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莫扎特的“魔笛”之谜 – 译学馆
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莫扎特的“魔笛”之谜

The secrets of Mozart’s “Magic Flute” - Joshua Borths

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塔米诺王子 穿过黑森林
A boy named Prince Tamino runs through a dark wood
一条龙追赶着他
pursued by a dragon.
正当龙跳起来要吃他的时候
Just as it rears up to devour him,
三个神秘的女人出现了
three mysterious ladies appear
一声怒吼把龙杀死了
and slay the dragon with their fierce battle cry.
沃尔夫冈·阿玛多伊斯·莫扎特的作品“魔法长笛”
So begins Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s “Die Zauberflöte,”
或被称为“魔笛” 由此诞生
or “The Magic Flute.”
这是一部动听的歌唱剧
This fantasy singspiel,
是一种带有音乐和对话的民族歌剧
a type of folk opera with music and dialogue,
在1791年 魔笛在维也纳首次演出
premiered in 1791 in Vienna.
尽管魔笛看起来是个幼稚的童话故事
Though it may seem like a childish fairytale,
但是这部错综复杂的歌剧充满了颠覆性的象征意义
this intricate opera is full of subversive symbolism,
并且 魔笛被认为是历史上最有影响力的歌剧之一
and it’s now regarded as one of the most influential operas in history.
塔米诺被龙追赶仅仅是他旅程的开始
Tamino’s run in with the dragon is only the start of his journey.
这三个女人召唤了她们的主人 也就是夜后
The three women summon their leader, the Queen of the Night.
而夜后却让塔米诺从邪恶的祭司长萨拉斯特罗手中
She, in turn, sends Tamino on a quest to rescue her daughter Pamina
去解救她的女儿帕米娜
from the evil sorcerer, Sarastro.
为了帮助塔米诺 夜后给了塔米诺一支魔笛
And to help him on his journey, she gives him the titular magic flute.
最终 塔米诺在祭司长的寺庙里找到了帕米娜
Tamino eventually finds Pamina at Sarastro’s temple,
但是深入敌人后方
but behind enemy lines,
塔米诺和帕米娜得知他们帮错人了
Tamino and Pamina learn that they’re on the wrong side.
其实是夜后想要让世界陷入黑暗之中
The Queen of Night actually wants to plunge the world into darkness.
塔米诺的认知被颠覆了
Everything Tamino thought he knew was wrong,
他困惑而迷茫
filling him with doubt and confusion.
所以塔米诺和帕米娜有了新的任务
So, a new quest begins for Tamino and Pamina.
他们必须通过三个智力考验
They must pass three trials of wisdom,
只有这样光明才能战胜黑暗
and only then can the day vanquish the night.
借助魔笛的力量 两个年轻人通过了这三个考验
Helped by the flute’s magic power,
但是夜后试图阻止他们
the two youths overcome these trials and the Queen’s attempts to sabotage them.
最终 他们走进了神殿 维持了昼夜间的平衡
They’re finally initiated into the temple having restored balance to the kingdom.
这个独特的童话所包含的很多元素
Many elements in this peculiar fairytale
很受启发于莫扎特参加的共济会
were inspired by Mozart’s involvement in Freemasonry,
共济会是一个遍及欧洲的兄弟会组织
a network of fraternal organizations throughout Europe.
他们大部分历史 象征意义和仪式来自中世纪
Much of their history, symbolism, and ritual came from the Middle Ages.
在莫扎特加入共济会的这段时间里
But the Freemasons of Mozart’s time
他也深受18世纪欧洲理想主义的影响
were also influenced by 18th century European ideals –
包括理性主义 人文主义和对传统权威的质疑
rationalism, humanism, and skepticism towards traditional authorities,
比如对王室和教会的质疑
like monarchy and the church.
共济会的象征标志和启蒙运动的思想
The symbols of Freemasonry and these ideals of the Enlightenment
都能在这部歌剧中发现
are found throughout the opera.
可能是受当时大环境影响 这听起来有点阴谋论的感觉
If this sounds like a conspiracy theory, that’s because it sort of was at the time,
但是现在这部作品开始受到重视
but it’s now taken quite seriously
并且已经成为了许多学术性出版物的主题
and has been the subject of considerable scholarly publication.
例如 一些研究莫扎特的学者认为
For example, some Mozart scholars believe the Queen of the Night
夜后象征着玛丽亚·特蕾莎 罗马帝国的王后
symbolizes Maria Theresa, the Empress of the Holy Roman Empire
她反对共济会并且禁止共济会出现在奥地利
who opposed Freemasonry and banned it in Austria.
然而 目前对于歌剧中
While there continues to be debate as to the specific meaning,
关于共济会的具体含义 衍生意
interpretation,
乃至地点等说法 仍然存在争议
and location of these masonic references,
但学者们一致认为 它们无疑是作者有意构成的
scholars agree that they’re there and are fully intentional.
其中一个象征标志中是数字三
One of these symbols is the number three,
在共济会中 它代表了平衡和秩序
which represented balance and order to Freemasons.
当然 现在数字三可以在任何故事中轻易找到
Now the number three is, of course, easy to find in any work of storytelling,
但在”魔笛”中尤为显著
but it’s particularly prominent in “The Magic Flute”:
三个考验
three trials,
三个女人
three ladies,
三种精神
three spirits,
和三扇门
and three doors,
作品的很多章节是用降E大调完成的
much of the music is written in E-flat major,
而在调号上又有三个降音
which has three flats in its key signature,
历史上 共济会仪式是由三次敲门开始的
and historically, masonic rituals began with three knocks.
这部歌剧开始于的三个雄伟的和弦 其后的停顿充满戏剧性
The opera references them by opening with three majestic chords
莫扎特借此呼应三次敲门仪式
complete with dramatic pauses.
而这些在整部歌剧中反复出现的和弦
Those chords, which reoccur throughout the opera,
则有着其他目的和意义
serve another purpose.
它们虽不起眼 却在表现戏剧性变化时不可或缺
They capture the dramatic arc of the opera in miniature.
第一个和弦降E调是在最自然的根音位置
The first chord, E-flat major, is in its most natural root position,
十分的简单和纯粹
simple and unadorned.
这与孩童般的塔米诺王子相呼应
It echoes the child-like Prince Tamino,
他那时十分天真
who, in his naiveté, accepts everything the Queen and her ladies say
对夜后和她的侍女说的话不疑有他
without question.
第二个和弦是C小调
The second chord is C minor,
在歌剧的中间部分 这一庄严的声响暗示着
a sour sonority that mirrors Tamino’s sadness and doubt
塔米诺的悲伤和怀疑
in the middle of the opera.
那时 他的世界里 天使和恶魔分划出现
That’s when his world and notions of good and evil get turned on their heads.
好与恶都只是歌剧中两种极端的体现
And good and evil are just two of the opera’s extreme opposites.
就像歌剧里面出现最高和最低音符
It features some of the highest and lowest notes in opera,
或是日与夜
day and night,
或是简单人性化的旋律和复杂有前瞻性的音乐
simple hummable melodies and complicated forward-looking music.
而这部歌剧中心主题就是平衡这些极端
The opera’s central theme concerns balancing these extremes
从而达到音律和谐
to achieve perfect harmony.
为了达到和谐
To reflect this,
在开场的最后一个和弦恢复了音乐的秩序
the final chord in the opening restores musical order.
歌剧回到了欢快的E大调
It returns to the triumphant E-flat major,
使用了开篇同样的和弦 但却是颠倒的
the same chord it started with but inverted,
莫扎特把原本置底的音符挪到了最顶上
meaning Mozart moved the bottom note to the top.
这既保留了其原始的和谐 又让和弦听起来声调更高
Although it retains its original harmony, the chord sounds higher,
这暗示了启蒙运动
pointing towards enlightenment.
这和塔米诺其实是一样的
That’s similar to Tamino,
他通过考验来恢复王国的平衡
who in passing his trials restores balance to the kingdom
从中成长起来 变得更具智慧而强壮
while growing stronger, wiser, and more complete.

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