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肌肉和力量增长的科学秘密 – 译学馆
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肌肉和力量增长的科学秘密

The Scientific Secret of Strength and Muscle Growth

我们都为肌肉和力量而着迷也许想要变得更强壮
We all have a fascination with muscles and strength – whether we want to be stronger,
感觉更好 并且看起来像超人 这里还有很多明确的策略和训练
feel better, or look like superman; and there are many proposed strategies and exercise
可以做到这些 但是 要是我告诉你 其实这个不受你控制
regimens to get this done. But what if I told you that it was out of your control, and that
而且你的基因会阻止你呢?相反的 如果有一个秘密
your genetics may be entirely holding you back? Conversely, what if there was a secret
可以帮你拥有超人的力量呢?
out there that could lead you to super human strength?
事实真相是 你的肌肉大小是有极限的当然 听上去你也许会觉得这道理很明显
The truth is: your muscle size has a limit. Sure, it may seem obvious when you hear it,
但是你的肌肉是在一种叫做肌肉生长抑制素的蛋白质的严格控制下的 它能精确的决定
but your muscles are under the strict control of a protein called Myostatin, which determines
一块肌肉能长成多大 这种限制对每个人来说是不同的 这取决于
exactly how large a muscle can become. And this limit is different for everyone depending
它们的肌肉生长抑制素水平 当肌肉达到这种限制 肌肉生长抑制素会限制它更多的生长
on their myostatin levels. As a muscle reaches this limit, myostatin prevents any further
但是如果肌肉生长抑制素它本身有限 或者缺少的话 这种肌肉限制就会突然消失了
growth. But if the myostatin itself is limited or absent, this muscle limit suddenly goes
这种现象第一次被观测到是在比利时的
away. This phenomenon was first noticed in Belgian
Blue Cattle农庄 它们的牛比一般的牛生长的肌肉要多2-3倍
Blue Cattle. These cows developed 2-3 times more muscle mass than a normal cow, and it
之后才发现它们缺失GDF-8基因 这个基因正好是
was later discovered that they had a deletion of the gene GDF-8, which just so happens to
制造肌肉生长抑制素的基因 结果是 不通过任何练习和特殊饮食 这些牛
create myostatin. As a result, without any exercise or special diet, these cows have
就拥有了不可思议的肌肉块同样的事情在那些缺少GDF-8基因的狗 老鼠
incredible muscle mass. Similar cases have been documented in dogs, mice, and even a
甚至是人类宝宝的身上被证明
few cases of human babies lacking the GDF-8 gene.
这些发现帮助科学家理解了为什么一些人那么容易增肌 然而其他人
These findings have helped scientists understand why some people bulk up easily, while others
却要努力练习 低水平的肌肉生长抑制素=更多的肌肉块
struggle to. Lower levels of myostatin = more muscle mass. In fact, some studies have even
事实上 研究表明 许多健身冠军天生是低水平的甚至没有
shown that many champion body builders have naturally lower levels, or even entire deletions
肌肉生长抑制素基因 你可以看看一些人 像阿诺德·施瓦辛格 在青年时
of the myostatin gene. If you look at somebody like Arnold Schwarzenegger, as a teen, he
他的肌肉看起来就很自然 因此 可能许多健身冠军能取得他们的成功
just looks naturally muscular. As such, perhaps many champion bodybuilders owe their success
比起他们的训练和药物更有价值的是基因吧
more to genetics than their training or drug use.
最终 可能会开发一些药物来耗尽或者阻止肌肉生长抑制素
Eventually, it may be possible to develop drugs which deplete or block myostatin. Of
当然 它是一把双刃剑 一方面 那些肌肉营养失调或者
course, it’s a double edged sword; On the one hand, patients with muscular dystrophy,
由于老化而导致肌肉缺失的病人可以重生和重建肌肉 另一方面
or muscle loss from aging could regrow and restore muscle. On the other hand, the potential
作为兴奋剂而被滥用的潜在性看起来…不能避免 但是 这个能看到真实生活中的绿巨人的前景
for abuse as performance enhancers seems…inevitable. But, the prospect of seeing a real-life human
…似乎很酷 除此之外 那些已经有低水平肌肉生长抑制素的人
Hulk…seems kind of cool. Besides, should those who already have low levels of myostatin
是否算是具有一种不公平的优势?很难说
be considered to have an unfair advantage? It’s hard to say. Regardless, be weary of
但 别被任何售卖这种未经证实的或未规范的疗法所蒙蔽吧
anybody selling or promoting this unproven and unregulated treatment.
最终 无论你的肌肉生长抑制素水平天生是高还是低 记住
At the end of the day, whether you have naturally low or high myostatin levels, remember – this
这是你身体机能和新陈代谢的自然最优选择适当的训练和一般意义上的健康
is the level that is optimal for your mechanical and metabolic efficiency. With proper exercise
你就可以达到你独特的生理顶峰
and general health, you’ll reach your own unique physiological peak. And while you may
也许你就不是注定要强壮成超人那样的 通过刻苦的训练来超越
not be destined to pack a punch like Superman, you can push your own limits through training
自我极限吧但是 假如你真的可以有超人那样的力量呢?
and hard work. But, what if you could punch as hard as Superman?
我们的朋友杰克在vsauce3频道有一个关于击败超人的问题
Our friend Jake over at Vsauce3 has the answer to this smashing superhero question, which
你可以去看看 如果你想知道自己到底有多少肌肉生长抑制素
you definitely need to check out. And if you want to know how much myostatin
唯一的办法就是 做运动
you have…there’s only one real way to find out. Get working.
本期asapScience是由23AndMe赞助的 23AndMe是一个能够提供基因分析服务的
This episode of AsapSCIENCE is supported by 23 and Me. 23 and Me is a DNA analysis service
公司 可以让你探索自己的基因 如果你对
that allows you to explore your own genes. Whether you are interested in discovering
探索自己的起源或者了解自己的健康 疾病隐患感兴趣
your global origins, or understanding your health and your risk for disease, be sure
可以看看23andme.com/asap 通过它们提供的DNA设备 连接上你的过去
to check out 23andme.com/asap. With the help of their DNA kits, connect to your past, learn
了解你当前的健康和参与到今后可能的基因研究里去
about your present health and potentially be part of future genetic research, all at
就在23andme.com/asap记得订阅我们每周科学视频啊
23andme.com/asap. And subscribe for more weekly science videos.

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