ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

听觉的原理 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

听觉的原理

The science of hearing - Douglas L. Oliver

如果你所诉说的对象看上去没在听你讲话 别着急 也许他只是需要清理一下耳朵—— 米尔恩 (小熊维尼)
你可以听到海浪的轻柔拍打声
You hear the gentle lap of waves,
海鸥的遥远鸣叫声
the distant cawing of a seagull.
但是一个烦人的嗡嗡声打破了此时的平静
But then an annoying whineinterrupts the peace,
越来越近 越来越近
getting closer, and closer, and closer.
双手啪地一声
Until…whack!
你赶走了那只讨厌的蚊子 恢复平静
You dispatch the offending mosquito,and calm is restored.
你怎样如此精确地察觉
How did you detect
远处的声音和发出声音的目标呢?
that noise from afar and target its maker with such precision?
识别声音和确定声音的位置的能力
The ability to recognize soundsand identify their location
可能是由于听觉系统的缘故
is possible thanks to the auditory system.
听觉系统包括两个主要部分:耳朵和大脑
That’s comprised of two main parts:the ear and the brain.
耳朵的功能是把音能转变为神经信号
The ear’s task is to convert sound energyinto neural signals;
大脑的功能是接受和处理信号包含的信息
the brain ’ s is to receive and process the information those signals contain.
想要了解听觉系统是如何工作的
To understand how that works,
我们可以从声音传入耳朵的过程里来观察
we can follow a sound on its journey into the ear.
声音的源头创造振动
The source of a sound creates vibrations
以压力波的形式 在空气 液体 固体的粒子中
that travel as waves of pressurethrough particles in air, liquids,
进行传播
or solids.
我们的内耳 叫做耳蜗
But our inner ear, called the cochlea,
充满了像盐水一样的液体
is actually filledwith saltwater-like fluids.
所以要解决的第一个问题是
So the first problem to solve
无论声音来自何方
is how to convert those sound waves,
怎样把这些声波转变成液体波
wherever they’re coming from, into waves in the fluid.
解决方法是耳膜 或 鼓膜
The solution is the eardrum,or tympanic membrane,
以及中耳的小骨头
and the tiny bones of the middle ear.
这些小骨头把耳膜的大的移动
Those convert the large movementsof the eardrum
转变成耳蜗液体里的压力波
into pressure wavesin the fluid of the cochlea.
当声音进入耳道
When sound enters the ear canal,
声音会冲击耳膜 使耳膜像鼓顶一样振动
it hits the eardrum and makes it vibrate like the head of a drum.
振动的耳膜会突然拉动一个叫音锤的骨头
The vibrating eardrum jerks a bonecalled the hammer,
音锤击打砧骨 并且移动叫做镫骨的第三个骨头
which hits the anvil and moves the third bone called the stapes.
镫骨移动去推动耳蜗的长室里的液体
Its motion pushes the fluid within the long chambers of the cochlea.
这样
Once there,
声音振动最后被转变
the sound vibrations have finally been converted
成液体振动
into vibrations of a fluid,
振动就像波浪一样从耳蜗的一段
and they travel like a wave from one end
穿行到另一端
of the cochlea to the other.
一个叫做底膜的表面贯穿整个耳蜗
A surface called the basilar membrane runs the length of the cochlea.
具有特殊成分叫做静纤毛的毛细胞
It’s lined with hair cells that havespecialized components
包裹着底膜
called stereocilia,
静纤毛随着耳蜗液体和底膜的振动而移动
which move with the vibrations of the cochlear fluid and the basilar membrane.
运动刺激了从毛细胞穿行至
This movement triggers a signalthat travels through the hair cell,
听觉神经
into the auditory nerve,
然后前行至大脑的一个信号 该信号可被看作为一个特别的声音
then onward to the brain, which interprets it as a specific sound.
当一个声音使底膜振动
When a sound makesthe basilar membrane vibrate,
并不是所有的毛细胞移动
not every hair cell moves –
只有特定的毛细胞移动 是否移动取决于声音的频率
only selected ones,depending on the frequency of the sound.
归根结底就是精妙的工程学而已
This comes down to some fine engineering.
底膜的一端很僵硬
At one end,the basilar membrane is stiff,
振动只是为了回应短波长 高频率的声音
vibrating only in response to shortwavelength, high-frequency sounds.
另一端更柔软
The other is more flexible,
只有长波长 低频率的声音存在的时候 振动才会发生
vibrating only in the presence of longer wavelength, low-frequency sounds.
所以海鸥和蚊子发出的声音
So the noises made by the seagulland mosquito
会使底膜的不同地方振动
vibrate different locationson the basilar membrane,
就像在一架钢琴上弹不同的键的效果一样
like playing different keys on a piano.
但并不完全如此
But that’s not all that’s going on.
大脑还有另外一个要完成的任务:
The brain still has anotherimportant task to fulfill:
识别声音的来处
identifying where a sound is coming from.
比较进入两只耳朵的声音
For that, it compares the soundscoming into the two ears
来定位声音在空间的出处
to locate the source in space.
在你正前方的声音
A sound from directly
将会同时到达你的两只耳朵
in front of you will reach both your ears at the same time.
每个耳朵所听到的声音强度是一样的
You’ll also hear it at the same intensityin each ear.
然而从一侧传来的低频率的声音
However, a low-frequency soundcoming from one side
比起远的耳朵 将以微秒的优势抢先到达近的耳朵
will reach the near ear microsecondsbefore the far one.
近耳对于高频率的声音的感受会更强烈
And high-frequency sounds will soundmore intense to the near ear
因为高频率声音被你的头遮挡而不能传至远的耳朵
because they’re blockedfrom the far ear by your head.
这些信息会到达脑干的特殊部位
These strands of informationreach special parts of the brainstem
以分析两耳之间的时间和强度差异
that analyze time andintensity differences between your ears.
分析结果被送至听觉投射区 现在
They send the results of their analysis up to the auditory cortex. Now,
大脑得到了它所需要的所有信息:
the brain hasall the information it needs:
告诉我们这种是什么声音的活动模式
the patterns of activitythat tell us what the sound is,
以及这种声音的所处位置的信息
and information aboutwhere it is in space.
并不是所有人都有正常的听力
Not everyone has normal hearing.
听觉障碍是世界上第三大常见的慢性病
Hearing loss is the third most common chronic disease in the world.
长期处于噪音之中 并且服用一些药物可以杀死毛细胞
Exposure to loud noisesand some drugs can kill hair cells,
导致阻止信号从耳朵到大脑的传递
preventing signals from travelingfrom the ear to the brain.
骨硬化类的疾病会冻结耳中的小骨头
Diseases like osteosclerosis freezethe tiny bones in the ear
致使这些小骨头不再振动
so they no longer vibrate.
如果患有耳鸣的话 大脑会有奇怪的动向
And with tinnitus, the brain does strange things
使我们认为哪里发出了声音
to make us think there ’ s a sound
但实际上并没有任何声音
when there isn ’ t one.
但是当听觉发挥作用的时候 我们的听觉系统是不可估量的
But when it does work, our hearing is an incredible, elegant system.
我们的耳朵附带着一个生物机械的微调部分
Our ears enclose a fine-tuned pieceof biological machinery
将我们周围空气中振动的不和谐音调转变为
that converts the cacophony of vibrationsin the air around us
精确调整的 可以区别
into precisely tuned electrical impulses
拍手声 敲打声 叹息声 以及苍蝇嗡嗡声的电脉冲
that distinguish claps, taps,sighs, and flies.
用这个播放列表可以让你的意识在这个复杂的世界更深入地遨游
Dive deeper into the complex world of your senses with this playlist

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

人类能听到声音是由于听觉的存在 听觉的实现离不开耳朵和大脑的作用

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

呵呵呵呵

审核员

审核员@XG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LkGOGzpbrCk

相关推荐