Hi! Welcome to another ColdFusion Video.
There’s no question that
the Internet has revolutionized humanity.
It is perhaps the greatest tool we have ever built
for better or for worse.
But how does it work? Who owns it?
Where is the Internet?
And who make sure it keeps running?
Today let’s explore the Internet,
its pioneers, the organizations that keep it running,
its present and its future.
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The revolution began in 1969.
During this time, the US Defense Department had a branch
called the Advanced Research Projects Agency or ARPA.
ARPA funded researchers developed many of the technologies
used for Internet communications today.
At first, they connected computers across a few universities
and called it ARPANET.
And over the next few years, ARPANET grew,
connecting more and more computers
and eventually inspiring the modern Internet.
Twenty years later,
English computer scientist, Sir Tim Berners-Lee,
was working at CERN in Geneva.
He was hired to fix the mess that grew out of the incompatibility
of different networks in CERN system.
His solution was the World Wide Web.
Although the Internet and the Web are often used two synonyms,
they’re not the same thing.
The Internet is the infrastructure of the network,
while the web sits on top of this
and it’s essentially a way to access information via the Internet.
Tim Berners-Lee invented the core
on which most websites work.
He allowed the internet to become uniform and usable,
yet he never patented his idea.
One can only imagine the riches he gave up
in order to allow for his invention to flourish.
The modern Internet is now a huge array of interconnected points across the globe.
So the question must be asked
“How exactly does the Internet
connect us all together?”
Well, cables span across entire oceans to connect countries.
This isn’t a new idea
as we’ve been laying cables since 1854
when construction began on the first transatlantic telegram cable.
The process is a surprisingly simple engineering feat
for the incredible complex technology.
Each cable consists of nothing more than some optical fibers
wrapped in materials for protection.
Globally, approximately 420 cables have been laid
spanning over 1.1 million kilometers as of 2017.
So here’s how it works.
A ship pulls a cable from one country to another.
And on the sea floor, cable is laid by sea plows
and dig a little trench for the cables to fall into.
Eventually natural ocean currents bury the cable.
If the ground is uneven however,
the cable is unburied and vulnerable to damage
from ship anchors and other natural disasters.
In 2008, one such disruption happened
due to cable damage.
About 60% of India and 70% of Egypt’s Internet services
to a briefly cut.
With this being said, damaged cables are not uncommon.
Repairs are constantly carried out on severed cables around the world.
But really, it is interesting to think of
how physically vulnerable the Internet is.
Of course, there are so many other routes for traffic to take.
That is almost nearly impossible to kill the Internet by just cutting off one cable,
especially in more recent times,
since satellites now circle the earth
beaming down the Internet from the skies.
After their path across the sea,
there are systems of cables spanning across your country
leading right up to your door.
That is, if you’re lucky and live in a place wealthy enough
and populated enough to allow for a cable connection to the Internet.
As a whole, the Internet is still growing
and about half of everyone that lives on earth has access to it.
So we still have yet to see what the Internet evolves into
by the time mass adoption reaches saturation.
So who owns the Internet?
Well, technically no one and everyone.
严格来说 它不属于任何人 它属于大家
The Internet itself is an autonomous interconnection of various voluntary networks.
So no one government or body
owns or controls the Internet.
However, governments have the ability
to control their citizens access to the Internet,
via laws that impact the Internet service providers or ISPs of that nation.
For example, China restricts its citizens from accessing Youtube.
the US government officially handed over the ownership of the database
which holds the domain names of the Internet to a body called ICANN,
or the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.
These guys have been overseeing this database
for the last 20 years.
This meant that we reached a point
where the ownership was given back to the people.
ICANN is an independent body
which is comprised of a multi-stakeholder community.
This means that ICANN tries to consult the Internet community about changes
and at least tries to be as open and as transparent as possible.
So it’s unlikely that you’ve ever heard of ICANN.
But the nonprofit organization performs one of the most important rituals
to keep the Internet safe.
They manage domain name system or DNS.
ICANN, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers,
which basically assigns web addresses.
The California-based organization is technically a not-for-profit,
but it has one of the biggest jobs in governing the Internet
to manage the domain name system or DNS.
This means that when you type in “www.google.com”
the response you receive is from Google
and not a fake version of Google created by nine trillion prints or other scammer.
Every three months, a group of trusted community members
gather to perform a ritual,
which will renew and insure the DNS system for the next three months.
The ceremony is recorded with tight security
such as guards, safes, cages and alarms.
配有警卫 保险箱 隔离室和警报器
In fact, the alarms are so sensitive that at one ceremony
a slamming door set off the seismic sensor,
locking people into one of the cages.
An evacuation had to be triggered to release them.
The master key is stored in a cryptographic device.
This device, if dropped or tampered with,
will erase all of its contents.
Fragments of keys are distributed
among the trusted members
ensuring that no one person can create the master key.
This requires the presence of at least five of these people to come together to do so.
At the heart of new system lies one master key.
That key is controlled by seven smart cards
locked in one of two high security deposit boxes,
one on the east coast, one on the west.
The keys to those boxes are scattered around the world
in the hands of two groups of seven online security experts.
This is just one organization that helps make sure the Internet runs smoothly.
But they’re not the only ones. There’s a host of others
such as the Internet Engineering Task Force
and The World Wide Web Consortium run by none other than Tim Berners-Lee.
These organizations set the standards, make the protocols
and ensure that the Internet is safe and open.
It’s undeniable that
the Internet has changed our lives forever.
It has taken over so many facets of our lives.
It’s allowed people to carry around every encyclopedia in the world
just in the palm of their hand.
I wonder how many people have used Google to solve arguments.
But with massive information also comes massive misinformation.
It’s much easier now for people to use conformation bias
to validate their own point of view
leading to the infamous echo chamber effect.
The use of social media has also drastically changed our lives.
It’s been said to be tearing apart the actual foundational fabric of how society functions.
I’ve discussed this all much further in my video –
The Death of Facebook
and I’ll leave a link for that below at the end of this video.
So of course the Internet has some negative aspects,
almost any technology does.
And this is because human nature
has to blame for the way we use the tools we made
not the tools themselves.
With that being said, the Internet also has many positives.
The Internet has given creators, artists, journalists and many others
互联网为发明家 艺术家 记者等等
a platform that would otherwise just not exist.
Your favorite youtubers
wouldn’t be able to make their videos without the Internet.
Michael from Vsauce has an old and still running segment
called Do You Online Now Guys or D.O.N.Gs.
叫做Do You Online Now Guys（D.O.N.Gs）
This series were simply lists of
amazing things that you can do on the Internet.
It’s one of the oldest serious that’s around,
but the greatest thing about it is that
it still captures the original wonder of the Internet.
Interesting topics organically trend
and more people view things that are generally interesting.
This is very unlikely to happen in the old world
where you’d stumble across an interesting topic
and a rigid magazine on newspaper
and it would just be for you.
You couldn’t share it instantly and discuss it
and develop a rapid wide community around it.
A rate of spread a magnitude of reach of information
that was only once possible if you owned a whole media outlet for a country.
It’s now to some extent
possible by anyone with an Internet connection and a potent message.
You can look at the French yellow vest protest
that had gained momentum after an online petition.
The WikiLeaks revelations that have gripped the attention of much of the world.
So it comes down to this,
the Internet is an immensely powerful tool.
But we have to use it right.
So how will the Internet evolve?
Well, for starters, it’s going to get faster.
5G is set to yield to at least a tenfold increase in speed.
There are some scientists and political figures who are questioning the safety of 5G.
These concerns arise from the high frequencies associated with the high data transfer speeds.
However, the frequencies produced by 5G
are an order of magnitude less than the current international limit of 300 gigahertz.
5G is set to arrive somewhere in 2019 or 2020
depending on which country you live in.
Perhaps the most uncertain part of the Internet’s future
is Article 13.
The European Union has recently approved a controversial copyright law
called Article 13.
As I discussed in my earlier video The End Of The Internet,
there are concerns that this new law may have a radical impact
on the way that we share and produce content.
The law passed by a sizable majority.
However, on the question of debating amendments,
five Swedish MEP members accidentally pressed the wrong button
meaning no debates and the vote was binding.
While the law has been amended since 2018
to exclude memes from its scope,
people still have fears that these laws will kill small independent creators,
and cause massive undesired side effects.
At the end of the day, we are the majority.
We are in control
and the Internet is what we make it.
So that’s just about wraps up the look at the Internet.
I hope you learned something about how the Internet works,
who controls it and its possible future.
Thanks for watching.
If you’ve just stumbled across this channel, feel free to subscribe.
This’s been Dagogo. You’ve been watching ColdFusion
and I’ll see you again soon for the next video.
Have a good one.
ColdFusion is new thinking.
Hi! Welcome to another ColdFusion Video.