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超级英雄的科学 - 蜘蛛侠

The Science of Superheroes - SPIDER-MAN

蜘蛛人拥有一些很酷的超能力
Spider-man has some pretty sweet abilities,
但是让我们用科学的眼光来看看这个超级英雄和现实结合起来是多么的切合
but let us take a scientific look to see how well this superhero stacks up to reality.
之所以基因变异成为蜘蛛人,是因为蜘蛛咬了他并向他身体里注射了逆转录酶病毒
For spider-man to become genetically modified, the spider that bit him would have to release a retrovirus into his body.
病毒把基因信息插入了细胞的遗传基因里
Retrovirus carry genetic information which gets inserted into the DNA of cells.
细胞在读取了新的遗传基因后,产生了特殊的功能和蛋白质
The cell then reads the new DNA to create specific functions and proteins for that cell.
并且这种逆转录病毒将这种行为作用于几乎每一个细胞
But this retrovirus would have to make its way to nearly every cell
并且有能力为每个细胞编写出新的不同的能力
and have the ability to code for new and different functions in each cell.
虽然是理论上可能,但这些能力也十分的惊人
So while it is theoretically possible, it would also be pretty “amazing”
丝,按实际的比例,强度和韧性都超过钢材
Silk, it is actually proportionately stronger and more flexible than steel.
只有头发十分之一细的蜘蛛网,可以捕捉时速超过15英里的飞虫
Spiderwebs 1/10th the size of a piece of hair are able to catch insects flying upwards of 15 miles an hour.
并且,不管你信不信,如果一张网的丝有一英寸粗,它真的能停住一架喷气式战斗机
And, believe it or not, if a web were an inch thick in diameter it could actually stop a fighter jet.
力量,一些蜘蛛可以举起自己体重的重量50次,肌肉的力量是和肌肉的尺寸直接相关的
Strength, some spiders can lift up to 50 times their body weight, this muscle strength is directly related to size.
想想你的肱二头肌增加了高和宽,但长度不变
Think about your biceps, when you work out it increases in height and width, but not length.
这里,平面生物体的力量增加,靠两个比例维度
In this way, the strength of an organism increases as a square, or by 2 on the scale factor.
但是生物变得更大,他的体积增加,是因为长宽高都增加
But as organisms get bigger, their volume increases by height, width and length,
作为立方体,有三个比例要素
as a cube, or a 3 on the scale factor.
创造比例是2比3,意味着更大的生物,力量却按比例更小了
This creates a ratio of 2:3, meaning the bigger the organism, the smaller its proportional strength.
因为蜘蛛人是人形大小
But because Spider-man is human shaped and sized,
这种病毒必须编写基因,创造更多的机动蛋白和肌球蛋白
the retorvirus would have to encode for the creation of more actin and myosin proteins.
这些蛋白质对肌肉的伸缩能力产生了效果,这效果创造了一个强壮的人
These proteins effect the contraction abilities of muscles, and in effect could make a human stronger.
能爬墙?对蜘蛛来说没问题
Climbing walls? Not a problem for spiders,
他们每条腿上都有很细的体毛
they have tiny hairs on each leg
这些毛上有大量更小的有尖的毛
and these hairs have tons of even smaller hairs with triangular ends
它们和表面的作用力,达到了原子的纳米级别。
which interact within nanometers of the atoms on the surface.
它产生的静电力,可以让他们粘住自己170倍体重的重量
This creates electrostatic forces, allowing them to stick with strength of 170 times their own weight.
为了控制这种能力,蜘蛛侠需要毛茸茸的手和脚,
Too capture this ability, Spider-man would need permanently hairy hands and feet,
可能没那么多,要不会吓坏他的女朋友
which may not overly impress his damsels in distress.
最后我们来说说蜘蛛的感官吧。
And finally, what about the Spidey Sense?
蜘蛛的体毛对震动和气压变化极其敏感。
Well, spider hairs are extremely sensitive to vibration and air pressure changes.
但这也就意味着蜘蛛侠只能察觉到他附近的事物,而对于一定距离以外的就鞭长莫及了
But this means that spider-man could only perceive things that are near him, and not events at a distance.
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