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爱情的科学

The Science of Love

从哲学家和史学家,到诗人和科学家,爱抓住我们的
From philosophers and historians, to poets and scientists alike, love has captured our
想象和好奇已有好几个世纪了。许多人都有迅速坠入爱情的
imagination and curiosity for centuries. Many have experienced the rush of falling in
第一次经历,或者你对孩子
love for the first time. Or the deep feelings of love for your children,
家人以及朋友深深的爱,但什么才是从生理性观点来说的爱呢?毫无疑问,这是
family and friends. But what is love from a biological perspective? No doubt it’s
错综复杂的物种进化论。毕竟
intertwined with the evolutionary survival of our species. Afterall you
你来自一个完整的有机体,从一个微生物繁殖
come from an unbroken line of organisms reproducing from the very first microbe
一分为二,因为你的祖先都在黄昏时
that split in two, to your ancestors who have all successfully mated since the dawn of
交配成功
time.
可悲的是,如果你不能生孩子,这完美的规律将被终止
Sadly, if you fail to have children this perfect streak comes to a halt.
但当我们被催促着生育,同时也被驱使着确保我们的后代
But while we’re driven to reproduce, we’re also driven to make sure our offspring
能够生存下去
survive.
尽管我们经常把爱情与心联系起来,但是爱情真正的魔力
Though we often associate love with the heart, of the true magic can be seen
是能够在大脑里看到
inside the brain.
可能并不完全让人感到惊奇 人们发现 在爱情中某个人的大脑
It may not be entirely surprising to find out that the brain of somebody in
看起来非常类似于可卡因作用下的大脑,可卡因通过
love looks awfully similar to one on cocaine. Cocaine acts on the pleasure
降低他们燃烧的临界点来作用于大脑中的快感中枢 这表明
centers in the brain by lowering the threshold at which they fire. This means
你更容易感觉真正的良好
that you feel really good a lot easier.
我们在那些坠入爱情的人大脑里看到相同的情况,但是这不仅仅是
We see the same thing in the brains of those in love, but it’s not just the
可卡因或者爱情使你感觉良好 而事实是任何你经历的事情
cocaine or the love that makes you feel good it’s the fact that anything you
现在将更容易引发快感中枢,使你感觉良好
experience will now more easily set off pleasure centers and make you feel good.
因为这样 你不仅仅是爱上这个人 并且开始形成
Because of this you not only fall in love with the person, but begin to build a
对周围世界的充满浪漫色彩的态度 有趣的是 在附近的疼痛中枢和
romanticized view of the world around you. Interestingly nearby pain and
厌恶中枢作用减弱 所以你受到事情的干扰减少
aversion centers begin to fire less, so you become less bothered by things.
只是简单的为了爱去恋爱
Simply put we love being in love.
那么,是哪些化学因素促使了这种现象的出现?不仅仅是性高潮或者
So what chemicals are at work to make all of this happen? Both during orgasm or by
简单的看着照片上的爱人,而引起巨大作用的是多巴胺和
simply looking at photos of a loved one, there is a surge of dopamine and
来自覆盖着腹部区域的去甲肾上腺素。
norepinephrine from the ventral tegmental area.
这不仅仅引起性兴奋和心跳加速,还将给你带来
This not only triggers sexual arousal in your racing heart, but gives you the
渴望的动力和与人接触更多的欲望。你明白浪漫
motivation craving and desire to be with a person more and more. You see romantic
的爱情并不是简单的情感,它是驱使你思想前进的马达。并且
love is not simply an emotion, it is a drive from the motor of the mind. And this
汽车带来了强烈的能量,集中于注意力和得意上。这个
motor brings about intense energy focused attention and elation. The
快感的中枢是大脑奖赏系统的一部分。多脑缘的多巴胺
pleasure centers are part of the brains reward system. The mesolimbic dopamine
系统。如果当你学习时刺激这块区域,学习会更为
system. If you stimulate this region while learning, learning becomes much
容易,因为这个过程是快乐的,被视为一种奖励。
easier because it’s pleasurable and perceived as a reward.
我们也看到神经调制催产素激增来自
We also see a surge in the neuromodulator oxytocin from the
幅隔核。有时被称为
nucleus accumbens. Sometimes called the
“承诺神经调制”因为在哺乳动物中它有助于加强连接或者
‘commitment neuromodulator’ because in mammals it helps to reinforce bonding or
附件。当草原田鼠注射催产素或者
attachment. When prairie voles are injected with either oxytocin or
抗利尿激素会马上找到一个与之最有联系的伴侣。最后,研究
vasopressin they will instantly find a mate to pair a bond with. Finally, studies have
表明人们沉浸在爱中时,血管收缩素的水平会较低
shown that people in love have low levels of serotonin.
这种情况类似强迫症患者(的情况)
Which is similar to people with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
这可能是我们在早恋中造成困扰和迷恋的原因
This is likely cause of our obsession and infatuation during early love.
令人惊讶的是,这些区域与我们热恋相关并保持着活跃
Amazingly, these areas associated with intense romantic love can remain active
几十年来,还有许多生理和心理上的
for decades, and while there are many other physiological and psychological
成份添加并混合,事实上,科学能反映的微乎其微
components that add to the mix, the truth is, science still knows very little about
为什么或爱是如何运作的,然而,不知何故,似乎我们都知道当我们
exactly why or how love works. And yet somehow, we all seem to know it when we
感受到它。
feel it.
有火辣的问题想问吗?在评论中询问它,或者在facebook和twitter上
Gott a burning question you want answered? Ask it in the comments, or on facebook and twitter.
和订阅以观看更多的科学视频。
And subscribe for more weekly science videos.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDMwpVUhxAo

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