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烤奶酪三明治的科学

The Science of the Perfect Grilled Cheese Sandwich

Alright folks, today we’re talking the do‘s and don’ts
大家好 今天我们来谈谈
of one of the world’s best foods, the grilled cheese sandwich.
顶级美味食物奶酪三明治的制作注意事项
And yes, we’ve got the science to back it up.
而且 这些注意事项有科学支持
There are so, so many different types of cheese out there
世界上有很多不同种奶酪
but there’s only one type you want
但谈及烤奶酪
when it comes to grilled cheese
你只想要其中一种
the kind that’s nice and stretchy.
就是味道好又有弹性的那种
So then how does chemistry get you that perfect, gooey grilled cheese?
那么 化学反应怎样使得烤奶酪变得完美而黏稠?
Time for a primer on cheese.
首先我们来给奶酪打底
The first step of cheesemaking
干酪制作第一步是
is to form curds out of milk.
用牛奶做凝乳
Milk is 90% water, plus a mix of casein
牛奶是90%的水混合干酪素
whey proteins, lactose, calcium, and fats.
乳清蛋白 乳糖 碳酸钙和油脂制成的
Casein proteins float around in milk in
酪蛋白以小分子团漂浮在牛奶中
tiny molecular clumps called micelles
这种小分子团俗称微粒
that refuse to stick together because
微粒不会互相黏着
they have same charge on the outside.
因为微粒外有同种电荷
These micelles hold around 2/3rds of the calcium in milk,
这些微粒能够留住牛奶中2/3的碳酸钙
and believe it or not
不管你信不信
calcium is the key to the perfect grilled cheese.
烤奶酪是否成功取决于钙
To form curds,
为形成凝乳
bacteria and enzymes are added to milk to make it coagulate,
将细菌和酵素加入牛奶中使其凝结
or go from a liquid to a solid or semisolid state.
即让牛奶从液体变为固体或半固体状态
The bacteria converts lactose into lactic acid
乳酸菌将乳糖转为乳酸
to drop the pH, which eliminates
降低了PH值
the charge of the casein micelles
减少了酪蛋白微粒间的电荷
to help them stick together.
使它们互相黏着
Enzymes called rennet are also used to speed up the process.
凝乳酵素也被用来加速反应进程
Once the curds are formed
凝乳一经形成
the whey and excess moisture is drained
就会去除其中乳清和多余水分
and the little clumps can then be heated,
之后 小块凝乳被加热
bathed in salt water and pressed together to
在盐水中浸泡并且压缩
meet the specifications of different types of cheese.
以便制成不同规格的奶酪
Once pressed, the cheese is left to age
一经压缩 奶酪的保存时间确定
from days to years depending on the style.
据种类不同有几天到几年不等
The longer the cheese sits
奶酪存放时间越长
the more lactose is converted into lactic acid
更多乳糖转化为乳酸
and the lower the pH
使得pH值更低
The lower the pH, the “sharper” the cheese.
pH值越低 奶酪越好切割
Remember that folks, because with grilled cheese
记住这点 因为烤奶酪过程中
that pH level has a huge effect
pH值对奶酪里的钙
on the calcium found inside
有很大的影响
and in turn, the texture when heated.
继而会影响加热时的质地
If protein is the structural backbone of cheese
如果蛋白质是奶酪的结构支柱
then calcium is the rebar that reinforces the backbone.
钙就像钢筋一样强化这一支柱
It’s what grips all of the casein molecules
钙能抓住所有酪蛋白分子
together to form the micelles.
并将它们聚集在一起形成胶束
Melty, stretchy cheeses have casein proteins
柔软 有弹性的奶酪含有酪蛋白
that can break away and go with the flow
酪蛋白可以分解并随奶酪流动
and what that takes is a lower pH
这需要一个较低的pH值
which lets the calcium ditch its job of holding all the casein together.
较低的pH会让钙失去 聚集所有酪蛋白的能力
That means more proteins break out of their cages
这意味着会有更多的蛋白质释放出来
to interact with the fats and moisture in the cheese,
与脂肪以及奶酪中的水分相互作用
to make everything flow together
让所有分子都流动起来
as one big, lovely, gooey mess.
使奶酪成为一团大的 可爱的 黏糊糊的东西
But if the pH is too low the cheese will
但是如果pH值太低
release all of its oils when heated,
奶酪就会在加热时流失所有油脂
leaving a curtly, clumpy disaster.
只剩草草一片狼藉
The secret to getting the perfect cheese for a grilled cheese sandwich is
要做出完美的烤奶酪三明治 秘诀就是
to find one with the right pH
找到一个合适的pH值
to perfectly balance out the calcium and protein structure.
以完美平衡钙和蛋白质结构
Cheeses with a pH range between 5.3 and 5.5 are right on the money
pH值在5.3到5.5之间 是最合适的
and here’s a handful of perfect examples.
已有很多成功先例对此予以证实
Okay, so here’s a Reactions Grilled Cheese Pro tip:
下面是奶酪专家的建议
If you’re in the cheese aisle
如果你在奶酪货架前
confused about all the different types of cheddar,
对各种不同类型的切达奶酪选择困难
go with the mild one, it’s gonna have
那就吃淡味的
the texture you’re looking for,
它会有你想要的口感
unlike its broken down, sharp older siblings.
不像那些已经坏掉的 硬硬的其他奶酪
Oh and what about those perfect yellow squares
哦 还有那些很棒的黄色方块状
of processed “American” cheese?
“美国”加工奶酪如何制造?
This type of cheese is made by melting together two or more different cheeses
这种类型的奶酪是用两种或两种以上不同的奶酪
like colby and cheddar, and adding an
如科尔比奶酪和切达奶酪溶合在一起
emulsifier such as sodium or potassium phosphate
然后加入一种乳化剂 如磷酸钠或磷酸钾
which limits the amount of calcium holding everything together,
从而控制钙的含量 使所有物质融合在一起
all the while increasing the pH, sometimes up to 5.8.
同时增加pH值 有时会使pH增至5.8
This makes for a highly meltable cheese product
这样就生产出一个非常易溶的奶酪产品
with an exceptionally mild flavor.
且奶酪中有一种特殊的淡淡的味道
Okay folks, so now you get the picture,
好了 各位 现在你们明白了
so go get the darn cheese already.
赶紧去吃奶酪吧
If any of you out there have any food related questions,
如果你们有任何与食物相关的问题
post them down in the comments for us
请在评论中留言给我们
but if you’re hungry for more food chem,
若想了解更多食物中的化学知识
check out this video on the chemistry of pizza.
请观看该关于披萨中化学的视频
Today’s episode was inspired by
今天这一期的灵感来自于
an absolutely amazing book
一本非常棒的书
called the kitchen as laboratory,
叫做《厨房实验室》
check out the first chapter by Jennifer Kimmel,
第一章作者是Jennifer Kimmel
The chemistry of a grilled cheese sandwich.
内容是烤奶酪三明治中的化学
A link’s down in the description,
链接就在下方
go get yourself a copy!
去拿一份吧
Thumbs up, subscribe, we’ll see you again soon.
点赞 收藏 我们会马上回来

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视频概述

奶酪三明治里的化学,快来看

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收集自网络

翻译译者

尘晓迪

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审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rttkpPFNkmY

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