous sonic boom observers hear when
音速观察员听到的声音
a supersonic jet goes by.
不过 突然的极端气压只是开始
But, the sudden and extreme air pressure is just the start.
在冲击波作用下 空气分解为湍流尾流 它能在飞机的不同部位
As the air behind the shock wave breaks up in a turbulent wake, it can swirl and violently
形成漩涡和击打 导致抖振和阻力增加
slap at different parts of the plane, causing buffeting and increased drag.
对老式飞机来说 这是个坏消息
For the airplanes of old, this was bad news.
首先 推进系统会出现问题
First, there was the problem of the propulsion system.
当螺旋桨旋转时 叶片的尖端能打破音障
As a propeller spins, the tips of the blades can actually break the sound barrier.
随之发生的是 空气开始出现漩涡和增加阻力
When that happens, the air starts swirling and increasing drag, and the prop’s efficiency
推进力就会变弱
drops.
或许完全不同的螺旋桨设计能解决这些问题 但是
Maybe these problems could be overcome with a radically different propeller design, but
到二战结束之前 我们发射了火箭弹 发明了喷气式发动机
by the end of WWII, rockets had advanced and the jet engine had been invented, so there
没有太多必要把精力放在改进螺旋桨上
wasn’t much point trying to force the poor propeller to do a job it wasn’t suited for.
在喷气式发动机取代了旧式螺旋桨后 接近音速的问题
Even with the jet engine replacing old propellers, there was another problem to overcome at speeds
仍然未得到解决 那就是机翼
close to the speed of sound: the wings.
老式飞机的机翼不足一提 不过当我们以
Wings on old aircraft were straight as a 2×4 and when we were puttering around at subsonic
亚音速飞行时 他们表现的很好
speeds, they worked just fine.
然而一旦飞机达到神奇的音障 也就是近音速时
But when airplanes are right around that magical sound barrier, at what’s known as transonic
直翼上的气流的表现会让人出乎意料
speeds, the airflow over straight wings does something you might not expect.
也就是说 他们会比声速更快
Namely, it actually goes faster than the speed of sound.
这里可以让你想明白机翼的工作原理
This makes sense when you consider how a wing fundamentally works.
机翼的上部是弧形的 使得那里的气流更快
They’ve got that curved shape on top to make the air on that side travel faster.
但一旦气流更快 快过音速 将会产生
But if the air on top of the wing goes faster than the speed of sound it’ll form, you
你猜是什么 一个冲击波
guessed it, a shock wave.
正如我们所料 冲击波后的气流会带来一片混乱
And just like before, the air behind that shock wave gets all turbulent as it expands,
产生极大的拖拽 甚至将机翼表面的气流
increasing drag dramatically and maybe even separating airflow from the wing’s surface
完全分开
altogether.
我们讲的这些东西可不是好事
Which, those thing I have told you, is a bad thing
解决方法简单到天才 将机翼向后拉
So, the solution was as simple as it was genius: sweep the wings back.
通过将机翼拉一个角度 一些空气从机翼下流过
By placing the wings at an angle, some of the air travels down the wingspan, and the
剩下的空气流过机翼时加速稍慢所以飞机可以飞行更快
rest accelerates across the wing more slowly, so the aircraft can fly faster before running
而不会遇到机翼冲击波的问题
into the problems of a shock wave on the wing.
这意味着战斗机不需要彻底突破音障
That means the fighter jet doesn’t have to work as hard to break through the sound
而且如果这么做 冲击波产生处将从
barrier completely, and when it does shock waves that form on top of the wing travel
机翼顶部转变到后缘 在那里阻力更弱
to the trailing edge where they cause less drag.
随着强大的引擎和后掠的机翼 曾经似乎
With powerful jet engines and swept wings, the sound barrier that once seemed so solid
坚不可摧的音障已经被轻易粉碎
is now routinely smashed.
这让我们不禁怀疑 今天看上去不可能的事
It makes you wonder what other things that seem impossible today will be routine in the
未来或将稀松平常
future.
了解更多改变未来的传奇创新 请点击如下网站
For more epic stories of innovation that shaped our future, check out TheAgeOfAerospace.com
如果你喜欢这个节目 请为我们捐赠
If you liked this video I vote you go ahead and subscribe.
你是否知道可以去用光波创造音爆
Did you know it’s possible to create something like a sonic boom but with light waves?
不知道?
No?
这里就可以明白
Trace explains how, here.
下一个航空的伟大创新 你想明白哪个?
What’s the next big innovation you’d like to see in flight?
近地轨道航线?
Low earth orbit passenger routes?
平价超音速交通?
Affordable supersonic transport?
更宽的扶手?
Wider arm rests?
都让我们一同了解下次在Seeker不见不散
Let us know in the comments and I’ll see you next time on Seeker.

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视频概述

机翼和动力系统的进步是如何帮助人类突破音障的

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Yf56MeCwMo

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