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彩虹的科学

The Science of Rainbows

[播放音乐]
[music]
从彩色书本到专辑封面 彩虹随处可见
From coloring books to record covers, rainbows are everywhere.
我打赌你甚至 不假思索就能想起它的颜色
I bet you could remember the colors without thinking twice.
虽然在真实生活中没人会真的说“靛蓝色”
Although in real life no one really says “indigo”,
虽然我猜彩虹色调序列(ROYGBV)并不真的与真实彩虹有一样的环形
although I guess ROYGBV doesn’t really have the same ring to it.
对于任何试图追寻彩虹的人 会发现 彩虹并非确切存在于那里
As anyone who’s tried to chase one finds out, a rainbow isn’t really there.
你无法跨越它 你找不到它的终点
You can’t go over it, and you can’t get to the end of it.
它成为遥不可及的神化代表物
It’s become a mythical representation of the unattainable.
在纳瓦霍人和挪威人的神话中
In Navajo and Norwegian mythology,
这是座只有上帝才能搭建的连通天堂与人间的桥
it’s a bridge that only gods could take between heaven and Earth.
对于基督教和佛教徒 彩虹是和平与宽恕的代表
For Christians and Buddhists, rainbows are a state of peace and forgiveness.
在一些文化中 它是很长且色彩绚丽的独角兽
And in some cultures, it’s a really long and colorful unicorn.
当然 仅仅因为彩虹并非确切存在
Of course, just because a rainbow isn’t really there
并不能代表我们无法解释它是如何形成的
doesn’t mean we can’t explain how it works.
更好的问题是“为什么它是彩虹?”
The better question is “WHY is a rainbow?”
答案是“42” 让我来解释一下
And that answer is “42”. Let me explain.
彩虹是由光 水和一些物理变化而形成的
A rainbow exists because of light, water and a little physics.
让我们从光开始说起 它看起来是白色的
Let’s start with sunlight. It looks white.
对一些人来说似乎缺少色彩
To some that seems like the absence of color.
但要感谢艾扎克·牛顿 我们已经知道白光中包含所有可见光波
But thanks to Isaac Newton we know that white light is really the sum of all visible wavelengths,
从短波至长波所有有色光都在其中
from short to long and all the colors in between.
这使你不禁想知道
It makes you wonder,
色彩与色彩间有无数色彩 那么彩虹到底是由多少色彩组成的
there are colors in between other colors, then how many colors is a rainbow really made of.
无论如何 我们已有了光 现在还需要水
Anyway,so we’ve got lights, and now we need water.
在雨天或潮湿气候下 天空中充满了小水滴
On a rainy or misty day, the sky is filled with tiny droplets.
它们像云中的水滴一样小 尽管 那是为什么我们看不到巨大的云的原因
They are quite as small as the droplets in clouds, though, which is why we don’t have awesome looking clouds.
有些人可能会说“可是乔 我曾经见到过云中彩虹!”
But some of you might be saying “But Joe, I’ve seen a rainbow in a cloud before!”
可是 它们并不是真的彩虹 我们以后会讨论他们
Well, that’s not really a rainbow. But we’ll talk about that another time. and they’re
这些悬浮的液体棱镜因其表面张力而保持最小形态
Those suspended liquid prisms are surface tension on its smallest scale,
水滴被压缩成球状
the drops were pulled into the shape of a sphere
而且每一个都能捕捉日光
and each one can catch sunlight
让它们成为自己彩虹制造工厂的一部分
become its own part of the rainbow factory.
此时需要加入物理变化了
Here is where we add in the physicals
光线从进入你身后的雨滴开始
Sunlight starts by entering a raindrop from behind you.
它穿过一种媒介 空气 进入另一媒介 水
The light goes from one medium, air, into another, water.
便产生了轻微弯折 这一过程被称为光的折射
And that causes it to bend slightly thanks to a process called refraction.
不同波长的光发生不同角度的弯折
Different wavelengths of light bend at different angles.
于是它引起了白光分解
so this course the white light to separate
弯折的光线在水滴后侧发生反射 然后在离开水滴时再次发生折射
This bent sunlight then reflects off the back of the raindrop, and refracts again on the way out.
此时测量进入光线与射出的红光间角度
When we measure the angle between the light that went in and the red light that comes out,
答案是42……度
the answer is 42 . . . degrees.
那么一座彩虹的产生需要多少水滴?
So how many drops does it TAKE to make a rainbow?
嗯 很多 因为每一个颜色都存在一个不同折射角度
Well, a lot. Because each color exits at a different angle,
有雨滴折射红光 另有一个折射紫光
one raindrop will send red light into your eye and another drop will send violet light.
其他在这之间的色彩也是同一原理
The same thing happens with all the colors in between,
每一种光都来自于产生自己的水滴
each coming from their own droplet.
那么关于它的形状呢?我是指 我们称它为彩虹(rainbow中BOW意为弓)是有原因的
And what about the shape? I mean, we call it a rainBOW for a reason.
不是彩色线条或是彩色折线
It’s not a rainLINE or a rainZIGZAG.
看 你和你的眼睛处在一个巨大半圆锥的顶点
See, you and your eyes are at the apex of a huge half-cone,
另一端是构成彩虹的水
and the other end is the water that makes the rainbow.
它将彩虹弯曲塑造成我们所熟悉和喜爱的形状
this gives rainbow that curved shape we all know and love.
你所看到的物体只是因光线正好折射到你所在的位置
Everything you see is because that light is refracting right to where you are.
没有人能看到与你所见完全一样的彩虹
No one else is expriencing excactly the same rainbow as you.
如果每个人所见彩虹都独一无二 你的与我的是否相似呢?
If everyone’s rainbow is unique, does your rainbow look like my rainbow?
Vsauce科普频道的马歇尔有一个很棒的相关视频
Well, Michael from Vsauce has a great video about that,
我将链接放到订阅中 让他来为你解答这个问题
so I’ll put a link in the description to let him answer that question for you.
我们能否见到不一样的彩虹呢?
Could we ever see a different rainbow?
进化使我们只能看到完整电磁光谱中极小的一部分
We’ve evolved to see only a tiny fraction of a percent of the entire electromagnetic spectrum,
对于从X光到无线电波的其他部分呢
what about all the rest of it, from x-rays to radio waves.
假如我们能看到像螳螂虾样的彩虹
What if we could see a rainbow like the mantis shrimp,
也许我们还能看到一座彩虹横跨整个天空
maybe we could see a rainbow that stretches across the sky!

由于事实上我们只能看到光谱中的一小条
While it’s true that we only see a sliver of the spectrum,
你便不能通过任何无法穿过地球大气层的物质来构造彩虹
you can’t make a rainbow out of anything that doesn’t make it into Earth’s atmosphere.
拿太阳举例 事实上它放射的几乎一半的辐射正好处于可见光区
Take the sun: It actually emits almost half of its radiation right around the visible range,
这事实上就是为什么我们进化为能看到它们的原因
which is exactly why we evolved to see that range.
日光的其他大部分为红外线 只有极少一部分是紫外线(UV)
The rest of the sunlight is mostly infrared and just a tiny bit of UV.
如果我们能看到所有光波所组成的彩虹
If we could see a rainbow made of all of that,
它也只会比我们熟知的彩虹宽一倍
it would only be about twice the width of the one we’re used to.
不幸的是 如果我们能看到红外线
Unfortunately, if we could see infrared,
我们会瞎掉 因为红外辐射是由我们身边最温暖的物质组成
we’d be blinded by the infrared tradition made of the warmest thing around us.
包括地球自身
including the Earth itself.
增强阳光的强度也没有用
Cranking up the sun wouldn’t work either
因为电磁光谱中大部分都在到达地球表面前被过滤掉了
most of the electromagnetic spectrum is filtered out before it reaches Earth’s surface.
那些无线电波呢 它们可以在大气中自由穿行
What about all those radio waves, I mean they’re traveling freely through the atmosphere.
想象在彩虹红光区上的所有频段
Picture all those bands way beyond the red side of our rainbow.
可悲的是 有无线电的感知力对眼睛来说依然是会瞎掉的体验
Sadly, having radio antennas for eyes would also be a blinding experience,
因为空气中充满了你的无线 手机 当然 还有无线电的信号
because the air is filled with the signals from our wi-fi, mobile phones, and well, radio.
我想我们应为拥有彩虹而高兴
I guess we’ll have to be happy with the rainbow we have,
因为它是我们能看到的最好的彩虹 下次看见彩虹的时候
because it’s pretty much the best rainbow we can make. The next time you see a rainbow,
记得 尽管它的尽头并没有一罐金子
remember that even though there’s no pot of gold at the end,
没有人能看到与你所见完全相同的彩虹
No one else can see exactly the same rainbow as you can.
这对我来很珍贵
That sounds like treasure to me.
保持你的好奇心 感谢观看
Stay curious, and thanks for watching.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pYnC-ONdXQ

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