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蜜蜂的智慧

The Search for Intelligent Life on Earth | Cosmos: Possible Worlds

NEIL DEGRASSE TYSON: For thousands of years,
几千年来
bees have been symbols of mindless industry.
蜜蜂一直是机械式的工业的象征
We always think of them as being something like biological robots,
我们总认为它们有点像生物机器人
doomed to live out their lives in lockstep,
命中注定要过着因循守旧的生活
shackled to the dreary roles assigned to them by nature.
被束缚在自然赋予的枯燥乏味的角色中
This is our first contact story.
这是我们第一次接触的故事
It happened in a place called Brunnwinkl in rural Austria
它发生在奥地利一个名叫Brunnwinkl的乡村
in the early 1900s.
时间是在20世纪初
From the time Karl von Frisch was a child,
从卡尔•冯•弗利施还是个孩子的时候
he longed to understand what the other animals knew,
他就渴望了解其他动物知道些什么
how they perceived the world.
它们如何感知世界
He wanted to know if tiny fish saw
他想知道小鱼是否可以看到颜色
color or had a sense of smell.
以及有没有嗅觉
He invented experiments to explore animal experience.
他发明了实验来探索动物的经历
And he filmed them.
并把它们拍了下来
Starting in the early 20th century,
从20世纪早期开始
he was the first to use the new medium of motion pictures
他是第一个使用电影这种新媒体
to create popular science entertainment
来制作面向大众介绍科学
and communication.
的趣味节目的人
For thousands of years, humans have noted the eccentric dances of the bees.
几千年来 人类已经注意到了蜜蜂的古怪舞蹈
But no one had ever looked at them
但是从没有人
with the kind of respect that assumed
设想过它们跳舞是有原因的
there was a reason to their dancing.
进而以尊敬的目光看待它们
Before Karl von Frisch, no one ever
在卡尔•冯•弗利施之前 没人想过
thought to ask why they moved this way and that way,
为什么蜜蜂在一连串精巧的的“8”字运动中
in a succession of elaborate figure eights.
做出这样或那样的动作
Von Frisch studied every tiny bee gesture
冯•弗利施研究蜜蜂的每一个细微的姿态
and became fascinated by a mystery he couldn’t explain.
同时迷上了一个他无法解释的谜
He would set out a dish of sugar water
他会放置出一盘糖水
for a bee from his experimental hive.
给来自他实验蜂巢的蜜蜂享用
The bee would feast upon it before flying back home.
蜜蜂会在飞回家之前饱餐一顿
The marked bee would later return to dine
被标记的蜜蜂稍后会回来
on the delicious sugar water.
享用美味的糖水
Von Frisch noted that in just a few hours,
冯•弗利施注意到 在短短几小时之后
a multitude of other bees would join her there.
许多其他的蜜蜂也会加入她的行列
They were always her fellow hive mates.
新加入者总是她同一蜂巢中的伙伴
But here was the really amazing thing.
但真正神奇之处在于
Von Frisch knew that the other bees
冯•弗利施知道
had not followed the marked bee to the feeding place.
其他蜜蜂不是跟随被标记蜜蜂来到进食地
How?
他如何知道?
Because he had the hive closely watched at all times.
因为他一直严密监视着蜂房
He had been careful to use sugar water, not honey,
他很小心地使用了糖水而不是蜂蜜
so that the bees’ sense of smell could
这样蜜蜂的嗅觉
not guide them to the reward.
不能引导它们找到糖水
He continued to move the dish of sugar water
他不断向远处移动那盘糖水
farther away until it was several kilometers
直到距离蜂巢
from the hive.
几公里远
Still, the hive mates would find their way to it.
然而蜂巢里的同伴们还是可以找到糖水
So how did the painted bee reveal the exact location
那么被标记的蜜蜂是如何如此精准地透露
of the sugar water with such precision
糖水的确切位置
that her hive mates could unerringly
以使她的蜂巢伙伴们可以
find their way there?
准确无误地找到糖水呢?
There was a secret message in her choreography.
在她的舞蹈动作中有一个秘密信息
What had seemed to countless generations of observers
在无数代观察者们看来
to be nothing more than the meaningless spasmodic motions of a dumb animal
只不过是一种愚蠢动物无意义的痉挛动作
was actually a complex message,
实际上是一个复杂的信息
an equation informed by mathematics, astronomy,
一个由数学 天文学
and an acute knowledge of time, all
以及一种对时间的敏锐认识而得来的方程
synthesized to convey the location
所有的一切合成在一起
of the riches she hoped to share with her sisters.
来表达她希望与姐妹们分享的宝藏的位置
The dancer use the angle of our star, the sun,
起舞的蜜蜂利用太阳的角度
to indicate the general direction
指出食物所在位置的
of the food’s location.
大致方向
Von Frisch noted that when a bee danced straight upward,
冯•弗利施注意到当一只蜜蜂笔直向上飞时
she meant “fly toward the sun.”
她的意思是“朝着太阳飞”
And when she moved downward, she meant “fly away from it.”
而当她向下移动时 她的意思是“远离太阳”
Her swivels, left and right, conveyed
她或左或右的旋转
the food’s exact coordinates in space,
表达了食物在空间中的确切坐标
sometimes kilometers away.
有时有几公里远
The duration of her dance, down to a fraction of a second,
她短到不足一秒的跳舞时间
indicated the length of time it would take
表达了她的同伴们到达那里
her fellow bees to get there.
需要多长时间
She even factored in wind speed to more finely calibrate
她甚至把风速考虑在内以对要表达的信息
the message she danced.
进行更加精确的校准
And this was true at any time of the year
一年中的任何时候都是如此
and from hive to hive, from continent to continent.
每一块陆地的每一个蜂巢中都是如此
Bees can do the math.
蜜蜂掌握着数学知识

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视频概述

地球上的智慧生命——蜜蜂是如何传递信息的?我们来一起揭晓

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

尹吉昕

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubE9hjrsHmI

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