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谢顶/秃顶的科学

The Science of Hair Loss/Balding

也许你听到过这样的说法,如果你的外公是秃头
You’ve probably heard people say that if your mother’s father was bald you’re more
你更有可能掉落大把大把美丽的头发在地上,但是,家人
likely lose those beautiful locks of hair down the road. But what truth is there
真相是什么呢?原来掉发的主要因素之一与性别相关。
to this? It turns out that one of the major contributors to hair loss is sex linked.
人类的DNA中有46条染色体,其中有两条帮助决定你的噢o
Humans have forty-six chromosomes of DNA, of which two help determine your
性别、X染色体和Y染色体。如果你是女性,有两个X染色体,但是如果你是男性Ii
sex, the ‘X’ and the ‘Y’ chromosome. If you’re a female you have two ‘X’ chromosomes, but
你就有一个X染色体和一个Y染色体。研究表明,乙
if you’re a male you have an ‘X’ and a ‘Y’ chromosome. Studies show that the
掉发影响最大的基因只存在于X染色体中。
most influential hair-loss gene is located on the ‘X’ chromosome only. What
这是什么意思呢?也就是说,如果你是男性,从你母亲哪里遗传到一条X染色体
does this mean? Well if you’re a male you get an ‘X’ chromosome from your mother, but must
就必须从父亲哪里得到一条Y染色体,因为如果你得到父亲的
receive a ‘Y’ chromosome from your father. Because if you got your father’s
X染色体,你将会是一名女性。所以如果你母亲的X染色体中有掉发
‘X’ chromosome you would be a female. So if one of your mothers ‘X’ chromosomes has this hair loss
基因。
gene
你遗传这个基因的概率是50/50。从这个方面来看,掉发属于
you have a 50/50 chance of getting it from her. In this way, hair loss is
部分遗传,由母亲传给男性。
partially hereditary and passed through the maternal side for males.
另一方面,女性必须得到两个这种基因,每条X染色体
Females, on the other hand must get two copies of this gene, one on each ‘X’
中的基因以身体的方式表现出来。所以如果你的母亲
chromosome in order to physically express it. So if your mother does
表现出来这些特质,就意味着你将得到一条遗传性的
express these traits it means you will be passing an affected ‘X’ chromosome to
X染色体。也
you.
但是为什么要看你母亲的父亲呢?额,如果他有苦h
But why do we say to look at your mother’s father? Well, if he has visible
男性光秃现象,那你的母亲至少会得到一条遗传性的
male pattern baldness then your mother has at least one copy of the affected ‘X’
X染色体,因为为了得到一个女儿,他必须遗传和8偶7
chromosome from him, because in order to have a daughter he must have passed on
X染色体,而不是Y染色体。需要注意的一点是虽然这只是
his ‘X’ chromosome, not his ‘Y’. The thing to note here is that this is just one of
掉发的一个因素,然而被认为是最重要的。很多
the contributors to hair-loss and while its thought to be the most significant, many
研究发现其他与头发相关的基因与性别毫无关联。
studies have found other hair linked genes which aren’t sex linked at all.
包括在Y染色体中的一些,
Including some on the ‘Y’ chromosome,
意思是,他们可以在母亲也可以在父亲之间转移。
meaning they can be transferred from both the mother and the father.
除此之外,一些研究还发现了年龄,运动
On top of this, some studies have shown correlations between age, exercise
,营养,甚至压力水平之间的联系。所以尽管通过快速检查你母亲的父亲的头发
nutrition and even stress levels. So while a quick check of your mom’s dad’s
可能对你将来掉发起到指示作用,但是你外公满头头发
hair maybe an indicator for future hair loss, a head full of hair on Grandpa’s head
并不能保证你也如此。
does not guarantee you are in the clear.
有一个亟待解决的问题吗?在评论里或者Facebook或者Twitter留言吧,
Got a burning question you want answered? Ask it in the comments, or on facebook and twitter,
欢迎每周订阅更多的科学影像资料。
and subscribe for more weekly science videos.

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