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寻找HIV疫苗的工作可能很快结束

The Search For an HIV Vaccine May Soon Be Over

HIV is one of the deadliest viruses on the planet,
作为地球上最为致命的病毒之一
newly infecting about 1.7 million people in 2018
艾滋病病毒在2018年新感染了约170万人
Since the early days of the epidemic,
从艾滋病刚开始流行时
the virus itself has confounded researchers
这种病毒就一直困惑着研究者们
who have long been searching for vaccine to prevent its spread
他们为阻止其扩散长期不懈地研发疫苗
and after years of slow progress
多年间取得缓慢进步后
that search may soon be over
这项工作或许很快就能结束
The epidemic as we now know
我们现在一般认为艾滋病病毒的流行
it is thought to have started in the mid to late 1970s
起始于20世纪70年代中后期
but it wasn’t until 1983
但直至1983年
that the HIV virus was first identified and isolated.
人们才首次发现并将其分离
By that point, HIV had begun to rapidly spread around the world
到那时为止 艾滋病病毒开始在世界范围内极速蔓延
—and since the epidemic began,
且自从艾滋病流行以来
it’s claimed the lives of over 32 million people.
它已夺去了3200多万人的生命
To understand why this virus causes so much harm,
为了解这种病毒杀伤力如此巨大的原因
we first need to know how it invades the body.
我们首先得知道它如何侵入人体
First off, it’s a retrovirus,
首先 它是一种逆转录病毒
which is a type of virus
这种类型的病毒
that inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of a host cell—
能将其基因组拷贝 嵌入宿主细胞的DNA中
in HIV’s case,
对艾滋病病毒而言
T-helper cells which help our immune system fight off infection.
会嵌入帮助我们免疫系统抵抗感染的T细胞中
After latching onto the cell, HIV fuses with it,
依附在细胞上以后 HIV会与之融合
integrating its genetic information with the new host’s DNA.
并将自己的遗传信息与新宿主的DNA相结合
The infected cell then produces
而后被感染的细胞会产生
more HIV proteins
更多的艾滋病病毒蛋白质
which are eventually released into the bloodstream where they continue to replicate
最终释放到能继续复制其基因组的血液中去
If left untreated,
如果放任不治疗
HIV severely weakens the immune system’s ability to function properly
艾滋病病毒就会严重削弱免疫系统正常运作的能力
—this final stage of the infection is AIDS.
感染的最后阶段就是患上艾滋病
And it’s precisely the virus’ unique characteristics
病毒通过这种特性
which allow it to propagate inside the human body
让自身能够在人类体内繁殖
that also make it so difficult to tackle
而正是这个特性才让病毒如此难以对付
HIV is a remarkably small virus.
艾滋病毒是一种非常微小的病毒
It has few genes comprised in it,
所含的基因很少
regardless of how small and simple it may be
但不管其体积多小结构有多简单
it has very complex dynamic interactions
它都与人体免疫系统
with the human immune system.
有着非常复杂的相互作用
There’s currently a few ways to stop HIV
目前有少数方法
from progressing in its life cycle.
可以阻止艾滋病毒在其生命周期中的增长
Specific drugs have been developed
特效药已经研究出来了
that can stop the virus from attaching to T-helper cells,
它能够阻断艾滋病毒靶向到T细胞
while other types of drugs work to prevent the virus
而其他类型的药则致力于防止病毒
from taking control of the cell’s nucleus and enter the bloodstream.
控制细胞核 进入血液循环
Called antiretroviral therapy,
这种名为抗逆转录病毒药物疗法
or ART
或ART的联合用药
this drug combination works well
效果很好
but is expensive and requires lifelong upkeep.
但却十分昂贵且需要终生维持用药
In those resource constrained areas
在资源尚缺
or where the stigma of HIV is still a major problem,
或污名化艾滋病病毒依旧十分严重的地区
prevention methods that require daily pills
这种需要每天服药的预防方法
may still limit the number of individuals who would have access to these.
仍然限制了可采取药物治疗的使用人数
It’s only through the application of very highly effective vaccaines
我们只能通过使用十分高效的疫苗
that we’ve been able to control an infection
控制这种在全球蔓延的病毒
that spread around the globe, and eventually eradicate that.
并最终消灭它
But that doesn’t mean developing a vaccine is easy
但这并不意味着开发疫苗很简单
There aren’t many good models to reference for research in humans,
没有很多好的人体实验数据模型供研究参考
which means we don’t know what the body’s immune response looks like
就意味着我们不清楚免疫系统
when trying to protect itself.
在自我保护时如何应答
HIV’s extraordinary diversity and ability to rapidly mutate
艾滋病毒离奇的多样性和迅速变异的能力
are also huge obstacles in getting a grip on the virus.
也正是控制它时面临的巨大困难
Just recently, researchers announced that they’d IDed a new strain,
就在最近 研究人员19年来首次
the first in 19 years.
公布他们鉴别出了一种新品种
Despite this, there has been huge progress made in the last decade.
尽管如此艰难 过去十年也取得过巨大的进步
In 2009, researchers declared that a vaccine
2009年 研究人员宣称在泰国的疫苗实验
trial done in Thailand had protected a significant minority of humans
有史以来第一次真正让少部分人
against the disease for the first time ever.
免受了艾滋病病的侵害
RV144 is a combination of two genetically engineered vaccines,
RV144是两种基因工程疫苗的组合体
neither of which had worked before in humans.
两种疫苗此前都不曾在人体见效
We observed a modest level of efficacy over three and a half years—about 30%.
我们经过三年半的观察 发现这种疫苗的功效大约有30% 不算太好
So, we have initiated a clinical trial in South Africa
因而 我们已经在南非开始了临床实验
that is marching along the path to try to confirm these findings from the Thai trial
正试图进一步证实从泰国试验中得到的发现
and extend those findings through a number of approaches.
并通过一系列方法将其拓展 向前发展
As the world’s largest publicly-funded international collaboration focused on
作为世界上最大的致力于发展预防艾滋病病毒和艾滋病疫苗的
the development of vaccines to prevent HIV and AIDS,
公共资助国际合作组织
HVTN has conducted all phases of clinical trials
HVTN已经进行了所有阶段的临床试验
that have involved thousands of people.
数千人参与到该实验中
In addition to two massive trials to test whether giving
除了有两个大规模的试验用以测试给病人注射抗体
antibodies to patients can protect them from HIV infection,
是否能保护他们免受艾滋病病毒感染外
as of this year the group has also fully enrolled two similarly ambitious vaccine trials
该组织在今年还全力投入了两项类似的规模宏大的疫苗实验
called HVTN 702 and 705.
名为HVTN702和HVTN705
These regimen were designed to test whether patients
这两个试验的目的是测试接种疫苗的病人
given a vaccine can create antibodies on their own
能否自发产生抗体
Both vary slightly in their approach—
但两者的方法略有不同
702 is based off of the Thai trial,
HVTN702 以泰国的试验为基础进行
while 705 is focusing on overcoming the viruses’ genetic diversity.
705则致力于克服病毒的遗传多样性
What’s very exciting is that
令人十分激动的是
the immune responses elicited by these three different
通过三种不同的疫苗策略引起的免疫反应
vaccine strategies is different within each clinical trial,
在各自临床实验内也各不相同
but there’s similarities across them
但各临床试验之间存在相似之处
And we’re looking for specific immune responses
我们正在寻找一种特定的免疫反应
that we will correlate with vaccine efficacy with just a few dozen people
并将十几个人的疫苗效力联系起来
that will eventually lead us to
最终找到一种
a more globally effective vaccine
可以应用于不同人群和接触途径的
that could be used across different populations and routes of exposure.
使用范围更为广泛的有效疫苗
With hopes high, and even higher stakes,
随着希望越来越大 风险逐步升高
the mood of the vaccine research seems to be one of cautious optimism.
疫苗研究的情况似乎谨慎又乐观
But results of both the 705 and 702 vaccine regimens
但705和702疫苗研究体系的结果
won’t be in until late 2021 and 2022,
在2021年底和2022年以后才能出来
when the trials are expected to close.
届时疫苗试验有望结束
They will certainly be a success and
未来疫苗试验肯定会取得成功
that we’ll get a clear answer as to
而对于这些疫苗是否有效
whether or not these vaccines worked
我们也将会得到一个明确的答案
but I think we also have to be measured in our expectations
但我认为我们也必须衡量疫苗的效果是否达到预期
And that this is one of the most formidable biomedical challenges
这是我们社会和全球研究团体遇到的
we’ve ever undertaken as a society, as a global research community.
最为艰巨的生物医学的一大挑战
If you want to learn more about the search for a potential HIV cure,
如果你想了解更多关于寻找潜在艾滋病的治愈方法的信息
check out this episode of How Close Are We.
请看How Close Are We 的这期节目
If you liked this video
如果你喜欢这个视频
let us know down in the comments and
在视频下方评论告诉我们吧
don’t forget to subscribe for more Seeker.
不要忘记订阅我们 观看《探索新闻台》的更多视频
As always thanks for watching
依旧十分感谢各位的收看
and I’ll see you next time.
让我们下次再见

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视频概述

HIV疫苗的研究取得进展 新型的药物,已经未来的趋势

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2On9PVrBaHY

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