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心碎的科学

The Science of Heartbreak

纵观全世界从文学到戏剧到电影
From literature to plays and movies throughout the world,
人们对爱的迷恋和我们对心碎的困扰一样强烈
Humanity’s fascination with love is just as strong as our obsession with heartbreak.
但是心碎仅仅是一个抽象概念 还是真的对我们的身体和大脑有生理作用呢?
But, is a broken heart simply an abstract concept, or are there real physical affects on the body and the brain?
无论你何时在忍受身体伤害 如切伤或是受伤 前扣带皮层受到了刺激
Whenever you endure physical pain, such as a cut or injury, the anterior cingulate cortex is stimulated.
令人惊讶的是 当你感到被排斥或经历一段社交关系的失去时 大脑相同区域会被激活
Surprisingly, it’s the same region of the brain that’s activated when you feel excluded or experience the loss of a social relationship.
可能生理上和心理上的疼痛并不是如我们曾经想的那样不同
Perhaps physical pain and emotional pain aren’t as different as we once thought.
想一下我们是如何形容失恋的
Think about the ways in which we describe lost love.
“他撕碎了我的心”,“这就是打在脸上的一巴掌”,“我情感受到伤害”。
“He ripped my heart out”, “it was a slap in the face”, “I’m emotionally scarred.”
这对身体状况的描述
This use of physical description
刻画一段清晰的关系 至少是用语言在情感和生理上的痛苦之间
paints a clear relationship, at least in language, between emotional and physical pain.
事实上,研究表明人们
In fact, studies have shown that human beings would rather
比起感受到社会的排斥更愿意身体受到伤害。
be physically hurt than feel social exclusion.
但是为什么这两种不同的体验
But why would these two different experiences
会引出身体同样的感觉呢?
elicit the same feeling in our bodies?
很明显,我们的身体用身体上的疼痛来抵御
It’s clear that our bodies use physical pain to prevent
迫在眉睫的危险。
the risk of imminent danger.
但是,从进化的角度来看,
But, from an evolutionary perspective,
任何能够增强我们整体生存能力和适应力的事物
anything that increases our overall survival and fitness as a species
都让一个物种更有可能存活下去
is likely to persist.
爱人和朋友之间关系和社会联系的上升同样会
The rise of relationships and social bonds between lovers and friends alike
变成许多物种生存的一个重要部分。
became an important part of survival for many species.
彼此照顾。
You look out for me, and I’ll look out for you.
而就像你不希望再次被热咖啡烫伤一样
And just like your desire to not be burned by hot coffee again,
动物也不希望社交孤立
animals desire not to be socially alone.
两个例子中的痛苦也增加了我们存活的可能性
The pain from both instances increases our chance of survival
通过避免非理想的后果
by avoiding less desirable outcomes.
你更有可能存活下来并繁殖
You’re more likely to survive and reproduce
如果你不是孤身一人
if you’re not alone.
这可以从对灵长类动物的研究中得出
This can be see in studies of primates
当与爱人分离时
who, when separated from loved ones,
经历了皮质醇激素的增长
experienced an increase in the hormone cortisol
和去甲肾上腺素激素的降低
and a decrease in the hormone norepinephrine,
造成了严重的应激反应
causing a major stress response.
最终记录到 这些导致了抑郁 焦虑和怮哭
Ultimately, this contributes to the depression, anxiety, and loud crying documented.
对人类来说一次分手 失去爱人 或者孤立
For humans, a break up, loss of a loved one, or isolation
会引发类似的反应
can trigger a similar reaction,
形成生理疼痛的感受
creating the perception of physical pain.
所以我们该怎样缓解这种痛苦呢
So, how can we alleviate this pain?
毕竟 创可贴或药膏应对的是生理伤口
After all, band-aids or creams are meant for physical wounds.
研究表明 高水平的社交支持
Studies have shown that high levels of social support
与低水平的疼痛相关
are related to low levels of pain,
而社交疏远人群显示出了可怜的适应力
whereas socially alienated individuals show poor adjustment.
所以如果你感到心碎
So if you’re feeling brokenhearted,
让你包围朋友和家人之间
surround yourself with friends and family,
尽管这可能很难
as difficult as it may seem.
而如果某个你知道的人正在经受情感的折磨
And if someone you know is suffering emotionally,
陪在那里 作为社交支持
be there for social support.
因为 科学上来说 我们人类——我们都想融入哪里
Because, scientifically, us humans – we all just want to fit in somewhere.
这集AsapScience由Audible.com赞助播出
This episode of AsapScience is supported by Audible.com,
有声书的主生产商
the leading provider
拥有超过15万次的下载
of audiobooks with over 150,000 downloadable titles
遍及所有类型的文学
across all types of literature.
如果你想了解更多关于大脑的知识
If you’d like to learn more about the brain,
我推荐Daniel Kahneman的这本书《思考 或快或慢》
I recommend the book “Thinking, Fast and Slow” by Daniel Kahneman.
你可以在audible.com/asap免费下载
You can download this audiobook
这本有声书或其他你选择的书
or another of your choice for free at audible.com/asap.
尤其感谢audible
Special thanks to audible
让这集变成可能
for making these videos possible
并且在audible.com/asap给你们提供了免费的有声书
and for offering you a free audiobook at audible.com/asap.

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