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《杯酒人生》效应

The Sideways Effect

The idea that a film, radio program or TV episode can influence a generation of people
一部电影 广播节目或电视剧能影响一代人
seems like a scary thought.
这想法似乎很吓人
Yet, time and time again, we’ve seen that the events in a fictional world
但是 我们常看到网络世界的事件
can have consequences in our real world.
影响到现实世界
Some far more sinister than others.
有些后果比其他的更为可怕
The 2004 indie smash hit Sideways follows two men
2004年红极一时的电影《杯酒人生》
-Miles played by Paul Giamatti and Jack played by Thomas Hayden Church
讲述了迈尔斯和杰克
who take a trip to wine country together,pursuing very different goals.
两人一起到酒乡 追求不同的目标
The banter, honesty and undeniable tragedy of Giamatti’s Miles charmed audiences
在电影放映时 迈尔斯搞笑 现实又难避免的
at the time of the film’s release.
悲剧人生吸引着观众
In particular, his infamous monologue in which
尤其当他在晚餐时
he curses at the prospect of drinking Merlot at a dinner
诋毁梅乐酒的一段独白
seems to have struck a nerve with the moviegoers of the time and so,
这段话似乎戳到了该时期电影观众的痛处
the popular red wine’s sales experienced a significant dip.
导致此类受欢迎的红酒销量大幅下跌
Thus, the Sideways Effect was born.
因此《杯酒人生》效应产生了
A concept that encompasses the idea that
该效应是指 电影和其他叙事方式
film and other narrative mediums can elicit such a visceral audience response
能够引起观众发自内心的回应
that it has an effect on the outside world,
而这种回应能够影响外界
leaving the confines of the screen and manifesting itself in reality.
电影脱离了荧幕 在现实中发挥其影响力
To find the first true example of this,
为找到首个该效应的真实案例
we have to go back to the early 20th century.
我们得回到20世纪早期
D.W. Griffith’s 1915 film The Birth of a Nation
1915年D·W·格里菲斯《一个国家的诞生》
is an epic set just after the Civil War.
是一部背景为美国内战刚结束的叙事电影
Though a work of fiction, the film explores the U.S. during the era of Reconstruction
虽然故事虚构 但它探索了美国重建时期
as the country attempted to contend with the aftershocks of a brutal and divisive war.
美国当时试图应对国家分裂战争后的动荡
The film’s calling card is its racist and vulgar depiction of Black people
电影的特点是歧视黑人 抹黑黑人
and its glorification of the Ku Klux Klan.
以及对三K党的美化
At the time of the film’s release, the KKK had basically died out as an organization.
电影上映时 三K党组织基本消失
By the end of the 19th century,
19世纪末
it was more a group of disparate gangs operating on their own
三K党是由不同的自治性团伙组成
rather than the organized criminal syndicate we think of today.
并不是今天意义上的组织性犯罪集团
Sadly, the premiere of the film and its subsequent screening at the White House,
遗憾的是 电影的首映式和随后
as requested by President Woodrow Wilson,
按伍德罗要求在白宫的上映
led to a resurgence of the Klan throughout the 1910s and beyond.
催生了三k党在1910年代及以后的复兴
The film was essentially propaganda, and its success was scary.
该电影本质是一种宣传运动 其成效显著
Membership of the KKK exploded,
三K党的成员数量激增
and race relations in the United States were plunged back into conflict and despair.
美国的种族关系再次陷入矛盾和绝望之中
It’s impossible to quantify how much the film itself played into the overall sentiments
我们无法估量这部电影本身在
white people had toward Black people,
白人对黑人态度上的影响程度
but it had an undeniable effect.
但其影响不可否认
This dark side of the Sideways Effect isn’t unique to The Birth of a Nation.
《杯酒人生》效应的消极影响与《一个国家的诞生》并无二致
Steven Spielberg’s 1975 blockbuster Jaws had such an infamous impact on shark populations
史蒂文1975年的大片《大白鲨》严重影响了鲨鱼数量
that it was also given its own “effect”.
它也产生了自己的“效应”
Before the film’s release, humans had little context
在电影放映前 没有什么证据证明
to support an opinion of sharks one way or the other.
鲨鱼是这样或那样
Sure, they have always been a bit scary, but was anyone actually worried about them?
鲨鱼的确有点吓人 但所有人都忧虑鲨鱼吗?
When the film was released, its music, cinematography and,
电影放映时 其音乐 拍摄技术
of course, the dreaded image of a fin slicing through water,
当然还有水面上可怕鲨鱼鳍的画面
all combined to create the ultimate vision of terror,
都组合成一幅恐怖的景象
one that was seared into audiences’ brains.
给观众留下了深刻的印象
Even after the film ended, the associations remained.
即使电影结束 这些联想依旧存在
And so following the release of the movie in 1975, shark populations decreased by the
1975年电影上映后 鲨鱼数目大量减少
thousands thanks to fishermen and sailors hunting them as trophies.
由于渔民和水手们把它们当做战利品
The truth is that sharks are not cold-blooded killers who thirst for human flesh.
事实上 鲨鱼不是嗜血的冷血杀手
In fact, only about a dozen of the more than 400 known species of sharks
实际上 在400种已知的鲨鱼种类中
have ever been involved in an attack on humans.
仅有约十二种曾被发现袭击人类
But Jaws had changed that perception in the minds of an entire generation.
但《大白鲨》却已改变了整整一代人的想法
As a result, to this day, an estimated 100 million sharks are killed each year.
时至今日 每年约有1亿只鲨鱼被捕杀
The effect of this fictional story was so disastrous that the writer of the book that
这本虚构小说产生的影响如此恶劣
the movie was based on, Peter Benchley,
以至于此书的作者皮特·本奇利
wishes he had never written about the villainous great white.
希望他从未写过邪恶大白鲨的故事
It’s important to make a distinction between
重点是需要区分一下
the way Jaws and the Birth of a nation affected moviegoers
《大白鲨》和《一个国家的诞生》影响观众的方式
and the way Sideways influenced a generation of wine drinkers.
与《杯酒人生》影响一代饮酒者的方式
The increase in shark hunting was a result of the fear Jaws created around sharks
捕鲨的增加是由于《大白鲨》制造的恐惧
great whites in particular.
尤其是大白鲨
On the other hand, Sideways had a more subtle impact.
但《杯酒人生》的影响更为微妙
Its ideas were buried deep in characters,
其想法深藏于人物的刻画
similar to Tom Cruise in Top Gun.
像《壮志凌云》中汤姆·克鲁斯的表演
The original Top Gun is known as one of the greatest action movies ever made,
首部《壮志凌云》被认为是有史以来最伟大的动作电影之一
and was the perfect vehicle for an actor
也是像汤姆·克鲁斯这样的演员
like Tom Cruise to dazzle and inspire us.
发挥其魅力的绝佳之作
The film glorified the U.S. Navy,
电影美化了美国海军
going as far as to invent the idea that it uses pilot rankings and trophies
甚至利用飞行员排名和奖励
to help the organization look and feel more like a sports team.
让组织看起来更像一支球队
There was a brotherhood depicted that invariably made the U.S Navy look,
电影描绘的兄弟情谊让美国海军看起来
well, fun.
嗯 很有趣
It seemed like the Navy itself was aware of the potential appeal of the film
海军似乎也嗅到了电影潜在的吸引力
as they famously set up recruiting sites outside theaters all over the country
在电影首映期间
during the film’s initial release.
海军在全国各大剧院外设置了招募点
This led to an incredible 500% increase
导致在电影首映一年后
in recruitment in the year after the film premiered.
招聘人数增长了5倍 令人难以置信
Does that mean Top Gun was produced and financed by the U.S. government?
美国政府是否制作投资了《壮志凌云》?
Probably not.But we may never know for sure.
可能不是 但我们无法确定
But the timing of the film’s release – when the US was in the middle of a cold war –
但是电影上映期间 美国正处冷战时期
and the decision of the Navy to stage recruitment sites outside of theaters
同时海军决定在剧院外设置招募点
certainly raised some eyebrows.
这的确招人怀疑
The history of storytelling is long and complex.
叙事的历史漫长复杂
Humans have been telling stories since we had language, maybe even earlier than that.
人类在语言产生后(或更早)就讲故事
And since the beginning, these tales were designed not just to entertain,
从一开始 讲故事的目的就不只是娱乐
but also to inform and shape our thoughts, beliefs and actions.
还有提供信息 塑造思想 信念和行为
So what does this say about our nature as humans?
所以这能证明人类天性是怎样的呢?
Are we naturally easily influenced,
我们是天生就容易被影响
or is there something innately persuasive about the media we consume?
还是我们消费的媒体天生就有说服力?
I think the answer lies somewhere in between the two.
我认为答案介于两者之间
The outward, aggressive nature of The Birth of a Nation and Jaws
《国家的诞生》和《大白鲨》的外向侵略性
represent a base, simplistic manipulation of the human psyche.
展现出一种基本且简单的人心操控术
These stories want us to feel something specific:
这些叙事想让我们感受负面情绪
fear, hate, anger.
如恐惧 厌恶 愤怒
They play on simple emotions, things we have all experienced or felt,
利用简单的情绪 我们经历或同感过的事情
things we see every day around us.
我们的日常所见
They are political because they are obvious.
它们是政治性的 因为很明显
We know what they want us to feel and think.
我们知道他们想让我们怎么想
But films like Sideways and even Top Gun are different.
但是《杯酒人生》和《壮志凌云》不同
They present us with a set of ideas hidden away inside of a character and
他们展现了一套隐藏在人物形象内的观念
that gives them authority.
且这赋予了他们权威
Maverick is an authority because he’s great at what he does.
马弗瑞克就是一种权威 因为他擅长他做的事
He’s likable, a little flawed, so he’s relatable.
他招人喜欢 有点缺陷 让人产生共鸣
The same can be applied to Miles
迈尔斯也一样
– who is presented in the film as an “expert” on wine –
他在电影中扮演的是一位红酒“专家”
and so naturally, we believe these characters.
自然而然的 我们相信这些角色
Even when that’s all they are, characters.
即使他们只是角色而已
It’s unlikely that the writers of Top Gun or Sideways
《壮志凌云》或《杯酒人生》的作者
were trying to accomplish anything by having Miles rant about Merlot
试图通过让迈尔斯抱怨红酒
or with Maverick doing cool tricks in his fighter jet.
或让马弗里克在战斗机里炫技来完整人物
In film terms, these actions are expository,
电影术语中 这些是说明性的动作
they are meant to tell us about the characters
他们意欲借此展示角色形象
so we build empathy, a relationship.
所以我们产生共鸣 建立联系
We formed such a strong relationship with these fictional characters,
我们与这些虚拟人物产生强烈的共感
in fact, that we started to subconsciously act like them.
事实上 我们在潜意识里已经开始了模仿
We stopped drinking Merlot.
我们不喝梅乐酒
We started joining the Navy.
我们开始加入海军
Today, social media apps like TikTok and Instagram
今天 抖音和ins之类的软件鼓励我们
encourage us to tell stories about our lives and personal experiences.
讲述生活体验和个人经历
It’s normal to talk to our phones about something that
对我们来说 谈一些生活中发生的事
went on in our day and post it online.
然后发到网上很正常
We scroll past dozens of videos every day
我们每天刷很多视频
featuring different people telling various stories.
看不同的人讲各种各样的故事
We watch vlogs, beauty tips, mukbangs, cooking videos, all day, every day.
看vlog 美妆 吃播 烹饪 整天 每天
We are affected with stories and imagery exponentially more than
这些事会影响我们 在这些事上产生的联想
we were when The Birth of a Nation was released,
比在《一个国家的诞生》或《大白鲨》
or even when Jaws or Sideways came out.
或《杯酒人生》上映时更丰富
This made me wonder; has the increase in the volume of stories we consume
这使我好奇 了解越来越多的事
affected the potency of the Sideways Effect?
是否会影响《杯酒人生》效应的效力?
Are films still able to affect us today in the same way they did
电影能否以上个世纪之交影响我们的方式
at the turn of the last century?
在今天继续影响我们?
The short answer is maybe not.
总之 可能不会
While more recent films such as Blackfish have likely increased
尽管近期像《黑鲸》之类的电影让我们
our awareness of issues and created a shift on a political or conscious level,
更关注此类问题 在政治或意识层面上改观
I can’t think of a clear-cut example of a recent film that
但我想不出一个像《杯酒人生》这样
spontaneously changed the trajectory of something like Merlot sales
自发改变梅乐酒销售轨迹的例子
or the number of sharks hunted each year.
或像《大白鲨》这样影响鲨鱼捕猎数量
Perhaps this might also be due to everyone having access to information now
也许是由于获取信息的人比先前多
more than ever, and as a result, we can easily fact check things.
因此 你可以很容易地核对信息
Maybe, maybe not.
也许是 也许不是
In the end, the Sideways Effect is just another way of saying that,
《杯酒人生》效应只是展现我们的另一种方式
as people, we will always see ourselves in the images and stories we consume.
我们总会在电影人物和情节中看到自我
We will always interpret how we see them,
总是解释我们如何看待角色
we will always make assumptions and draw our own conclusions.
我们作出假设 得出结论
Or maybe it says something about the movies we watch,
或者谈一些我们看过的电影
about their intention, their desire to change and affect us.
谈谈他们改变和影响我们的意图
Either way, we are in a constant state of change,
不管怎样 我们处在不断的变化之中
and stories – movies, TV, radio, podcasts- will affect that change
故事 电影 电视 播客 都会有影响
whether we want them to or not.
无论我们想不想要

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视频概述

电影等传播媒介对我们思想和行为产生的巨大影响,这能说明我们天生就容易受影响吗?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YuLBdK_2gcM

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