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关于创造力的秘密 – 译学馆
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关于创造力的秘密

The Secret to Creativity

[音乐]
[music]
我现在要你来回答一个问题
So I need you to answer a question
你只有5秒钟的时间来回答
– you only have five seconds to respond and you
并且尽可能的回答你想到的答案
can have as many answers as you like…
准备好了吗?
Ready?
你觉得这块积木有多少种用途?
How many uses can you think of for this brick?
这是“替代用途试验”
This is an alternative uses test,
它们通常用来衡量创造性思维和
they ’ re used to measure creative thinking and how
人们解决一个任务时的灵活程度
flexible people are in approaching a task.
这是我之前做的一个测试……
Here’s one of the tests I prepared earlier…
嗯 你可以
“ Yeah, you could um,
我猜你可以做成非常有趣的曲奇饼模具
you could make very interesting cookie patterns, I guess? ”
“你可以把它当成鲁贝格登堡
“ You could use it as you would a domino
里的多米诺骨牌来用”
in a rube goldberg machine ”
“你可以把它放进一个罐头里
“ You could put it
让它发出嘎嘎的声音”
in a tin can and make a rattle out of it ”
创造力从何而来的这个问题困扰了我们好几个世纪
Where creativity comes from has mystified us for centuries.
纵观历史 我们相信创造力是十分罕见的 并且展现在少部分精英的身上
Throughout history, we believed that creativity was rare and seen in a small elite:
职业画家 诗人 演员和音乐家
professional painters, poets, performers, and musicians.
很长一段时间以来
For a long time, creativity was an enigma,
创造力是科学无法比及的难题
beyond the reach of science.
但现今我们知道 解决问题需要有创造力
But today, we know that it takes creativity to solve problems,
这是人们智力表现的方面之一
it ’ s an aspect of human intelligence.
我们在建筑物 科学 工程和大自然中都能看到创造力
We find creativity in architecture, science,engineering and even in nature.
创造力是无处不在的
Creativity is everywhere!
过去的几十年
And in the past few decades,
有许多研究都在通过
there have been dozens of studies exploring it
脑成像技术深入探究这个问题
using brain imaging technology.
我们发现 在激发你的
We ’ ve found you don ’ t just use
创造性思维的时候
the left or right hemisphere of your brain when you ’ re
你不会仅使用左半脑或右半脑
thinking creatively.
单独的一个大脑区域或回路
There isn ’ t one single brain area or circuit
并不能发挥创造力 大脑不同部位受到损伤的
for creativity – professional artists suffering
职业艺术家们能继续创造出有创造性的艺术作品
from damage to different brain regions continue to produce art showing similar creativity.
大脑中有超过40个不同的区域与创造力有关
Over forty different areas of the brain are likely involved with creativity.
我可以一一列给你看
I could list them all for you,
但是你可能会听得走神……
but your mind might start to wander…
走神可能是件好事!
Which might be a good thing!
人们平均每天花上30%的时间走神
Humans spend an average of 30% of our dayengaged in”mind-wandering.”
很多相关研究提到走神有助于激发我们的创造力
A lot of these studies say that mind wandering helps get our creativity flowing.
但……这是为什么呢?
But… why?
我们是怎么在走神的同时还能努力想出
How can we not pay attention and manage to hit
一个合适的主意?
on an idea that ’ s just right?
一些科学家认为走神可能会
Some scientists think that mind-wandering might distract you
分散你的感知障碍
from your perceived obstacles
或者让你在潜意识里
or it may allow your subconscious
继续解决问题 而不需要更高级的
to keep working on the problem without your higher
认知功能介入
cognitive functions getting involved.
走神也能促进你的大脑调整
Mind wandering may also promote your
你看待问题的方式的能力
brain’s ability to restructure the way you look at
或许你会将
a problem, perhaps you ’ll
两个看似没有联系的事物结合起来
make connections between two seemingly unrelated things and
提出新奇 有创造性的解决方法
come up with novel, creative solutions.
噢!
“Oh!
你可以将它熔化了倒在
You could melt it and then pour it
一个模具里然后凝固成其它模型
into a mould and sculpt something else out of it! ”
所以每个人都会走神
Ok, so everyone’s mind wanders.
那为什么不是所有人都是有创造力的天才呢?
Then why aren’t we all creative geniuses?
好吧 我们的生物学也有一部分原因
Well, our biology may play a part too:
在一个研究中发现在音乐天赋和创造力测试上
In one study, families who collectively scored
得到更高分数的家族
higher on musical aptitude and creativity
更有可能会有额外复制的
tests were more likely to have an extra copy
葡萄糖变旋酶基因
of “the glucose mutarotaze gene”.
这段基因与血清素的释放有关
The gene is involved in the release of serotonin,
血清素是一种能促进神经细胞间连接的神经递质
a neurotransmitter that promotes neural connections.
这段额外的基因能增加血清素的生成
The extra copy increases the production
促进大脑对它的再利用能力
of serotonin and the brain ’ s ability to reuse it.
研究者还发现敢于冒险
Researchers have also found that personality traits such
和经验开放型的人
as risk taking and openness to
能把创造力转化成个人能力
experience contribute to creativity as anindividual ability.
但创造力也可通过后天训练 磨砺和教育得到
But creativity can also likely be trained,honed, or taught.
在一些独立研究中 人们发现职业舞者 艺术家
In separate studies, professional dancers, artists,
还有音乐家能很好地
and musicians were all compared against
打败他们所处领域的新手
novices in their fields.
在行为或精神的即兴发挥实验中
During active or mental improvisational sessions
参与者被要求弹一节含5个音节的调子
where participants were asked to compose a
在心里构想一幅画者或编一段舞蹈
5-note tune, mentally compose a drawing,
那些有专业创造性的人
or mentally perform a dance, those who were professionally
实际上思考任务的方式不同
creative actually thought about the task differently,
相较新手而言 他们会运用大脑的不同区域
engaging different areas of their brains than the novices.
然后 在某一点 先天因素和后天因素重合
And then, there ’ s a point when nature and nurture meet
(这一直都在发生)
( which kinda happens all the time!).
在The Genetics of Creativity一书里
In The Genetics of Creativity, Barbot,
巴博特 坦和格里戈连科说
Tan and Grigorenko write, “ it is important to
“更重要的是发现创造力不仅是一种个人能力
see creativity not only as an individual ability,
也是一种文化和特定时间背景下的现象
but also as a cultural and time-specific phenomenon
这是有生物学基础的并具有社会目的”
that is biologically grounded and has a social purpose”
他们暗示文化因素
They suggest that cultural factors,
比如对创造性的工作的认知会影响我们的生物因素
like the reception of creative works, influences our biological factors,
比如说我们
like how willing we
敢于冒险的意愿度
are to take risks.
这两者存在动态关系
And the two have a dynamic relationship. Still,
一些人可能有些许
while some people may have small
生物优势让他们更具有创造力
biological advantages to be more creative, anyone can
任何人都能有创造力
be creative.
你只需要培养你的创造力
You just need to nurture your creativity.
通过练习手艺 尝试着以不同的方法解决问题
Practice your craft, try approaching a problems in unique ways,
让你的大脑走神
and let your mind wander. So,
所以 你会怎么处理这块积木?
What could you do with this brick?
“我很庆幸
“ I love that neither
我们俩都没说任何与搭建乐高积木有关的东西”
of us have said anything that has to do with actually building LEGOs ”
是的
“Yeah!
你还可以把它和别的乐高积木拼在一起
Maybe you could connect it to another LEGO
然后拼成一些东西
brick and then make something that way ”
你没说我们有很多块积木
You didn’t say we had many bricks!
你只说了我们有一块
You just said we had A brick…
我知道
I know!
极简主义的乐高的模型
Minimalist LEGO sculptures.
就是一块积木
Just one brick.”

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总说人需具有创造力,关于创造力你又知道多少?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_Y-T_guM1I

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