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世界上最著名的交响曲的秘密

The secrets of the world’s most famous symphony - Hanako Sawada

《TED教育》 值得分享的课程
“我内心的东西必须释放出来 这是我作曲的理由” ——路德维希·凡·贝多芬
[贝多芬《第五交响曲》的开头]
These eight ferocious notes
八个震撼有力的音符
open one of the most explosive pieces of music ever composed.
开启了史上最具爆发力的音乐作品之一
Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony Number Five
路德维希·凡·贝多芬的《第五交响曲》
premiered in 1808, on a blisteringly cold Vienna night.
首演于1808年 维也纳的一个酷寒之夜
The piece was just one small part of a lengthy program,
当时 这部作品只是冗长节目的一小部分
and the orchestra had been hastily assembled and under-rehearsed.
乐队是匆忙拼凑的 也没有经过排练
But despite this inauspicious premiere,
然而 尽管首演运气不好
the symphony quickly won acclaim.
这部交响曲却很快赢得了赞誉
One critic likened the piece to “glowing beams of light, piercing through the darkness.”
某位乐评人将它比作“一道亮光 穿越了黑暗”
This intensity persists throughout the composition,
全曲铿锵有力
and its dramatic musicality continues to move listeners today.
跌宕的旋律至今仍感动着听者
So what exactly makes Beethoven’s Fifth so captivating?
那么 贝多芬的《第五交响曲》到底有什么魔力?
When the symphony premiered, Beethoven already had a formidable reputation.
这部交响曲首演时 贝多芬已享有盛名
While his peers produced music exclusively for religious functions or private events held by their wealthy patrons,
在同时代的作曲家只为宗教或金主的私人演出谱写乐章时
Beethoven was one of the first freelance composers.
贝多芬已是第一批自由作曲家之一
He made his living composing and selling his music to publishers in multiple countries
他作曲并将作品卖给多国的出版商
and showcasing his compositions to an adoring public.
并为粉丝演奏自己的作品 以此来谋生
This career choice gave him the flexibility to compose for self-expression
这种职业选择 给了他以作曲来表现自我的自由
and Beethoven was always pursuing new ways
贝多芬一直在寻求新的表现形式
to translate his powerful emotions into music.
来将激烈的感情转化为音乐
At the time, most composers worked within the Classical style,
当时 大多数作曲家创作古典风格作品
which offered limited options for a piece’s overarching structure and instrumentation.
这类风格作品的总体结构和乐器使用都很局限
Beethoven composed most of his earlier pieces in this tradition,
贝多芬的大部分早期作品就属于古典主义
following in the footsteps of role models like Mozart and Haydn.
属于是步莫扎特和海顿等前辈之后尘
But with his Fifth Symphony, he experimented with elements of Romanticism.
但在《第五交响曲》 他尝试了浪漫主义元素
This blossoming mode of composition was known for its expressive melodies,
这部蓬勃的作品以富有表现力的旋律
extended forms and surprising instrumentations.
恢弘的结构和让人意外的配器而闻名
The first movement of Beethoven’s Fifth uses a Classical sonata form,
贝多芬《第五交响曲》第一乐章采用古典奏鸣曲式
in which a central musical idea is explored, developed, and repeated in an altered manner.
即一个主部主题以变式呈现 发展 再现
Within these parameters,
在这些音乐要素中
he explores a simple idea with incredible depth.
他探索了一个简单但极具深度的理念
A single rhythmic motif serves as the building block for most of the movement:
以单个旋律动机为基础来构筑乐章的大部分
three short notes, followed by a lingering fourth.
这个旋律动机就是 三个短音 后跟一个长音
One of Beethoven’s biographers would later call this pattern the “fate motif,”
后来 某位贝多芬传记作者称之为“命运动机”
because it suggests the figure of fate knocking at the door.
因为它让人联想到命运在叩门的形象
While it’s not clear if Beethoven composed the motif with fate in mind,
虽然我们不清楚贝多芬创作动机时是否想到命运
these notes certainly create a gripping hook.
但这些音符确实牢牢抓住听者的心
The rhythmic pattern creates forward movement,
这个旋律形式将乐章向前推进
while the prolonged fourth note signals doom.
而第四个长音预示着终结
This motif haunts the symphony,
这个动机贯穿整部交响曲
including its accompanying parts and rhythmic flourishes.
包括副部和旋律装饰乐句
Beethoven experiments with dozens of variations,
贝多芬通过多种不同的乐器和不同的调性
playing out across different instruments and pitches.
试验发展出了非常多的变奏
Throughout the piece, this motif is passed around the orchestra like a whisper,
整部作品中 这个动机浅吟低唱般游荡于不同乐器中
gradually reaching more and more instruments until it becomes a roar.
渐渐地 越来越多的乐器奏出这个动机 汇集成轰鸣
The motif’s inventive repetition is a large part of
这部交响曲之所以令人印象深刻
what makes this piece so memorable,
创新的动机重复起了很大作用
but it’s not the only innovation on display.
但它表现出的革新不止于此
This was the first major orchestral composition to use trombones,
这是史上第一次将长号运用于大型交响乐
and Beethoven also employs a high-pitched piccolo and a low-pitched contrabassoon
贝多芬还用到了高音乐器短笛和低音巴松管
to give the orchestra a wider range than most classical compositions.
打造出比大部分古典作品更宽广的音域
Exaggerated musical dynamics further heighten the drama.
强烈的音乐力度进一步加强了戏剧性
And harmonically, the piece has a clear emotional arc—
这首曲子有着和谐清晰的情感变化
beginning in a somber C minor and ending in a triumphant C major.
以沉郁内省的C小调开场 以高奏凯歌的C大调收尾
This progression, from ominous unease to majestic resolution,
从惶恐不安到心意已决的感情演变
is a testament to Beethoven’s ability to inject raw emotionality into his music.
是贝多芬将真情实感融入进音乐的实证
He wrote this symphony while battling with hearing loss,
他创作该曲时正与失聪搏斗
and his anguish can be heard in the composition’s thunderous and repeating musical phrases.
从磅礴和重复的乐句中 我们能听出他极度的痛苦
Beethoven continued to compose even after he became completely deaf,
甚至在完全失聪后 他仍然作曲
producing innovative music until his death in 1827.
创作出革新性的作品 直至1827年去世
And the Fifth Symphony’s central motif has continued to resound through the ages,
《第五交响曲》的主题动机回响了数个世纪
outside of concert halls, the piece has become a symbol for suspense, revelation, and triumph.
响入千家万户 这个曲子成了紧张 启示 胜利的标志
The fate motif sounds out the letter V in Morse code,
如果把命运动机转换成摩斯电码 就是字母V
and during World War II, the Fifth Symphony became a code for victory amongst the Allies.
在二战中 《第五交响曲》成了盟军中胜利的信号
The iconic composition can be found in film scores,
你能在电影配乐中发现这个标志性的乐曲
and it’s even been explored through musical reinterpretations and visual art.
甚至通过音乐改编 视觉艺术 带来新的诠释
But whatever the context,
但不管哪种情景
Beethoven’s Fifth takes its listeners through a dark world,
贝多芬的《第五交响曲》都带领听者穿越黑暗
then guides them into the light.
指引他们走向光明

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视频概述

历经数个世纪,贝多芬《第五交响曲》仍能给人诸多感动,它是如何被创作出来的呢?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7n0tNSFJQ34

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