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魅力的学问 – 译学馆
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魅力的学问

The science of attraction - Dawn Maslar

我们倾向于将浪漫当成是一种来自于内心
We like to think of romantic feelings as spontaneous
自发而又难以言诉的行为
and indescribable things that come from the heart.
但实际上是你的大脑
But it’s actually your brain running a complex series
在瞬间做出的一系列复杂运算
of calculations within a matter of seconds
决定了一个人对你的吸引力
that’s responsible for determining attraction.
听起来一点也没有诗意 对吧?
Doesn’t sound quite as poetic, does it?
然而 虽然所有的运算都是由大脑完成的
But just because the calculations are happening in your brain
并不意味着那些温暖而朦胧的感觉都存在于脑海中
doesn’t mean those warm, fuzzy feelings are all in your head.
实际上 你的五种感觉都参与其中
In fact, all five of your senses play a role,
各自趋同或者否决萌芽中的吸引力
each able to vote for, or veto, a budding attraction.
眼睛是吸引力方面的第一要件
The eyes are the first components in attraction.
不同的文化和时代对视觉美的标准都有所不同
Many visual beauty standards vary between cultures and eras,
而作为年轻 活力 健康的标志
and signs of youth, fertility and good health,
比如富有光泽的长发或者光滑无疤的皮肤
such as long lustrous hair, or smooth,scar-free skin,
永远大受欢迎
are almost always in demand
因为它们也代表着良好的繁殖能力
because they’re associated with reproductive fitness.
当眼睛注意到他们喜爱的事物
And when the eyes spot something they like,
我们的本能让我们越靠越近
our instinct is to move closer
这时其他的感觉也参与其中
so the other senses can investigate.
鼻子对于浪漫的贡献
The nose’s contribution to romance
绝不仅仅是分辨香水或古龙水
is more than noticing perfume or cologne.
它能够辨别一种被称作
It’s able to pick up on natural chemical signals
“费洛蒙“的天然的化学信号
known as pheromones.
它们不仅传递着气味发出者重要的生理
These not only convey important physical
或基因信息
or genetic information about their source
而且能够激发接收者的心理
but are able to activate a physiological
或行为上的反应
or behavioral response in the recipient.
在一项研究中
In one study, a group of women
一组处于不同月经周期的女性
at different points in their ovulation cycles
连续三个晚上穿着同样的T恤
wore the same T-shirts for three nights.
之后 男性志愿者被随机抽取
After male volunteers were randomly assigned
去闻一件穿过的T恤
to smell either one of the worn shirts,
或者一件新的没穿过的
or a new unworn one,
唾液样本显示 那些闻过排卵期女性
saliva samples showed an increase in testosterone
穿过的T恤的男性睾丸素分泌有明显的增加
in those who had smelled a shirt worn by an ovulating woman.
睾丸素分泌的增加可能会促使
Such a testosterone boost may give
这个男人去追求这个
a man the nudge to pursue a woman
平时他会忽略的女性
he might not have otherwise noticed.
女性的鼻子对一种名为
A woman’s nose is particularly attuned
MHC分子的化学物质尤为敏感
to MHC molecules,
这种物质是用来对抗疾病的
which are used to fight disease.
果真如此的话 异性相吸
In this case, opposites attract.
另一项研究要求女性来闻
When a study asked women to smell T-shirts
不同男性穿过的T恤
that had been worn by different men,
她们更倾向于
they preferred the odors of those
和她们自己的MHC分子不同的气味
whose MHC molecules differed from theirs.
这是说得通的
This makes sense.
基因造成的免疫力的巨大差异
Genes that result in a greater variety of immunities
可能会给后代以重要的生存优势
may give offspring a major survival advantage.
我们的耳朵同样决定着吸引力
Our ears also determine attraction.
男人更喜欢女性拥有高音调 带喘息声
Men prefer females with high-pitched, breathy voices,
共振间隔较长的声音 因为它让人联想到娇小的身姿
and wide formant spacing, correlated with smaller body size.
而女性则更喜欢音调低沉 共振间隔较短的男性声音
While women prefer low-pitched voices with a narrow formant spacing
因为它让人联想到高大威猛的身庞
that suggest a larger body size.
意料之中 触觉对浪漫有着决定性的作用
And not surprisingly, touch turns out to be crucial for romance.
在一个实验中 在告知实验开始前 参与者
In this experiment, not realizing the study had begun,
被要求短暂拿着一杯咖啡
participants were asked to briefly hold the coffee,
热的或者是冷的
either hot or iced.
然后 参与者被要求阅读一个假想的人的故事
Later, the participants read a storyabout a hypothetical person,
并且评价他的个性
and were asked to rate their personality.
拿着热咖啡的人认为
Those who had held the hot cup of coffee
故事里的人更快乐些
perceived the person in the story as happier,
具有社会性 慷慨 天性善良
more social, more generous and better-natured
而拿了冷咖啡的人
than those who had held the cup of iced coffee,
则认为这个人冷酷 恬淡无欲 没有感情
who rated the person as cold, stoic, and unaffectionate.
即便一个潜在的伴侣已经成功通过以上所有的测试
If a potential mate has managedto pass all these tests,
这里还有最后一关:初吻
there’s still one more: the infamous first kiss,
初吻是一次内涵丰富而寓意复杂的触觉和化学信息的交换
a rich and complex exchange of tactile and chemical cues,
比如口气
such as the smell of one’s breath,
和嘴唇的触感
and the taste of their mouth.
这个神奇的时刻如此关键
This magical moment is so critical
以至于大部分的男性和女性
that a majority of men and women
均表示曾因为一个糟糕的初吻
have reported losing their attraction to someone
而丧失了对对方的吸引力
after a bad first kiss.
一旦吸引力被确认 你的血液
Once attraction is confirmed, your bloodstream is flooded
和肾上腺素一起沸腾 激发你的“战斗或逃跑”系统
with norepinephrine, activating your fight or flight system.
你的心跳加速 你的瞳孔扩大
Your heart beats faster, your pupils dilate,
你的身体也释放出葡萄糖来提供更多的能量
and your body releases glucose for additional energy,
这不是因为你面临着危险 而是
not because you’re in danger but
你的身体在告诉你
because your body is telling you
这件正进行的事十分重要
that something important is happening.
为了帮助你专心肾上腺素 创造出一种管状视力
To help you focus, norepinephrine creates a sort of tunnel vision,
防止注意力涣散
blocking out surrounding distractions,
甚至有可能弯曲你的时间观念
possibly even warping your sense of time,
并提升记忆力
and enhancing your memory.
这也许能够解释为什么人们对初吻念念不忘
This might explain why people never forget their first kiss.
我们的大部分吸引力
The idea of so much of our attraction
被化学和进化生物学深深影响
being influenced by chemicals and evolutionary biology
这个观点也许看上去冷酷又理性 一点也不浪漫
may seem cold and scientific rather than romantic,
但是下次你见到一个喜欢的人的时候
but the next time you see someone you like,
试试让你的整个身体都参与配对过程
try to appreciate how your entire bodyis playing matchmaker
来决定这个美丽的陌生人是否是那个对的人
to decide if that beautiful stranger is right for you.

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视频概述

科学的解密吸引力的前因。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

甪里

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=169N81xAffQ

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