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科学解释变性人 – 译学馆
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科学解释变性人

The Science of Being Transgender ft. Gigi Gorgeous

很多关于跨性别者的内容
There’s a lot of misinformation out there
实际上是错误的
about what it means to be transgender
但在最近 科学家们开始进一步探究
But recently, scientists have begun to look more closely
其背后的神经学 生理学和心理学因素
into the neurology, physiology, and psychology behind it.
今天 我们将以一种科普的方式
So today, we’re gonna break down what Science does know
讲述跨性别背后的科学
in a respectful and educational way.
嗨 我是Gigi Gorgeous
Hey guys! I’m Gigi Gorgeous
今天 我会和艾萨科普
And today, I’ m here with AsapSCIENCE
一起探讨“关于跨性别的科学”
to break down ‘The Science of Being Transgender’
在我们深入探讨前
Before we get too deep into it,
我们得先了解一下你的基因性别
we have to look at your genetic sex
或者你的染色体
or the chromosomes you have.
在受精后这些东西便被确定
These were determined right after fertilization
受精就是来自你父亲的
when the sperm cell from your father,
携带了X或Y染色体的精子
which carries an ‘X’ or a ‘Y’ chromosome
和来自你母亲的
fuse with the egg from your mother,
携带X染色体的卵子结合
which carries an 'X'chromosome.
但是在受精之后的六七周
But until 6 or 7 weeks after fertilization,
XY和XX胚胎的生殖腺都是相同的
both ‘XY’ and ‘XX’ embryos have identical gonads.
约在第7周 Y染色体上的SRY基因开始表达
Around 7 weeks the male sex organs start to develop
男性的性器官便进行发育
because of a gene on the ‘Y’ chromosome called ‘SRY’
它促使细胞分化
It causes cells to become more specialized
之后这些细胞开始分泌睾酮
and these cells creates ‘Testosterone’
反过来又促进一些结构的发育
which in turn trigger the development of the structure
比如 阴茎和阴囊
like the penis and scrotum
其他细胞则使一些导管退化
while other cells block female development
以阻断女性性征的发育
by degenerating the female ducts.
而在女性身体发育过程中
However, in female development
因为并没有携带SRY基因的Y染色体
because there is no ‘Y’ chromosome with the ‘SRY’ gene,
这些通道便被完整保留
these ducts stay intact
在雌激素和早期肾脏所分泌化学物质的帮助下
and become the uterus, cervix, upper vagina, and the oviduct
分化为 子宫 子宫颈 上阴道 和输卵管
with the help of Estrogen, and chemical secreted by the early kidney.
但事情有时候没有这么简单
But it’s not always that simple.
会有极罕见的组合类型出现
There are some kinds even rare combinations
比如 XXY XXX XXYY等类型
like ‘XXY’, ‘XXX’, ‘XXYY’ etc.
甚至有些是XX型染色体的人
And even people with ‘XX’ chromosomes
也会发育出男性生殖器和性征
that develop male genitals and characteristics
这是因为Y染色体的一部分发生断裂
due to a piece of the Y chromosome breaking off
而后转移到X染色体的位置上
and switching places to an ‘X’ chromosome.
但是大脑的性别分化
But sexual differentiation in a brain
事实上远比生殖器分化出现得晚
actually happens much later than gonadal differentiation.
是这样没错 尽管充满争议
And yes, although controversial,
但男女大脑彼此在结构和功能上
male and female brains have structural and functional
确实有所不同
diffrences between each other.
研究发现 男性通常具有
Studies have found that males generally have
更大的大脑 小脑 和海马体
a larger cerebrum, cerebellum, and hippocampus.
而女性则拥有密度更高的左额叶
While females have higher-density left frontal lobes,
和体积更大的右额叶
and larger volumes in the right frontal lobe.
那当我们研究跨性别者的大脑时
So what exactly do we see
我们究竟发现了什么呢
when we look in the brain of a transgender person?
一些研究显示
Several studies have shown
跨性别者的大脑在结构和功能上
that transgender brain are both structurally and functionally
相比于其生理性别而言
more similar to their experienced gender identity
与其认知性别更相像
than their biological sex.
一项研究发现 跨性别女性
One study found that transwomen
尽管出生时是医学意义上的男性
who despite being a scient male at birth
却有着更小的女性尺寸结构的下丘脑
had a smaller female size structure in the hypothalamus.
核磁共振也显示 跨性别者的脑部结构
MIR scans also show the brain structures of trans people
相比于其生理性别
to be more similar in thickness to
在厚度上与其认知性别更相像
their experienced gender and not their sex.
此外 呋喃酮和雄甾二烯酮会造成
Finally the furanone and androstadienone causes
下丘脑在男性和女性大脑中的不同反应
different hypothalami responses in male & female brains
当患有“性别焦虑”的人受这些物质影响时
And when individuals with ‘Gender Dysphoria’ were exposed to it,
其下丘脑的反应与其认知性别相符
hypothalamic response match their Perceived gender
而非其生理性别
rather than their sex.
这些研究有助于说明
These studies help to highlight
生殖腺的男性化或女性化
how masculinisations or feminisations of the Gonads
不一定与其大脑相同
is not always the same as the brain
你的生理性别
and that there’s a difference between
与你的认同性别
your sex or your anatomy and your gender
是不同的
or how we perceive our own bodies.
这似乎是影响跨性别身份的一个遗传因素
There also seems to be a genetic component to transgender identity.
回顾家族史
Looking at family histories,
性别的一致性似乎是世代相传的
gender identity in congruence seems to run in the family,
这意味着它们也许是经遗传所得
meaning they maybe inherited
CYP17基因控制了人体的性激素水平
The CYP17 gene which controls the body’s level
该基因中一个等位基因的变化
of sex hormones has a changed allele that
在跨性别男性体内更加常见
is expressed frequently in trans man.
尽管已经做过很多研究
Although more research could be done,
科学家正在检查超过三百万个DNA标记
scientists are currently looking at over 3 Million DNA Markers for transgender identity
以调查其与成为跨性别者相关的基因联系
to investigate any genetic link for being trans.
即使科学研究已经证实了跨性别者的经历
Even though scientific studies validate the experience of transgender people
他/她们依然要比别人承受更多的抑郁 焦虑情绪
they’re still suffering from more depression and anxiety than the general public.
跨性别者的自杀风险很大
The risk of suicide is more prominent in transgender people
原因有源自其家庭的拒绝
who have been rejected by their family
以及在工作或医保上受到的歧视
discriminated in the workplace, or in health care.
经性别转换后 跨性别者的自杀率似乎有所降低
Sucide risks seems to decreased after gender transitioning,
这说明性别焦虑可能导致
suggesting that gender dysphoria can cause
极大程度的精神痛苦
an extreme amount of emotional pain
甚至导致自杀行为
even to the point of suicide.
如果你 你的家人或者朋友
If you, a family member, or a friend
正遭受着性别焦虑的折磨
is suffering from gender dysphoria,
可以去看简介中的链接 了解更多信息
there are few links in the description for more information.
非常感谢吉吉参与本次视频
Thank you so much Gigi for being part of this video,
这意义非凡
it means so much
很高兴与你合作
and we’re happy you’re here to do this the best.
我想感谢你们 使用你们的频道 平台
I wanna thank you guys for using your channel, your platform
证实了跨性别者经历 背后的科学事实
validating transgender experiences with science
这让跨性别者离平等更进一步
which just brings us closer to equality.
必须的
Absolutely.
如果想看吉吉的频道的话
If you guys wanna check out Gigi’s Channel,
我们会把链接放在简介或者视频里
we’ll put links in the description or in the screen somewhere.
也可以关注我们 每周看最新的科普视频
Otherwise, you can subscribe for more Science here every week
我们下期再见
and we’ll see you next time.
拜拜~
Peace~

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视频概述

关于性别认同和性别焦虑的科学事实,了解跨性别者。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

路无南

审核员

审核员 GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MitqjSYtwrQ

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