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学习与发展的科学 – 译学馆
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学习与发展的科学

The Science of Learning and Development

康托尔博士:科学学习与发展的主动性
>>Dr Cantor: The Science of Learning
共同地解释了一个问题
and Development Initiative cametogether to answer a question.
为了理解学习是如何发生的
What science should wepay attention to in order
我们应该关注什么样的科学呢?
to understand how learning happens? >>Teacher:
玩的愉快
Have a good day.
达令·哈蒙德博士:
> > Dr Darling-Hammond:
学习和发展的科学实际上是一个综合了
The Science of Learning and Development is really an attempt to synthesize a huge body
多年积累的大体系知识的尝试
of knowledge that’s accumulatedover many,
这些知识来源包括学习的科学 心理学和人类学
many years from the learning sciences,from psychology and anthropology
以及人脑科学
and brain science and put all
并将它们综合起来以理解
that together and understand how people,
人们实际上是怎么发展和学习的
in fact, develop and how they learn.
学习是怎么发生的学习和发展的科学原理
这里有几个核心原则
>>Dr Cantor: There area few core principles
决定着人类的发展
that define all of human development.
首先是可塑性
The first is malleability,
大脑有对人际关系和经历
the unique property of the brain to change
做出反应的特性
in response to relationshipsand experiences.
神经组织是人体所有组织中最容易
Neural tissue is the most susceptible to change
发生变化的组织
of any tissue in the human body.
当孩子出生时 他们的大脑还没有发育完全
When children are born, theirbrains are not fully developed.
实际上 大脑的发育一直持续到青年时期
The development of the brain actuallycontinues into young adulthood.
正是人际关系和个人经历驱动着大脑的发育
It is relationships and experiences that drive the development of the brain.
如果孩子们经历过逆境
If children have the experience
他们的基础技能发展就会不平衡
of adversity they will have unevendevelopment of foundational skills,
比如自律 人际关系技能
like self-regulation, relationshipskills that are prerequisites
这些对于如毅力和自主性等更复杂的技能来说是先决条件
for more complex skills likeperseverance and self-direction.
这样的孩子有越来越落后的危险
These are the children who are at risk to fall further and further behind.
但是最有趣的是
But what’s most interesting is
一个孩子可以从任何发展起点开始
that a child can become a productive
成为一个高效且融入其中的学习者
and engaged learner from anydevelopmental starting point as long
只要我们有意培养这些技能
as we intentionally build those skills. >>Teacher:
老师:跟你的同桌讨论这个问题
Turn to yourtable group and discuss this.
并作出一个陈述
Come up with a statement.
当我们能够把社会 情绪 情感
>>Dr Cantor: When we’re able tocombine social, emotional, affective
和认知发展结合起来 我们就在孩子发育期大脑里
and cognitive developmenttogether, we are creating many,
创造出更多的相互联系
many more interconnections in thedeveloping brain that enable children
这使得孩子们能够加速学习和发展
to accelerate learning and development. >>Teacher:
我们成功了伙计们 我们成功了
We got this,guys. We got this!
老师们拥有一个绝佳的
>>Dr Cantor: As educators, wehave an extraordinary opportunity
塑造孩子们处于发育中的大脑的机会
to shape the developing brains
并且可以去创造一种刺激
of children and to create that kind
来驱使大脑的整合
of stimulus that drives theintegration of the brain. >>Teacher:
生活不仅仅只有孤军奋战
Life isn’t allabout going at it alone.
当你不具备所需的技能或工具时
We’re up there to support you
我们都在这里给予你支持
when you don’t necessarily have the skills or tools that you need.
达令罕墨得博士:学习与发展的科学告诉我们
>>Dr Darling-Hammond: The Scienceof Learning and Development tells us
学校需要组织建立牢固的人际关系
that school needs to organizefor strong relationships. >>Student:
你看起来很漂亮 Turner老师
You look pretty, Miss Turner. >>Ms.
谢谢你 宝贝
Turner: Thank you, baby.
当孩子们与老师 导师和顾问
>>Dr Darling-Hammond: When a strongrelationship exists with a teacher,
以及学校管理人员建立了良好的关系
with a mentor, with an advisor,with a school administrator,
它实际上可以逆转负面经历的影响
it actually can reverse theeffects of adverse experiences.
孩子们具有惊人的适应力 如果他们得到
Children are amazingly resilient,if they get that opportunity
与善解人意的成年人建立联系 寻求安慰 解决问题的机会
for attachment, for comfort and for problem solving with a caring adult.
学校建立良好的师生关系 并设计每日任务帮助学生完全激发潜能
如果有一个 完全遵循这些原则的教室
> > If we walk into a classroom that’s really informed by these principles,
我们将看到孩子们积极地投入到学习中
we’ll see kids activelyengaged in their learning. >>Teacher:
这个图告诉我们什么?
What is thisgraph telling us?
他们将使用批判性思维并拥有解决问题的能力
>>They will be using criticalthinking and problem solving.
他们将把想法付诸行动
They will be putting ideas into action.
这个比你刚才用的那个长得多
This one is much longer than the other one you were using.
他们将拥有很多
> > They will have lots
可以使用的工具和操作材料
of tools and manipulatives that they can work
来帮助他们理解这些想法
with to help them understand the ideas.
当他们承担这些任务时 他们正建立着社会和情感基础
As they undertake these tasks,they’re building both the social
同时也在塑造认知能力
and emotional foundation and they’realso building cognitive abilities. >>Teacher:
有谁愿意先来试试?
Any volunteers whoare open to a priority list? >>Student:
学校集社会 情感 学术技巧为一体 支持所有学生
好的 明天将由Alex先来
Okay, we haveAlex due tomorrow.
这些都是可以被教授的技能
>>These are all skillsthat can be taught.
这些和学习单词和算术一样重要
These are as important as learning your ABCs and your arithmetic facts. >>Student:
是80 所以它必须小于80
It’s 80 soit has to be under. >>Teacher:
很棒
Nice.
所以 重要的是明白即使有人与你意见不同
So it’s important to understand that even though somebody says something you might disagree with,
但是每个人都在为这个对话做出贡献
everybody’s contributing to thisshared dialogue in this safe space.
学校有义务去创造一个身心智安全的环境
Schools have a responsibility to be physically, emotionally, and intellectually safe environment.
今天
> > Dr Cantor: Today,
我们面临一项非常艰巨的任务
we have a very big task in front of us,
但这是一项非常积极乐观的任务
but it is a very positiveand optimistic task. >>Teacher:
早上好 朋友们!
Good morning, friends! >>Students:
早上好
Good morning.
因为我们现在已经知道了孩子们是如何成为学习者
Because we now have a knowledge of how children become learners and the opportunity
并且明白有机会创造由大脑发育知识
to create an educationsystem that’s informed
所指导的一个教育体系
by a knowledge of the developing brain. >>Teacher:
这就是协作和同理心
So that’scollaboration and compassion. >>Students:
哇!
Yay!

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视频概述

对大脑发育的研究可以帮助我们了解学习和发展的过程是怎样的,也可以帮助孩子们成为更好的学习者。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1VoUImKYDE

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