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幸福 动力以及人生意义的解读 – 译学馆
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幸福 动力以及人生意义的解读

The Science of Happiness, Motivation, and Meaning | Dan Ariely

当我们想到人生的动力是什么时 首先想到的可能是
So when we think about what motivates people maybe the first think about is
我们所认为可以给人以动力是什么,以及我们不能理解却能激励人们又是什么
what we think motivates people and what we don’t understand motivates people.
可能首要的误解就是关于快乐的原则
And maybe the first misunderstanding is about the pleasure principle.
所以我们就产生了我们有权力寻找快乐的想法
So we have this idea of we have the right to pursue happiness
并且我们试图变得开心因为快乐真的是我们所追求的
and we are trying to be happy andthat’s really what we’re pursuing – happiness.
但是思考一下
But think about it.
什么会用一种浅显的方式令你快乐?
What gives you happiness in a waythat is observable?
或许是坐在沙滩上喝着鸡尾酒
Maybe sitting on the beach drinking a mojito
又或是坐在沙发上看喜剧
or maybe sitting on the sofa watching a sitcom.
但如果你做任何一件有用的有意义的 并且是你为之自豪的事
But if you do almost anything that is useful, meaningful, that you take pride of.
你得到的快乐会更多
It’s not the same things.
如果想象一下你一生都坐在沙滩上喝着鸡尾酒
But imagine you have a whole life of sitting on the beach drinking mojitos.
生活能有多开心?
How happy would that life be?
所以说 首先我觉得这是错误的我们追逐转瞬即逝的快乐
So the first I think mistake is that we pursue momentary happiness
而不是长久的快乐
rather than longer term happiness.
我们做那些使我们现在能开怀大笑的事情
So we do the things that will make us laugh out loud today kind of.
并非要总是开怀大笑 但也有几分相似
Not always laugh out loud but kind of like that.
我们不去做困难复杂且富有挑战性的事情
And we don’t do the things that are difficult and complex and challenging
即使会给我们一种别样的快乐
but give us a very different sense of happiness.
考虑一些情况比如进行一场马拉松赛跑
Think about something like running a marathon.
你看到的每个人都不开心
You don’t see anybody happy
如果你作为一个旁观者去想象他们的想法
Like if you came as an alien and you image peoples’ brains
你看见他们如同在跑一段马拉松的面部表情
and you looked at their facial expressions as they’re running a marathon
你会说有人在惩罚他们
you would say somebody is punishing them.
仿佛他们在为自己曾做过的一些糟糕的事情而赎罪
Like they are paying for something terrible they’ve done
并认为这就是他们还债给社会的方式
and this is how they’re paying their debt to society.
这是有点儿痛苦的 但同时也是意义非凡的
But it is kind of miserable but it’s also meaningful
并且可以给人带来成就感
and creat a sense of achievement in someone.
所以我们追逐瞬间的快乐却没有真正明白
So we’re pursuing momentary pleasure rather than truly understanding
快乐的深意 或者说快乐究竟是什么
the depth of what happiness is or what meaning is.
第二个错误则是我们在尝试理解
And then the second thing is that we’re trying to figure out
怎样从外部激励他人 我们通常使用一个简单的等式
how we externally motivate people and we have usually a very simple equation
那就是说动力等于金钱
that says motivation equals money.
如果你没有非常努力地工作或做事
And if you’re not working hard enough or doing something and
而他们仅仅是没有给你足够的报酬或者没能给你满意的奖金
they’re just not paying you enough or not giving you a bonus in the right way
我们只在奖金和报酬上忙活 我们会说
then we just jigger around bonuses and payment and we say
噢 让我们这样或那样来改变一下报酬
oh, let’s change the payment this way and change the payment this way
然后弹性是这儿一点奖金或那儿大量奖金
and give is slightly big bonuses here and slightly big bonuses there
我们将为评估甚至所有的事情制定分数制度
and we’ll create point systems for evaluation and all kind of things.
人类本性之美在于很多事物激励着我们
The beauty of human nature is that lots of things motivate us.
成就感 头衔 工作的关系
A sense of accomplishment and achievement, our title, our connection to work
工作的人脉 与他人的竞争
our connection to people at work, competing with other people.
所有的这些都激励着我们
All of those things motivate us.
所以我们写下一个动力等式
So we write a motivation equation.
我们会写动力相当于 对 金钱很重要
We would write motivation equals yes, money is important
但成就 进步感以及竞争等等也同样重要
but so is achievement, sense of progress, competition, dah, dah, dah, dah.
问题是我们怎样运用它们来创造动力
And the question is how do we use all of them to create motivation.
在物理上人们寻找永动机
And in physics people look for the perpetual motion machine.
我们怎样不获取能量且同时持续成长?
How do we get energy from nothing, right, and continue growing.
从动力上来说存在这样的事情 想象一下两种交易
In motivation there is something like that.So imagine two businesses.
一种不考虑积极性
In one of them the business doesn’t care about motivation.
而另一种非常在意
In one of them they care deeply.
在第一种生意中人们非常痛苦这个生意也很悲惨
In the first business people are miserable and the business is miserable
他们赚不了多少钱
and they’re not making lots of money.
而在第二种情况下人们会开心一点管理者也会开心一点
In the second one people could be happier, management could be happier
他们会更加多产 更加高效
and they could be much more productive and efficient.
当我们投入高的积极性时每个人都能获利
Everybody wins when we invest in deep motivation.
为了研究意义的重要性问题我们所做的第一组实验是其中之一
One of the first experiments we did on the question of meaning.
它并没有什么深刻的意义 甚至毫无意义
It wasn’t like big meaning, it was little meaning.
下面便是我们所做的
And here is what we did.
我们让人们进入实验室 然后问
We got people to come to the lab and we say
你是否愿意搭建一个积木模型?
would you like to build a bionical
为此我们会支付三美元
and we’ll pay you three dollars for this bionical.
然后人们搭建了他们的积木
And people built their bionical.
我们拿走它 放在桌子下
We took it, we put it under the desk and
然后问他们是否愿意为两美元七十分再做一个
we say would you like to build another one for two dollars and seventy cents?
如果他们同意我们会给他们下一个
If they say yes we gave them the next one.
之后每下一个的报酬会以三十美分递减
And then the next one for thirty cents less and less and less diminishing wage
直到他们决定停止 不再继续
until they decide stop, no more.
我们告诉所有人当他们完成这个任务时
And we told all of those people that when they finished the task
我们将拿走所有模型
we’ll take all the bionical
我们将把它们全部拆成碎块然后准备给下一个参与者
we’ll break them into pieces and prepare them for the next participant.
这就是我们称为有意义的情况
That was what we call the meaningful condition.
它并不是真正有意义但与另一种情况比较起来它是有意义的
It’s not really meaningful but it is meaningful compared to the next condition.
在我们私称为西西弗斯情况的另一种情况中
In the next condition which we internally called the sisyphic condition
它用相同的方式开始
it started the same way.
我们问实验者们是否愿意为三美元的报酬来搭建一个积木模型
We said to people would you like to build a bionical for three dollars
他们开始制作
and they started doing it.
当他们完成后我们将模型拿走
When they finished we took it from them.
我们将之放在桌子上然后问
We kept it on the desk and then we said
你是否愿意为两美元七十美分来制作另一个?
would you like to build another one for two seventy.
如果他们同意并且开始制作第二个模型 在他们制作
If they said yes they started building the second bionical but as they were building
第二个模型时我们从第一个模型上取了一些材料
the second bionical we took the pieces apart from the first bionical.
所以我们是在他们眼前破坏了它
So we destroyed it in front of their eyes.
然后我们将它放回盒子里
And then we put it back in the box
询问他们是否愿意制作第三个 报酬降低三十美分
and then we said would you like to build a third one for thirty cents less.
如果他们仍然同意我们会把他们做好的第一个即我们破坏的那个还给他们
And if they said yes we gave them back the first one that they assembled and we broke.
这种方式我们继续重复第四次
And this way we continued back and forth.
我们称这为西西弗斯情况
And we called this the sisyphic condition
因为 如你所记得的西西弗斯神话传说
because if you remember Sisyphus from the mythology
他被判处将一块巨石推向山顶
he was sentenced to push a rock up the hill
而每当他快要到达山顶时巨石会滚下山坡而他则必须重爬同一个山坡
and he almost got to the top and the rock would roll back and he had to do the same hill.
有个想法是如果能有不同的山丘
And the idea was that if there were different hills
是的 如果是在翻越不同的山丘 或许他能稍微感觉有所进展
right, if you were just going over different hills maybe he would feel some progress.
但是被迫一遍遍爬上同一个山坡是最让人丧失斗志的
But having to do the same hill over and over was the depth of demoralizing of people.
那么发生了什么呢?
And what happened?
一些有趣的事情
Kind of a couple of interesting things.
首先是人们在西西弗斯情况下会更快地停止
The first one is that people stopped much faster in the sisyphic condition.
其次我们问他们一般有多喜欢乐高积木
The second one is we asked people how much they enjoyed Legos in general.
我们想知道
And we wanted to see
在他们享受乐高积木的程度
whether there’s a correlation between how much they enjoyed Legos
与这个任务的持续时间之间是否存在关联
and how much they persisted in this task.
我们所观测到的是在有意义情况下存在一个关联
And what we saw was that in the meaningful condition there was a correlation.
喜欢乐高积木的人会搭建更多的积木
People who loved Legos did more bionicals.
而不喜欢乐高积木的人则不这样
People who didn’t like Legos internally didn’t like so much.
在西西弗斯情况下这种关联为零 这意味着
In the sisyphic condition the correlation was zero which means
我们似乎吸走了搭拼乐高积木的快乐
that we have sucked away the joy of assembling Legos.
因为你可以看到喜欢乐高积木的人并没有
Because you see the people who love Legos did not
比那些不喜欢搭积木的人做的更多
do any more than the people who didn’t.
不知为何它的快乐消失了
Somehow the joy of it just went away.
这个实验的另一个有趣的结果是
The other interesting insight from this study is
我们做了另一个版本的实验
we did another version of this experiment.
实验中人们并不参与搭建积木
in which people did not engage in building bionicals
此外我们在商业学校进行这次实验
but we did this in business school.
我们要求学生们来预测
and we asked the students to predict
人们在那两种环境下将如何行动
how other people would behave in those two environments.
所以我们说 好了 你们有一个
So we said okay, you have an
更有意义的环境和一个几乎没有意义的环境
environment with more meaning and an environment with less meaning.
在这两种环境中人们会搭建积木数量会有怎样的不同呢?
How many bionicals will people build differently in those two environments?
我们根据他们预测的精确度来支付报酬
And we paid people for the accuracy of their predictions.
发生了什么呢?
What happened?
他们预测不同之处会是
People predicted that the difference will be
在有意义情况下人们会制作更多
in the meaningful condition people would build more.
但是他们预测它仅仅只会多一个积木
But they predicted it would be only one bionical more.
所以我们以为意义有影响 但不那么重要
So we understand that meaning matters but we think it matters very little.
事实上 它很重要
In fact, it matters a lot.
人们大概搭建了四个更多的积木模型
People built almost four more bionicals.
所以这有一个巨大的差距 人们并不理解意义的重要性
So there was a big gap and people don’t understand how meaning is important.
你想象一下作为一个经理 事实上作为任何人
And if you think about it as a manager actually as anybody
如果你尝试去激励人们
if you’re trying to motivate people.
可以是一个学校老师 一个家长 无论是什么身份
It could be a school teacher, it could be a parent, whatever it is
如果你在尝试激励人们 你必须明白意义有多重要
if you’re trying to motivate people you have to understand how big is meaning.
如果你认为意义只有一点非常小的影响
And if you think that meaning has a very small effect
你不会在它上面耗费太多
you would not invest much in it.
只有你明白了它是多么重要
Only if you understand how big and important it is
你才会关注它
you will invest in it.

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视频概述

幸福是怎样的?动力源自何处?有无意义真的重要吗?我想,这些值得思考

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