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农田中的排水系统 – 译学馆
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农田中的排水系统

The Secret Global Sewer System

Hi, this is Alex from MinuteEarth.
嗨 我是一分钟地球的Alex
Farmers are obsessed with water. It makes sense.
农民牵挂着水 这可以理解
Their livelihoods depend on crops that will die without enough water.
他们的生计依赖庄稼 水不够的话会枯死
So lots of farmers buy expensive equipment to pump tons of water to their fields.
所以许多农民购买昂贵的设备来向他们的田里灌大量的水
In fact, of all the water humans use, 70% is for agriculture.
事实上 人类用水中有70%用于农业
But here’s an even crazier thing,
但还有件更疯狂的事
lots of farmers also spend tons of effort, and tons of money, dewatering their fields.
许多农民还花费大量的力气和金钱来给他们的地“脱水”
That’s because too much water is also deadly for crops.
因为过量的水对庄稼来说也是致命的
All plant cells need oxygen to function.
所有植物细胞都需要氧气来运转
The cells above the ground take it from photosynthesis or from the air around,
地上的细胞可从光合作用 周边空气获取氧
and the cells underground take it from tiny air pockets in the soil.
地下的细胞则从土壤中的小气孔里吸收氧
But if the soil is too wet for too long, the roots can literally drown, killing the entire plant.
但长时间潮湿的土壤会把根“淹死” 导致植物死亡
Plus, wet fields cause tractors to get stuck and to compact the soil,
另外 湿土会让拖拉机下陷 使土壤更密
which reduces both the amount of air in the soil and the space for roots to grow.
减少土壤中空气的含量和根生长的空间
To save their crops from these problems,
为避免庄稼遇到上述问题
farmers around the world have dug ditches
世界各地的农民利用挖沟
and installed special underground pipes to drain excess water away.
和安装特殊地下管道的方式来排出多余的水
As a result, the soil has enough space in it for roots to grow
使根有足够的空间在土壤中生长
and enough air for roots to breathe.
也有足够的空气来“呼吸”
Crops survive, tractors don’t get stuck, and overall productivity increases.
庄稼存活 拖拉机不陷于泥 总产量增加
However, draining water away more quickly means
然而 排水越快意味着
that it reaches nearby streams and rivers more quickly,
水能更快地到达邻近的小溪 河流
where it can speed up the flow and contribute to floods.
排出的水会加快河水流速 甚至造成洪水
And floods can damage infrastructure and erode river banks and river bottoms,
洪水会破坏基础设施 侵蚀河堤和河底
creating deep channels and muddying the water downstream.
使河底加深 下游河水变浊
Plus, the water coming from the fields can carry chemicals from fertilizer and pesticides
此外 地里排出的水含有肥料和杀虫剂中的化学成分
which end up polluting rivers, lakes and eventually, oceans.
会污染河流 湖泊 最终污染海洋
These problems caused by drainage can be mitigated somewhat
这些由排水系统引发的问题一定程度上
by applying fertilizer and pesticides precisely where and when the crops need them.
可通过仅在需要的时间和地点使用肥料和杀虫剂的方式缓解
We can also send the water through trenches filled with wood chips or buffers of native plants,
我们也可让水流经木碎填充的沟或是种着植物的缓冲区
both of which can filter out some of the chemicals before the water flows into a nearby stream.
以在水流入邻近溪流前 滤除部分化学物质
And we can also retrofit the underground pipes to slow down the flow of water
我们也可改进地下管道类型来使水流减速
when it’s ok to have a wet field
只要可以允许有一片湿地
like when we’re not gro wing crops.
比如我们不打算在土里种庄稼
But there is another huge problem with drainage
但排水系统还有一个巨大的问题
it’s helped us turn wetlands into farms.
它帮助我们把湿地改成农田
Wetlands are incredibly valuable,
湿地是很珍贵的
because in addition to providing habitat for fish, birds, and other creatures,
因为湿地为鱼 鸟和其他生物提供栖息地
they also act like giant sponges that prevent floods
湿地还像巨大的海绵一样可以阻止洪水
and filter the water making it cleaner for everyone downstream.
过滤水源 使下游的人用水更干净
In the last 200 years, over half – and maybe even over ¾ – of the world’s wetlands
最近的200年 超过一半 甚至可能超过3/4的世界湿地
have disappeared and been replaced mostly with farmland.
已经消失 大部分被农场代替
So, thanks to drainage we get new and more productive farmland,
感谢排水系统带来的新的 更高产的农田
which helps us grow lots of extra crops.
它帮助我们种了更多庄稼
But we also lose wetlands and gain some new problems.
但我们也失去了湿地 造成一些新的问题
And unfortunately, gaining the benefits without any of the downsides may be a pipe dream.
很不幸 只有好处却无副作用的好事不存在
This video was sponsored by the University of Minnesota
本视频由明尼苏达州大学赞助
where students faculty and staff across all fields of study
一个在所有领域进行研究的学生和教职员
are working to solve the grand challenges facing society.
都在努力解决社会面临的重大挑战的大学
One of these challenges is assuring clean water and sustainable ecosystems
挑战之一是确保干净的水源和可持续的生态系统
and part of the solution is to reduce the amount of pollution from agriculture runoff.
减少农业排水中的污染算是措施的一部分
Professer Jacque Finlay and postdoc Christie Dolph in the College of Biological Sciences along with collaborators
生命科学学院的Jacque·Finlay教授和博士后Christie· Dolph 以及他们的合作者
have found that if we restored wetlands in strategic locations where they could intercept lot’s of water
发现 如果在可截住大量水的关键之处恢复湿地
they’d be three times more effective at removing pollution than wetlands restored elsewhere.
将比其他位置三倍有效地清除污染物
Professor Michael Sadowsky in the Department of Soil, Water, and Climateis
土壤 水源及气候系的Michael· Sadowsky教授
is identifying the bacteria that remove chemicals from water sent through woodchip trenches.
正在寻找可以移除流经木屑沟渠的水中的化学成分的细菌
And Adjunct Professor Heidi Peterson in the Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering
生物制品和生物系统工程系的副教授Heidi·Peterson
is collaborating on a project to filter and retain drainage water using a wetland at the edge of a field.
正在合作一个项目 在农田边缘生成湿地以过滤和保持水源
Thanks, University of Minnesota!
感谢明尼苏达大学

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视频概述

农田排水系统及其造成的问题

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dJi-fdFvNHQ

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