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疫苗的副作用-风险有多高 – 译学馆
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疫苗的副作用-风险有多高

The Side Effects of Vaccines - How High is the Risk?

Vaccines are celebrated for their part in fighting disease.
疫苗因能预防疾病而受到重视
But a growing group of people seem to believe that
但似乎越来越多的人认为
they endanger our health, instead of protecting it.
疫苗不能保护我们 反而有害健康
The Internet is full of stories about allergic reactions:
网上铺天盖地地报道疫苗致敏事件:
the onset of disabilities, and even death following vaccination appointments.
比如有人在接种疫苗后瘫痪甚至死亡
And it’s true vaccines can have side effects.
疫苗的确有副作用
Let’s look at how they work, and how dangerous they really are.
一起来看看疫苗的作用机制以及风险
《科学坚果》
Your immune system is a complex army of billions of cells:
人的免疫系统由几十亿细胞构成 犹如一支军队
soldiers, intelligence cells, and weapons factories.
这里有士兵 情报员以及兵工厂 非常复杂
Everyday, you’re attacked countless times,
人体每天受到的攻击不计其数
but your immune soldiers alone usually deal with that,
而免疫战士独自抵御了这些攻击
so you don’t even notice.
所以你甚至没有任何感觉
If an infection becomes serious though,
如果感染变得严重
our intelligence cells gather intel about the attackers
情报员细胞便会收集攻击者的信息
and activate our weapons factories.
并激活兵工厂
You know the weapon: antibodies.
兵工厂生产的武器即抗体
They’re like targeted missiles produced specifically to combat the invader.
它们好比定向导弹 专门攻击入侵者
Unfortunately, this process takes several days to complete.
但是 生产这种定向导弹需要几天时间
That gives intruders a lot of time to do damage.
这给了入侵者许多时间损害人体健康
Contrary to popular wisdom,
与大众观点相反
what doesn’t kill you doesn’t make you stronger.
没有打倒你的事物并不会使你变得更强
Our bodies really don’t want to fight serious wars over and over,
我们的身体实在不愿一次又一次地进行激烈战斗
so our immune system came up with an ingenious way
因此 免疫系统想出了一个绝妙的方法
to get stronger and stronger over time.
随时间推移使自己越来越强
If we fight an enemy that is dangerous enough
如果入侵的敌人非常危险
to trigger our heavy weapons,
触发了我们的重武器
our immune system automatically creates memory cells.
免疫系统便自动产生记忆细胞
Memory cells remain in our body for years in a deep sleep.
记忆细胞会在体内存活好几年 呈休眠状态
They do nothing but remember.
它们只负责记忆
When an enemy attacks for a second time,
当同一敌人再次入侵时
the slumbering memory cells awaken,
休眠的记忆细胞被唤醒
and order coordinated attacks and the production of antibodies.
它们命令其他细胞进行联合攻击并产生抗体
This is so fast and effective,
这种方法快捷有效
that many infections you beat once will never make you sick again.
很多感染你只要打败过一次 就不会再让你生病了
You might even be immune against them forever.
你甚至可能永远对它们免疫
Which is also why little kids are constantly ill,
儿童体内的记忆细胞数量不足
they don’t have enough memory cells yet.
所以他们常常生病
And this beautiful natural mechanism
人体这种奇妙的防御机制
is what we build on when we use vaccines.
是我们使用疫苗的基础
How Vaccines Work
疫苗的作用机制
As great as memory cells are,
虽然记忆细胞非常重要
obtaining them through an infection is unpleasant
但通过感染来获得它们并不是一个好主意
and sometimes dangerous.
有时也很危险
Vaccines are a way of tricking our bodies into making memory cells,
疫苗伪装成危险的传染病
and becoming immune to a disease
诱导人体产生记忆细胞
They pretend to be a dangerous infection.
从而使人体对某种疾病免疫
One way of doing this is to inject invaders that can’t do harm.
其中一种获得记忆细胞的方法是注射无害的入侵者
For example, by killing them, or by ripping them into pieces.
比如 已被杀死或撕碎的病原体
Our immune systems deal with these kinds of vaccines pretty easily.
我们的免疫系统能轻松地消灭它们
Sometimes it’s necessary to make our immune system work harder though,
但有时 免疫系统必须加速运转
to produce even more memory cells.
才能产生更多的记忆细胞
Live vaccines are the real deal.
活疫苗才是实用的
An enemy that can punch back is a bigger challenge than a dead one.
与死去的相比 会反击的敌人能激发更多记忆细胞
But this also sounds like a sort-of horrible idea.
但这听起来有点吓人
What if the germs win?
如果活菌赢了怎么办?
To avoid that,
为了避免这种情况
we breed a sort-of weak cousin of the real germ in the lab.
人们在实验室里培育出了病原菌虚弱的近亲
Just powerful enough to annoy the immune system, and create enough memory cells.
只要强到能诱导免疫系统 产生充足的记忆细胞就行了
Okay. So these are the basic principles of vaccine use.
这就是疫苗的基本工作原理
They provoke a natural reaction in our bodies
它们激发体内的自然免疫反应
that makes us become immune against very dangerous diseases.
使人体对危险的疾病免疫
Some like the flu virus, mutate so often
有的病毒经常发生变异 比如流感病毒
that we need a new vaccine every year,
我们每年都要研制预防流感的新疫苗
but most vaccines protect us for years, or even a lifetime.
但大部分疫苗能保护我们很多年 甚至终生
But, there’s a catch.
但值得注意的是
Like everything in life, vaccines have another side:
正如世间万物 疫苗也有不好的一面
Side effects.
那就是副作用
What are they,
副作用是什么?
and what happens if your child develops one?
如果发生在你孩子身上怎么办?
The Risks of Vaccines
疫苗的风险
It’s complicated to directly compare the side effects of vaccines
直接比较疫苗的副作用和疾病本身的危害
with the effects of diseases.
有些复杂
For example,
举个例子来说
hundreds of millions of people are vaccinated against measles in the West,
2018年 西方世界共有几亿人口接种了麻疹疫苗
but there were only 83,000 cases in Europe in 2018.
而欧洲患上麻疹的只有83000人
So with numbers that different,
由于接种人数和患病人数相差甚远
even mild side effects can seem
即使是轻微的副作用
scary compared to the bad effects of a disease that we don’t see as much anymore.
与一种不常见疾病的不良影响相比 也显得可怕
Before the measles vaccine became available in 1963,
在1963年麻疹疫苗普及之前
virtually every single child on Earth contracted measles at some point.
地球上的每个孩子实际上都感染过麻疹
An estimated 135 million cases in the 1950s,
20世纪50年代 每年的麻疹病例
every single year.
就有约1.35亿
But are measles really that dangerous in the year 2019?
但在2019年 麻疹还如此可怕吗?
With our advanced healthcare and new technologies,
如今我们有先进的医疗技术
are they worth the risk of vaccine side effects?
还有必要承担接种疫苗带来的风险吗?
Let’s do a thought experiment based on real numbers.
我们以实际数据来作一个假设
Imagine a developed country in a parallel world.
假如平行世界的某个发达国家
It has good healthcare
医疗条件良好
but people stop vaccinating.
但人们不再接种麻疹疫苗
In this scenario, let’s say 10 million children caught measles.
这种情况下 假如有1000万麻疹患儿
What happens?
会怎么样呢?
9,800,000, or 98 %, will get a high fever
980万或者98%的儿童将会发高烧
and a very unpleasant rash.
并且出现非常严重的皮疹
Up to 800,000 of them, or 8 %,
其中多达80万或者说8%的儿童
will suffer from dangerous diarrhea.
会出现严重腹泻的症状
700,000 or 7 %, will suffer from an ear infection,
70万或7%的儿童会有耳部感染
which can lead to permanent hearing loss.
可能会永久性失聪
600,000 kids, or 6 %, will suffer from pneumonia —
60万或6%的孩子会得肺炎
the most dangerous effect of measles.
肺炎是麻疹最严重的并发症
It alone will kill 12,000 children.
仅这一种并发症就导致12000名儿童死亡
Up to 10,000 children, or 0.1% will get encephalitis.
1万名或0.1%的孩子会患上脑炎
2,500 kids, or 0.025%,
2500名或0.025%的儿童
will contract SSPE,
会患上亚急性硬化性脑炎
a disease where the measles virus lingers in their brain
当脑部感染了麻疹病毒 就会得这种病
and kills them a few years later.
患儿只能存活几年
Taken together, around 2.5 million children
总共约有250万儿童
will suffer from somewhat serious effects from measles.
会受到麻疹并发症的影响
And about 20,000 children will be killed by measles.
2万左右的儿童会因此丧生
It doesn’t stop here though.
麻疹的危害还不止这些
The kids who beat measles are left
得过麻疹的儿童
with a severely damaged immune system
免疫系统遭到了严重破坏
that needs a lot of time to regenerate.
他们需要很长时间来恢复
Time for other diseases to do further damage.
此时其他疾病乘虚而入 给这些儿童造成更多伤害
Aside from that, what’s almost guaranteed
此外 可以肯定的是
is that your kids will have a really bad time for about two weeks.
麻疹患儿会度过非常痛苦的两周
Okay, but what about vaccines?
那么 注射疫苗有什么风险呢?
It’s only fair to look at these risks, too.
公平起见 我们也要讨论这个问题
So let’s repeat our thought experiment.
所以我们再做一个假设
But this time, we vaccinate ten million children with MMR.
这次 我们给1000万儿童注射麻疹疫苗
What would theoretically happen here?
理论上会发生什么呢?
After being vaccinated,
在接种疫苗后
of ouf 10 million kids, around 10% get a fever.
在1000万儿童中 约有10%的儿童会发烧
500,000 or 5%, will get a mild rash.
50万或5%的儿童会起轻微的皮疹
Up to 100, or 0.001%,
最多100个或是0.001%的孩子
might have a serious allergic reaction and will have to be treated.
会出现严重的过敏反应且必须接受治疗
Up to ten boys, or 0.0001%,
最多有10个或0.0001%的男孩
might get inflammation of the genitalia.
可能会出现生殖器发炎
And up to 10 kids in total, or 0.0001%,
并且总共仅有10个或0.0001%的儿童
might get the most serious side effect: encephalitis.
会患上麻疹最严重的并发症:脑炎
So we vaccinated ten million kids.
所以给1000万个儿童注射疫苗的话
In total, around 120 have side effects somewhat serious
总共约120名儿童身上会出现疫苗的副作用
Thanks to good medical treatment in developed regions,
由于发达地区医疗技术先进
almost all of them will be fine.
这些儿童几乎都会痊愈
What about autism?
自闭症也能治好吗?
The connection of autism and vaccines stems from
人们把自闭症和疫苗联系起来是因为一篇文章
one source that has been disproven countless times.
这篇文章已无数次被证实是错误的
We’ll link to further reading and videos in the description.
后面的链接中有关于这篇文章的更多信息和视频
But in 2019, it’s fair to say that vaccines do not cause autism.
但在2019年 可以公平地说疫苗不会导致自闭症
All right, but what about deaths?
那么 疫苗致死事件呢?
It’s really hard to say if even a single one
很难说 接种过疫苗的1000万名儿童中
of our 10 million vaccinated kids would die.
是否会有一人因疫苗而死亡
We really did look hard and talked to a lot of different experts.
我们做了大量研究并咨询了各领域的专家
If we ignore self-reporting,
如果忽略自报的疫苗致死案例
we could only come up with a tiny handful of documented cases
自1971年以来 在接种过麻疹疫苗的几亿儿童中
for all the hundreds of millions of children who received the MMR vaccine since 1971.
只有极少疫苗致死案例记录在案
Measles are many, many thousands of times more dangerous for your child
即使与麻疹疫苗最大的副作用相比
than even the absolute worst case of vaccine side effects.
麻疹本身的危害要严重几千倍
You have to search for lethal vaccine side effects
即使你拿着巨型放大镜
with a huge magnifying glass
也很难找到
and even then, it’s very hard to find confirmed cases.
麻疹疫苗的致死案例
While deaths from measles are real and easy to find.
然而 你却很容易找到麻疹的致死案例
In 2017 alone,
仅在2017年
110,000 people died from measles worldwide.
全球就有11万人死于麻疹
Statistically, today, 300 children will die of measles.
从统计学来讲 今天会有300名儿童死于麻疹
One since this video started.
从视频开始算起 已有一名儿童死于麻疹
You can compare vaccines to seatbelts.
你可以把疫苗比作安全带
Are there weird freak accidents where someone gets killed by their seatbelt?
是否发生过人被安全带勒死的怪事呢?
Well, yes.
是的 发生过
But do you personally think it’s safer to not put a seatbelt on your kid?
但你会因此觉得不系安全带更安全吗?
Wait a second!
等等
What if your kid is actually allergic?
如果你的孩子确实对疫苗过敏怎么办?
What if none of the things we’ve said applies to your specific situation?
假如前面讲的例子和你的具体情况都不相符呢?
In this case, you need to become the greatest vaccination promoter of all.
如果是这样 你应该给予疫苗最大的支持
Because if your children can’t be vaccinated,
这是因为 如果你的孩子不能接种疫苗
only the collective can protect them.
只有其他儿童都接种了 他才不会被传染
This is called herd immunity,
这叫做群体免疫
and it’s the only thing
你的孩子没有接种疫苗
that can protect your unvaccinated child.
而群体免疫是保护你孩子的唯一办法
Herd immunity means that
群体免疫的意思是
enough people are immune to a disease,
有足够多的人对某种疾病免疫
that it can’t spread, and dies before it reaches its victims.
病毒就不能传播 还没到达它的受害者就死亡了
But to accomplish this for measles alone,
仅以麻疹而言 达到群体免疫
95% of the people around you need to be vaccinated.
就需要周围95%的人都接种麻疹疫苗
Conclusion
总结
The problem with the debate about vaccines is
有关疫苗的争论存在一个问题
that it’s not fought on a level playing field.
各方论证自己观点的方式有失公平
While the pro-vaccine side argues with studies and statistics,
赞成疫苗的人用试验和统计数据证明他们的观点
the arguments against them are usually a wild mixture of gut feeling,
而反对疫苗的人总是用直觉
anecdotes, and misinformation.
小概率事件以及谣言来论证他们的观点
And feelings are often immune to facts.
他们相信直觉 对事实免疫
We’ll not convince anybody by screaming at them.
大喊大叫无法说服反对疫苗的人
But we can’t hide from the reality of what anti-vaccine conspiracies do.
但我们不能忽视反对疫苗带来的危害
They kill babies too young to be vaccinated.
太多婴儿因未能注射疫苗而患病死亡
They kill healthy children that are just unlucky.
这些孩子本来很健康 却遭遇如此不幸
They bring serious diseases back from the verge of extinction.
疫苗反对派把快被消灭的疾病又带回到人们身边
And the biggest side effect of vaccines is fewer dead children.
疫苗最大的“副作用”是减少死亡儿童的数量
Vaccines are one of the most powerful tools we have
疫苗是我们最有力的武器之一
to eradicate the monsters that most of us have already forgotten.
它消灭了那些已被多数人遗忘的怪物
Let’s not bring the beasts back!
所以我们不要再把那些野兽带回来了
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译制信息
视频概述

关于疫苗接种的基本信息以及人们对待疫苗的态度与争论

听录译者

Csy

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zBkVCpbNnkU

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