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学习一门新语言的秘诀

The secrets of learning a new language | Lýdia Machová

我喜欢学外语
I love learning foreign languages.
实际上
In fact, I love it so much
这种痴迷让我每两年就想学一门新的外语
that I like to learn a new language every two years,
现在我正在学第八门外语
currently working on my eighth one.
当人们得知此事后 总是问我
When people find that out about me,they always ask me,
“你怎么做到的?你的秘诀是什么?”
“How do you do that? What’s your secret?”
说实话 这么多年来 我的回答总是
And to be honest, for many years,my answer would be,
“我不知道啊 我只是喜欢学语言 ”
“I don’t know. I simplylove learning languages.”
但是人们从来都不会对这个回答感到满意
But people were neverhappy with that answer.
他们想知道为何他们花了多年
They wanted to know why they are spending
试着学习哪怕只有一门语言
years trying to learn even one language,
却从未达到流利的程度 而我却能够学了一门再学一门
never achieving fluency, and here I come, learning one language after another.
他们想知道多语言者
They wanted to knowthe secret of polyglots,
即说多种语言的人的秘密
people who speak a lot of languages.
我也对此感到好奇
And that made me wonder, too,
其他的多语言者到底是怎么做的?
how do actually other polyglots do it?
我们有什么共同点吗?
What do we have in common?
是什么让我们
And what is it
较之他人能够更快的学习语言?
that enables us to learn languages so much faster than other people?
我决定见见其他像我一样的人 并试着找寻背后的答案
I decided to meet other people like me and find that out.
能够遇到很多多语言者的最佳地点
The best place to meet a lot of polyglots
是聚集了数百名多语言者的地方
is an event where hundredsof language lovers
他们在那里进行练习
meet in one placeto practice their languages.
世界各地有许多类似的多语言者活动
There are several such polyglot eventsorganized all around the world,
所以我决定去看看 打听一下他们
and so I decided to go there and ask polyglots
各自使用的方法
about the methods that they use.
我遇到了来自爱尔兰的本尼
And so I met Benny from Ireland,
他告诉我他用的方法是从第一天就开始说出口
who told me that his method is to start speaking from day one.
他从一本旅游指南上学了一些词组
He learns a few phrasesfrom a travel phrasebook
然后就去见母语者 立马和他们展开对话
and goes to meet native speakers and starts having conversations with them right away.
他不介意一天犯 200 个错误
He doesn’t mind makingeven 200 mistakes a day,
因为这就是他基于反馈的学习方式
because that’s how he learns,based on the feedback.
最棒的一点是
And the best thing is,
如今他甚至不需要出游
he doesn’t even need to travel a lot today,
因为你只需要呆在惬意的房间中
because you can easily haveconversations with native speakers
就能在网络上和母语者进行交谈
from the comfort ofyour living room, using websites.
我还遇到了来自
I also met Lucas
巴西的卢卡斯 他学习俄语的方法很有意思他就在
from Brazil who had a really interesting method to learn Russian.
Skype 上随机添加了
He simply added a hundred random Russian speakers
上百个说俄语的人
on Skype as friends,
然后打开其中一个人的聊天框
and then he openeda chat window with one of them
用俄语写下“嗨”
and wrote”Hi” in Russian.
然后对方回复 “嗨 你好吗?”
And the person replied,”Hi, how are you?”
卢卡斯了复制这段话
Lucas copied this and put it
再把它发给另一个人
into a text window with another person,
然后另一个人回复 “我很好 谢谢 你怎么样?”
and the person replied,”I’m fine, thank you, and how are you?”
卢卡斯又把这段话复制发给第一个人
Lucas copied thisback to the first person,
这样
and in this way,
他就让两个陌生人在完全不知情的情况下
he had two strangers have a conversation with each other
展开了交谈
without knowing about it.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
过不了多久 他就可以自己打字了
And soon he would start typing himself,
因为他看了那么多的对话 已经知道俄语的交流
because he had so many of these conversations
大概是怎么开始的了
that he figured out howthe Russian conversation usually starts.
很聪明的办法
What an ingenious method, right?
是吧?此外 我还遇到了总是从
And then I met polyglots who always start
模仿声音开始学习语言的多语言者
by imitating sounds of the language,
从学习 500
and others who always learn the
个最常用词开始的多语言者
500 most frequent words of the language,
以及总是从学习语法开始的多语言者
and yet others who always startby reading about the grammar.
如果我去询问一百个多语言者
If I asked a hundred different polyglots,
我会听到关于学习语言方式的一百种不同的答案
I heard a hundred differentapproaches to learning languages.
每个人似乎都对学习语言有着独门秘笈
Everybody seems to have a unique waythey learn a language,
但是我们最终都能流利的说多种语言
and yet we all come to the same result of speaking several languages fluently.
当我倾听着这些多语言者
And as I was listening to
讲述他们学习语言方法的时候
these polyglots telling me about their methods,
我突然意识到:
it suddenly dawned on me:
我们有一个共同点
the one thing we all have in common
那就是我们找到了享受学习语言这一过程的方法
is that we simply found ways to enjoythe language-learning process.
所有这些多语言者在谈论语言学习的时候
All of these polyglotswere talking about language learning
都表现得像那是一种趣事
as if it was great fun.
你们应该看看当他们
You should have seen their faces
向我展示他们多彩的语法表
when they were showing me their colorful grammar charts
专心制作的语言卡片
and their carefully handmade flash cards,
他们语言学习软件上的统计量
and their statisticsabout learning vocabulary using apps,
甚至他们是如何爱上用外文菜谱烧菜时 脸上自豪的神情
or even how they love to cook based on recipes in a foreign language.
每个人都用着不同的方法
All of them use different methods,
但是他们做到了让这件事情变成一种享受
but they always make sure it’s something that they personally enjoy.
我意识到 这实际上也是我学习语言的方式
I realized that this is actuallyhow I learn languages myself.
当我学习西班牙语时
When I was learning Spanish,
我对书本上的文章没什么兴趣
I was bored with the text in the textbook.
我想说 谁想学胡赛
I mean, who wants to read about Jose asking
是怎么问去火车站的路的啊对吧?
about the directions to the train station.
相反 我想读《哈利·波特》
I wanted to read”Harry Potter” instead,
因为这是我孩童时期最喜欢的书
because that wasmy favorite book as a child,
而且我已经阅读了很多遍
and I have read it many times.
所以我买了本西语版的《哈利·波特》开始阅读
So I got the Spanish translationof”Harry Potter” and started reading,
毫无疑问 最开始我几乎什么都看不懂
and sure enough, I didn’t understandalmost anything at the beginning,
但是我坚持读了下来 因为我喜欢这本书
but I kept on readingbecause I loved the book,
直到读完此书
and by the end of the book,
我基本可以不费力的跟上故事情节
I was able to follow it almost without any problems.
同样的事情也发生在我学德语的时候
And the same thing happenedwhen I was learning German.
我决定看我最喜欢的电视剧《老友记》的德语版本
I decided to watch”Friends,”my favorite sitcom, in German,
同样的 最开始我基本上听不懂
and again, at the beginningit was all just gibberish.
我不知道一个单词在何处结束 另一个单词在何处开始
I didn’t know where one word finishedand another one started,
但是我坚持每天观看 因为这是《老友记》
but I kept on watching every daybecause it’s”Friends.”
我可以看不同的语言版本
I can watch it in any language.
我太喜欢这部剧了
I love it so much.
在看完两季或三季之后
And after the second or third season, seriously,
说真的 我能渐渐听明白对话了
the dialoguestarted to make sense.
在我遇到了其他多语言者之后 我才明白这一点
I only realized thisafter meeting other polyglots.
我们不是天才 我们也没有学习语言的捷径
We are no geniuses and we have no shortcut to learning languages.
我们只是找到了享受这一过程的方式
We simply found wayshow to enjoy the process,
以及如何将语言学习从一项枯燥的学校课程
how to turn language learningfrom a boring school subject
转变为一项你不介意每天都做的有趣活动
into a pleasant activitywhich you don’t mind doing every day.
如果你不喜欢在纸上写单词
If you don’t like writingwords down on paper,
那你可以在软件里面打单词
you can always type them in an app.
如果你不喜欢听无聊的课程材料
If you don’t like listeningto boring textbook material,
你总是可以在 YouTube 上或播客里找到任何一种语言的有趣内容
find interesting content on YouTubeor in podcasts for any language.
如果你是个内向的人
If you’re a more introverted person and you
不愿意马上就和母语者交谈
can’t imagine speaking to native speakers right away,
你总可以和自己练习对话
you can apply the method of self-talk.
你可以在自己的房间里 对自己说话
You can talk to yourselfin the comfort of your room,
描述你的周末计划 一天过得怎么样
describing your plans for the weekend,how your day has been,
甚至是从你的手机里随便选一张照片
or even take a randompicture from your phone
然后把它描述给你想象中的朋友
and describe the pictureto your imaginary friend.
这就是多语言者学习语言的方式
This is how polyglots learn languages,
而好消息是 这种方法对每个
and the best news is,it’s available to anyone
想要自主学习语言的人来说
who is willing to take the learninginto their own hands.
都是可行的所以 遇到其他的多语言者让我意识到
So meeting other polyglotshelped me realize
在学习语言的过程中
that it is really crucialto find enjoyment
找到乐趣是十分重要的
in the process of learning languages,
但是仅凭兴趣是不够的
but also that joy in itself is not enough.
如果你想要流利的说一门外语
If you want to achieve fluencyin a foreign language,
还需要遵守三大准则首先
you’ll also need to applythree more principles.
你需要找到有效的方法
First of all, you’ll needeffective methods.
如果你正为明天的考试复习
If you try to memorize a list
要去试着记住一系列单词
of words for a test tomorrow,
这些单词只会被储存在你的短期记忆里
the words will be storedin your short-term memory
而你过几天就会忘得一干二净相反
and you’ll forget them after a few days.
如果你想长期记住单词
If you, however,want to keep words long term,
就需要隔几天就复习
you need to revise them in the course
一下
of a few days repeatedly
用所谓的间隔重复法
using the so-called space repetition.
你可以试试基于这种方法设计的软件 譬如
You can use apps which are based on this system such
Anki或 Memrise
as Anki or Memrise,
或是在笔记本上用“黄金
or you can write lists of word
列表”法写下一系列单词
in a notebook using the Goldlist method,
这也在许多多语言者之间十分流行
which is also very popularwith many polyglots.
如果你不确定什么方法是有效的
If you’re not sure which methods
以及现在有些什么方法
are effective and what is available out there,
那么就去看看多语言者的YouTube 和主页
just check out polyglots’YouTube channels and websites
你可以从那里获得灵感
and get inspiration from them.
如果这些方法对他们适用 那么可能也对你适用
If it works for them, it will most probably work for you too.
你需要遵守的第三个原则 就是制定一套自己的学习体系
The third principle to follow is to create a system in your learning.
如今我们都很忙
We’re all very busy and no one really
没有人真正有时间去学习一门语言
has time to learn a language today.
但是如果我们事前计划一下 就能挤出那个时间
But we can create that time if we just plan a bit ahead.
你可以比平时早起15分钟吗?
Can you wake up 15 minutes earlierthan you normally do?
这段时间可以用来复习一些单词
That would be the perfect timeto revise some vocabulary.
你可以在开车去上班时听一段博客吗?
Can you listen to a podcast on your way to work while driving? Well,
这可以算是很不错的听力练习
that would be greatto get some listening experience.
甚至不需要提前规划时间
There are so many things we can do
我们也可以做很多事情
without even planning that extra time,
比如在上班的路上或是做家务时
such as listening to podcastson our way to work
我们可以听听播客
or doing our household chores.
重要的是 制定一个学习计划
The important thing isto create a plan in the learning.
“我要在每周二和每周四和朋友
“I will practice speakingevery Tuesday and Thursday
练习20分钟口语
with a friend for 20 minutes.
吃早饭时 我要听一段 YouTube 视频 ”
I will listen to a YouTube videowhile having breakfast.”
如果你建立了自己的学习体系
If you create a system in your learning,
就不需要挤出额外的时间
you don’t need to find that extra time,
因为这已经成为你每日生活的一部分了
because it will become a part of your everyday life.
最后 如果你想要流利掌握一门语言
And finally, if you want to learna language fluently,
还需要一点耐心
you need also a bit of patience.
一个人不可能在两个月之内就掌握一门语言
It’s not possible to learna language within two months,
但是如果你以自己喜欢的方式
but it’s definitely possible to make
每天学习一点点的话
a visible improvement in two months,
在两个月之内肯定可以取得显著的进步
if you learn in small chunks every day in a way that you enjoy.
没有比我们自己的成功更能
And there is nothingthat motivates us more
激励我们的了
than our own success.
我清晰的记得 当我第一次
I vividly remember the moment
看懂德语版《老友记》里面的笑话时的情形
when I understood the first jokein German when watching”Friends.”
我十分开心 备受鼓舞
I was so happy and motivated that I just kept
又忍不住多看了两集
on watching that day two more episodes,
随着我不断观看
and as I kept watching,
我能看懂的片段越来越多
I had more and more of those moments
这些小小的成就
of understanding, these little victories,
积少成多
and step by step,
使我可以自由熟练的
I got to a level where I could use the language
使用这个语言去表达任何事物
freely and fluently to express anything.
这种感觉太棒了
This is a wonderful feeling.
这种感觉总是让我意犹未尽
I can’t get enough of that feeling,
就成了我每两年就学习一门语言的原因
and that’s why I learn a language every two years.
这也是所有多语言者的秘密
So this is the whole polyglot secret.
找到你可以在一段时间内系统使用的有效方法
Find effective methodswhich you can use systematically
而且你还很享受
over the period of some time
这个过程
in a way which you enjoy,
这就是多语言者在数月而非数年内就能学会语言的秘诀
and this is how polyglots learnlanguages within months, not years. Now,
你们中的有些人可能会想
some of you may be thinking,
“享受语言学习固然美好
“That’s all very niceto enjoy language learning,
但是真正的秘密难道不是你们多语言者
but isn’t the real secretthat you polyglots
天生就比我们更擅长学习语言吗?”
are just super talentedand most of us aren’t?” Well,
先别急 关于本尼和卢卡斯 有件事我还没说
there’s one thing I haven’t told you about Benny and Lucas.
本尼在学校时学习了 11 年的爱尔兰盖德尔语和 5
Benny had 11 years of Irish Gaelic and five years of German at school.
年的德语而当他毕业时 却还完全不会用
He couldn’t speak themat all when graduating.
直到21
Up to the age of 21,
岁 他都认为自己没有语言天分
he thought he didn’t have the language gene
也学不会其他的语言
and he could not speak another language.
然后他开始找寻适合自己的语言学习方式
Then he started to lookfor his way of learning languages,
那就是和母语者交谈 并从他们那里得到反馈
which was speaking to native speakersand getting feedback from them,
而今天本尼可以毫不费力的用 10 种语言进行交流
and today Benny can easilyhave a conversation in 10 languages.
卢卡斯在学校学了 10 年的英语
Lucas tried to learn Englishat school for 10 years.
他是课堂上最差的学生之一
He was one of the worst students in class.
他的朋友们甚至取笑他
His friends even made fun
给了他一本俄语教材
of him and gave him a Russian textbook as a joke
想看他笑话因为他们认为他永远也不可能学会俄语 或是任何一门外言
because they thought he would never learn that language, or any language.
然后卢卡斯开始试验其他方法
And then Lucas startedto experiment with methods,
寻找适合自己的学习方式
looking for his own way to learn, for example,
比如 用 Skype 和陌生人聊天仅仅
by having Skype chat conversations with strangers.
10 年后 卢卡斯已经可以流利的说 11
And after just 10 years, Lucas is able to speak 11 languages fluently.
种语言这听起来是不是很神奇?
Does that sound like a miracle? Well,
如果是这样 那么我每天都会看到类似的奇迹
I see such miraclesevery single day.
作为一名语言教师 我帮助人们自学语言
As a language mentor, I help people learnlanguages by themselves,
我每天都能看到奇迹发生有些人
and I see this every day.
5 年、10 年甚至 20 年都在语言学习中挣扎
People struggle with language learningfor five, 10, even 20 years,
然后他们突然就能够将学习掌握在自己的手中
and then they suddenly taketheir learning into their own hands,
开始使用他们感兴趣的材料 更加有效的方法
start using materials which they enjoy,more effective methods,
或是开始记录自己的学习进度
or they start tracking their learning
这样他们才能肯定自己的进步
so that they can appreciate their own progress,
就在这段时间
and that’s when suddenly
他们突然神奇般的找到了自以为一直欠缺的语言才能
they magically find the language talent that they were missing all their lives.
如果你也曾试着学习一门语言
So if you’ve also triedto learn a language
然后你因为它太难了
and you gave up,thinking it’s too difficult
或是觉得自己没有语言天赋而放弃了
or you don’t have the language talent,
再试试吧
give it another try.
或许你离熟练的说一门语言只差一种合适的
Maybe you’re alsojust one enjoyable method away
让你乐在其中的方法
from learning that language fluently.
也许你离成为一名多语言者 只差那一种方法
Maybe you’re just one method awayfrom becoming a polyglot.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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