ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

网络究竟是如何运作的? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

网络究竟是如何运作的?

The Secrets Behind how the Internet Works

Hi! Welcome to another ColdFusion Video.
嗨 欢迎收看新一期的《冷流科技》
There’s no question that
毫无疑问
the Internet has revolutionized humanity.
互联网已经彻底改变了人类生活
It is perhaps the greatest tool we have ever built
不管怎样 它或许是我们建造的
for better or for worse.
最伟大的工具
But how does it work? Who owns it?
但它是怎么工作的?它属于谁?
Where is the Internet?
它身处何方?
And who make sure it keeps running?
又是谁来保证它持续运转呢?
Today let’s explore the Internet,
今天我们就一起来探索互联网
its pioneers, the organizations that keep it running,
探索其创始人 维持它运转的机构
its present and its future.
以及它的现在和未来
You are watching ColdFusion TV.
您正在观看的是《冷流科技》
[music]
[音乐]
The revolution began in 1969.
这场变革始于1969年
During this time, the US Defense Department had a branch
当时 美国国防部有一个名为
called the Advanced Research Projects Agency or ARPA.
高级研究计划署的分支机构(ARPA)
ARPA funded researchers developed many of the technologies
ARPA资助的研究员开发了很多
used for Internet communications today.
当今用于互联网通信的技术
At first, they connected computers across a few universities
起初 他们将几所大学的电脑连起来
and called it ARPANET.
称之为ARPA网
And over the next few years, ARPANET grew,
接下来几年里 ARPA网不断发展
connecting more and more computers
联入了越来越多的电脑
and eventually inspiring the modern Internet.
并最终促生了现代互联网
Twenty years later,
二十年后
English computer scientist, Sir Tim Berners-Lee,
英国计算机科学家蒂姆·伯纳斯·李爵士
was working at CERN in Geneva.
在日内瓦的欧洲核子研究组织(CERN)工作
He was hired to fix the mess that grew out of the incompatibility
他被聘去修复CERN系统中
of different networks in CERN system.
因不同网络不兼容而造成的混乱
His solution was the World Wide Web.
他的解决方案就是创建万维网
Although the Internet and the Web are often used two synonyms,
虽然互联网和网站常被当同义词使用
they’re not the same thing.
但它们不是同一个东西
The Internet is the infrastructure of the network,
互联网是网络的基础结构
while the web sits on top of this
而网站存在于互联网之上
and it’s essentially a way to access information via the Internet.
本质上网站是利用互联网来获取信息的途径
Tim Berners-Lee invented the core
很多网站运行的核心技术
on which most websites work.
就是由伯纳斯·李发明的
He allowed the internet to become uniform and usable,
他使互联网趋于统一和实用
yet he never patented his idea.
但他从未为他的想法申请专利
One can only imagine the riches he gave up
人们只能估计为了发展万维网
in order to allow for his invention to flourish.
他放弃了多少财富
The modern Internet is now a huge array of interconnected points across the globe.
如今互联网已成了跨越全球的互联化点阵
So the question must be asked
因此我们不得不问
“How exactly does the Internet
“互联网究竟是如何
connect us all together?”
将我们所有人联系起来的?”
Well, cables span across entire oceans to connect countries.
光缆跨越海洋连接起了各国
This isn’t a new idea
这已经不是什么新鲜事
as we’ve been laying cables since 1854
早在1854年第一条跨大西洋的
when construction began on the first transatlantic telegram cable.
电报电缆就已经开始施工了
The process is a surprisingly simple engineering feat
相较于超复杂的跨洋光缆铺设技术
for the incredible complex technology.
施工过程却出人意料的简单
Each cable consists of nothing more than some optical fibers
光缆里面只有光导纤维
wrapped in materials for protection.
外面包着一层保护层
Globally, approximately 420 cables have been laid
截至2017年 全球约有420条光缆
spanning over 1.1 million kilometers as of 2017.
跨度总长约超过110万公里
So here’s how it works.
它是这样工作的
A ship pulls a cable from one country to another.
铺设船将光缆从一个国家铺至另一个国家
And on the sea floor, cable is laid by sea plows
在海床上 光缆被铺设在由缆线埋设机在
and dig a little trench for the cables to fall into.
海底冲出的一条光缆沟内
Eventually natural ocean currents bury the cable.
最后 借由海流让砂自然覆盖住电缆
If the ground is uneven however,
如果海底地面不平
the cable is unburied and vulnerable to damage
光缆就容易暴露
from ship anchors and other natural disasters.
受到船锚或其它自然灾害的损害
In 2008, one such disruption happened
2008年发生了一场因光缆受损
due to cable damage.
而造成的事故
About 60% of India and 70% of Egypt’s Internet services
导致印度约60%和埃及约70%的互联网服务
to a briefly cut.
临时瘫痪
With this being said, damaged cables are not uncommon.
话虽如此 光缆受损却很常见
Repairs are constantly carried out on severed cables around the world.
世界各地的破损光缆要不断进行维修
But really, it is interesting to think of
不过说真的 一想到互联网
how physically vulnerable the Internet is.
本质上这么容易受损就很好笑
Of course, there are so many other routes for traffic to take.
当然 还有很多其它通讯线路
That is almost nearly impossible to kill the Internet by just cutting off one cable,
仅切断一根光缆是不可能完全断网的
especially in more recent times,
尤其是在近现代
since satellites now circle the earth
因为卫星时刻环绕地球
beaming down the Internet from the skies.
并从空中与互联网对接
After their path across the sea,
整个海底光缆铺设完成之后
there are systems of cables spanning across your country
将有一系列光缆铺满整个国家
leading right up to your door.
直接连至你的家门
That is, if you’re lucky and live in a place wealthy enough
也就是说 如果你幸运地住在一个富裕
and populated enough to allow for a cable connection to the Internet.
人口密集的地方 就有机会连接到互联网
As a whole, the Internet is still growing
总的来说 互联网仍在成长
and about half of everyone that lives on earth has access to it.
地球上大约有一半的人可以使用它
So we still have yet to see what the Internet evolves into
所以直到大规模使用达到饱和时
by the time mass adoption reaches saturation.
我们才能看到互联网的真正潜力
So who owns the Internet?
那么互联网到底归谁所有?
Well, technically no one and everyone.
严格来说 它不属于任何人 它属于大家
The Internet itself is an autonomous interconnection of various voluntary networks.
互联网本身就是多种公共网络的自主互联
It’s decentralized.
它是分散的
So no one government or body
因此 没有任何政府或机构
owns or controls the Internet.
拥有或控制互联网
However, governments have the ability
然而 政府有权力通过影响
to control their citizens access to the Internet,
该国互联网服务供应商(ISPs)的法律
via laws that impact the Internet service providers or ISPs of that nation.
来控制其公民访问互联网的权限
For example, China restricts its citizens from accessing Youtube.
例如 中国限制其公民访问油管(Youtube)
In 2016,
2016年
the US government officially handed over the ownership of the database
美国政府正式交出了数据库所有权
which holds the domain names of the Internet to a body called ICANN,
将互特网域名管理权交给ICANN这个组织
or the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.
即互联网名称与数字地址分配机构
These guys have been overseeing this database
而过去20年一直是美国
for the last 20 years.
在监管这个数据库
This meant that we reached a point
这意味着互特网所有权
where the ownership was given back to the people.
重新回归到人民大众手里
ICANN is an independent body
ICANN是一个独立机构
which is comprised of a multi-stakeholder community.
由多个利益相关的社群组成
This means that ICANN tries to consult the Internet community about changes
这表明ICANN会向网络大众征集意见
and at least tries to be as open and as transparent as possible.
并最大可能保持开放和透明
So it’s unlikely that you’ve ever heard of ICANN.
所以你可能没听说过ICANN
But the nonprofit organization performs one of the most important rituals
但该非盈利组织有一项重要举措
to keep the Internet safe.
以维持互联网安全
They manage domain name system or DNS.
他们管理域名系统(DNS)
ICANN, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers,
互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 即ICANN
which basically assigns web addresses.
它的主要任务是分配网址
The California-based organization is technically a not-for-profit,
总部位于加利福尼亚 是一个非营利组织
but it has one of the biggest jobs in governing the Internet
但它是管理互联网的最大组织之一
to manage the domain name system or DNS.
管理域名系统(DNS)
This means that when you type in “www.google.com”
意思是当你输入网址“www.google.com”时
the response you receive is from Google
你接收到的响应来自谷歌
and not a fake version of Google created by nine trillion prints or other scammer.
而非由9万亿张图片或其它方式伪造的盗版谷歌
Every three months, a group of trusted community members
每三个月 一群值得信赖的社区成员
gather to perform a ritual,
聚在一起开一次例会
which will renew and insure the DNS system for the next three months.
做一次更新 以确保接下去三个月DNS系统正常工作
The ceremony is recorded with tight security
例会过程保证高度安全性
such as guards, safes, cages and alarms.
配有警卫 保险箱 隔离室和警报器
In fact, the alarms are so sensitive that at one ceremony
实际上 会场中的警报超级灵敏
a slamming door set off the seismic sensor,
一个摔门声就会触发地震传感器
locking people into one of the cages.
将人锁在隔离室
An evacuation had to be triggered to release them.
只有下达撤离命令才能放他们出来
The master key is stored in a cryptographic device.
万能密钥存储在加密设备中
This device, if dropped or tampered with,
这个设备如果坠落或受损
will erase all of its contents.
将会格式化所有数据
Fragments of keys are distributed
密钥分成几部分分别交由
among the trusted members
受信赖成员保管
ensuring that no one person can create the master key.
以确保任何人都不能单独制出万能钥匙
This requires the presence of at least five of these people to come together to do so.
至少需要五个人共同在场才行
At the heart of new system lies one master key.
新系统的核心是这把万能钥匙
That key is controlled by seven smart cards
它由7张智能卡片控制
locked in one of two high security deposit boxes,
这些卡片被分别锁在两个高安全性保险箱里
one on the east coast, one on the west.
一个在东海岸 一个在西海岸
The keys to those boxes are scattered around the world
故意将开箱的钥匙分散在世界各地
in the hands of two groups of seven online security experts.
交给两组共七名网络安全专家
This is just one organization that helps make sure the Internet runs smoothly.
这只是确保互联网正常运行的一个组织
But they’re not the only ones. There’s a host of others
但不是唯一一个 还有很多其它组织
such as the Internet Engineering Task Force
比如互联网工程任务组
and The World Wide Web Consortium run by none other than Tim Berners-Lee.
和由蒂姆·伯纳斯·李掌管的万维网联合会
These organizations set the standards, make the protocols
这些组织设置标准 制定协议
and ensure that the Internet is safe and open.
并确保互联网的安全性和开放性
It’s undeniable that
不可争辩的是
the Internet has changed our lives forever.
互联网已经彻底改变了我们的生活
It has taken over so many facets of our lives.
它渗入我们生活的方方面面
It’s allowed people to carry around every encyclopedia in the world
让人们仅通过一部掌上电脑
just in the palm of their hand.
就可以浏览全世界的百科全书
I wonder how many people have used Google to solve arguments.
使用谷歌解决过问题的人应该不在少数
But with massive information also comes massive misinformation.
但是巨量信息中也参杂了巨量误导信息
It’s much easier now for people to use conformation bias
在互联网时代 人们更容易用确认偏误
to validate their own point of view
来验证自己的观点
leading to the infamous echo chamber effect.
从而导致了臭名昭著的回声室效应
The use of social media has also drastically changed our lives.
社交媒体的使用也显著改变了我们的生活
It’s been said to be tearing apart the actual foundational fabric of how society functions.
据说它正在破坏维持社会运作的基础结构
I’ve discussed this all much further in my video –
我已在《Facebook之死》那期节目
The Death of Facebook
深入讨论了这点
and I’ll leave a link for that below at the end of this video.
在这期节目最后我会放上链接
So of course the Internet has some negative aspects,
所以说互联网也有消极的一面
almost any technology does.
几乎任何一项技术都有
And this is because human nature
人性使然
has to blame for the way we use the tools we made
我们总是会抱怨人造工具的使用方式
not the tools themselves.
而不是工具本身
With that being said, the Internet also has many positives.
尽管如此 互联网也有很多好处
The Internet has given creators, artists, journalists and many others
互联网为发明家 艺术家 记者等等
a platform that would otherwise just not exist.
提供了一个前所未有的平台
Your favorite youtubers
没有互联网
wouldn’t be able to make their videos without the Internet.
你最喜欢的油管博主就不能制作视频
Michael from Vsauce has an old and still running segment
来自Vsauce的Michael仍在更新他的一档老节目
called Do You Online Now Guys or D.O.N.Gs.
叫做Do You Online Now Guys(D.O.N.Gs)
This series were simply lists of
这个系列节目列举了
amazing things that you can do on the Internet.
你能在互联网上做的各种奇事
It’s one of the oldest serious that’s around,
它大概是那时最老的系列之一
but the greatest thing about it is that
但最重要的是
it still captures the original wonder of the Internet.
它仍然捕捉到了互联网的原始奇迹
Interesting topics organically trend
有趣的话题自发地传播
and more people view things that are generally interesting.
让更多的人见到这些趣闻
This is very unlikely to happen in the old world
这在旧时世界是不太可能的
where you’d stumble across an interesting topic
如果你在报上看到一个趣闻
and a rigid magazine on newspaper
或一本死板的杂志
and it would just be for you.
只有你自己看到
You couldn’t share it instantly and discuss it
你不能立即分享并讨论
and develop a rapid wide community around it.
从而引发一个超热话题
A rate of spread a magnitude of reach of information
那时要使信息在社会上快速传播
that was only once possible if you owned a whole media outlet for a country.
除非拥有一国所有的媒体资源
It’s now to some extent
如今在某种程度上
possible by anyone with an Internet connection and a potent message.
只要你能上网 有可靠的消息就可以
You can look at the French yellow vest protest
你能看到在网上请愿后
that had gained momentum after an online petition.
法国的“黄背心”运动势头有所增强
The WikiLeaks revelations that have gripped the attention of much of the world.
维基解密的披露引起了全世界的广泛关注
So it comes down to this,
归根结底
the Internet is an immensely powerful tool.
互联网是一个非常强大的工具
But we have to use it right.
但是我们应该正确使用它
So how will the Internet evolve?
那么互联网会如何发展?
Well, for starters, it’s going to get faster.
首先它会变得越来越快
5G is set to yield to at least a tenfold increase in speed.
据说5G至少会让速度提高10倍
There are some scientists and political figures who are questioning the safety of 5G.
有一些科学家和政治人物质疑5G的安全性
These concerns arise from the high frequencies associated with the high data transfer speeds.
这些担忧源自高数据传输速度相关的高频率
However, the frequencies produced by 5G
然而 5G的频率比目前的
are an order of magnitude less than the current international limit of 300 gigahertz.
国际最低标准300千兆赫还低一个数量级
5G is set to arrive somewhere in 2019 or 2020
5G时代将在2019或2020年到来
depending on which country you live in.
具体情况还得看您身处哪国
Perhaps the most uncertain part of the Internet’s future
也许互联网的未来中最不稳定的因素
is Article 13.
就是13号令
The European Union has recently approved a controversial copyright law
欧盟最近批准了一项有争议性的著作权法
called Article 13.
称为13号令
As I discussed in my earlier video The End Of The Internet,
正如我在之前的节目《互联网的终结》中所说
there are concerns that this new law may have a radical impact
一些人担心这项新法律可能会对我们
on the way that we share and produce content.
分享和制作内容的方式产生根本性影响
The law passed by a sizable majority.
绝大部分人同意通过这条法律
However, on the question of debating amendments,
然而 在修正案的辩论问题上
five Swedish MEP members accidentally pressed the wrong button
五名瑞典MEP成员意外按下了错误键
meaning no debates and the vote was binding.
意味着没有辩论 投票具有约束力
While the law has been amended since 2018
该法自2018年起进行了修订
to exclude memes from its scope,
以将米姆排除在其适用范围之外
people still have fears that these laws will kill small independent creators,
人们仍担心该法会让小型独创者们走投无路
and cause massive undesired side effects.
并带来大面积负面影响
At the end of the day, we are the majority.
到那一天 我们就是大众
We are in control
是控制的一方
and the Internet is what we make it.
互联网由我们来主导
So that’s just about wraps up the look at the Internet.
这就是我们对互联网的大致了解
I hope you learned something about how the Internet works,
希望你对互联网如何工作
who controls it and its possible future.
谁控制它以及它的未来有一定了解
Thanks for watching.
感谢收看
If you’ve just stumbled across this channel, feel free to subscribe.
如果你才发现本频道 欢迎订阅
This’s been Dagogo. You’ve been watching ColdFusion
我是Dagogo 本节目是《冷流科技》
and I’ll see you again soon for the next video.
下期节目再见
Cheers guys.
再见了 朋友
Have a good one.
祝你愉快
ColdFusion is new thinking.
《冷流科技》 新思维
[Music]
[音乐]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

互联网是如何运作的?是谁在运行它?互联网在哪里?让我们一起来探索互联网,欢迎观看本视频。

听录译者

LilBitch

翻译译者

ZTT

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=42aWAAqoUfI

相关推荐