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鸡皮疙瘩和音乐寒战的科学 – 译学馆
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鸡皮疙瘩和音乐寒战的科学

The Science of Goosebumps and Music Chills

无论是你冷,害怕,或是听一些优美的音乐的时候,你都有可能
Whether you’re cold, scared or listening to some great music, you’ve likely
在某个时间感到浑身起了鸡皮疙瘩。但你是否曾想过
experienced goosebumps at some point in your life. But have you ever wondered why
为什么这些奇怪的变化会侵扰你的身体?以家禽的方式来命名看起来像是随意说出来的
this strange change takes over your body? Named after the way poultry looks
鸡皮疙瘩对人类来说是一个毫无用处的特点,即使它从我们的祖先时代就开始流传。
when plucked, goosebumps are a fairly useless trait in humans which have been passed
事实上每根毛发都与一种叫立毛肌的肌肉相连,
on by our ancestors. Each hair actually has a tiny muscle attached to it called
当这些肌肉收缩时,毛发就会在末端竖起来。
the erector-pili muscles and when these muscles contract the hair stands up on
收缩使毛发四周表层下陷,导致周围区域凸起。
end. This contraction creates a shallow depression around the hair causing the
这是因为应激激素肾上腺素的触发使得这种状态发生。
surrounding area to protrude. And it’s the stress hormone adrenaline which
那么什么触发了肾上腺素?
triggers this physiological change to occur. So what triggers adrenaline? For
变寒冷的时候,动物毛发变多这个反应使他们的身体保持温暖。
one being cold, in animals with much more hair on their body this response helps
竖起的毛发存储了更多的空气,
them to stay warm. The standing hair is able to trap more air and thermal
热气流的循环最终使得身体形成了一道隔热的屏障。
regulate it ultimately providing an insulated barrier. Apart from this
除此之外,在产生“逃跑或是战斗”这种心理反应–比方说你害怕的时候–的压力之下,肾上腺素也会被触发
adrenaline is also triggered under stressful situations leading to the
喵星人就是一个很好的例子,
‘fight or flight’ response, like when you’re scared. Cats are a perfect example,
如果你吓他们一下,它们的毛发立马就竖起来了。
if you give them a spook their hair shoots up on end.
这种无意识的进化反应使得动物表现的更加强大和令人生畏
This involuntary evolutionary response allows animals to appear bigger and
但是为何音乐也会导致产生寒战或震颤?
more intimidating. But why music has the ability to cause chills or ‘frisson’ as
一种有趣的理论是,一些音乐元素,
it’s called is not fully understood. One interesting theory suggests that
比方说,突然地音量变化或其他一些意想不到的独特部分
elements of music such as sudden volume changes or unexpected unique sections
包含着潜意识的恐惧反应。身体喜欢可预测的事,
induce a sub-conscious fear response. The body loves predictability and so
所以对于任何意外的事,就会刺激机体产生警告
anything surprising to the autonomic system stimulates an alarm. But this fear
但是这种恐惧感很快就会减弱,大脑会反应过来,“这只是音乐而已啊!”。
quickly subsides as our brain realizes, ‘hey, it’s just music’. And this contrast in
这种反差,使得你产生了震颤和鸡皮疙瘩
experience causes the frisson and your goosebumps. There are other
还有一些其他理论认为,大脑很复杂,关于音乐,情感和生理反应的关系很难描述出来。
theories as well, ultimately the brain is extremely complex and so a relationship
关于音乐,情感和生理反应的关系很难描述出来
between music, emotion and physiological responses is difficult to decipher but
但是可以用科学来解释,只是人类暂时还没发现而已。。
in science it’s okay to say that we don’t know…yet.
找出你亟待解决的一个问题,在评论区或在非死不可和推特提出来
Got a burning question you want answered? Ask it in the comments or on facebook and twitter.
来订阅更多的周播科普视频吧!
And subscribe to more weekly science videos.

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