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胃口的科学 - 战胜暴饮暴食

The Science of Appetite - Beating Overeating

Indulging in food is a favorite past time for many.
很多人都最爱通过吃来消磨时间
But considering that 2/3rds of americans,
但想一想 有三分之二的美国人
or approximately 207,337,021 are overweight?
也就是约207,337,021人都是超重的
Perhaps we enjoy food a bit much.
也许我们过于享受吃了
So why can’t we stop ourselves from consuming so much fatty and sugary food?
那为什么我们不能阻止自己吃那么多高脂高糖的食物呢?
How do we beat overeating?
我们如何战胜暴饮暴食?
When your stomach is empty it releases a hormone called ghrelin.
我们的胃空的时候 会释放一种叫胃饥饿素的激素
Ghrelin interacts in the brain with the neurotransmitter NPY
胃饥饿素与大脑中叫做神经肽Y的神经递质相互作用
and turns on the desire to eat.
从而产生食欲
Once you satisfy this desire by eating,
一旦你通过吃满足了这种欲望
ghrelin levels drop back down and hunger subsides.
胃饥饿素就会降回到原来的水平 饥饿感也会消退
Conversely, after eating,
相反地 吃完东西以后
a different hormone, leptin, is released from the stomach and fat cells,
一种不同的激素 瘦素 会从胃和脂肪细胞中分泌出来
and interferes with NPY,
并与神经肽Y互相作用
further turning off the desire to eat, and making you feel full.
进一步打消食欲 产生饱腹感
But if this hunger regulation system is in place,
但如果这种饥饿管理系统正常运作
why can’t we say no to that piece of cake, or second helping of chips?
为什么我们无法拒绝一块蛋糕或第二份薯片呢?
Many food psychologists believe that
许多食品心理学家认为
in the past, energy-rich foods such as those with lots of fat and sugar, were hard to come by.
在过去 例如高脂高糖这样的高热量食物是很难获得的
As hunter-gatherers, the human body needed to
当时人类的生计方式是狩猎采集
take advantage of these meals for survival,
所以为了生存 人体需要这种高热量食物
and as a result, they became extremely desirable.
因此 这类食物变得极其让人向往
But in today’s world, we can get a high fat and sugary meal
但在如今的世界 在任何时间任何角落
on any corner at any hour.
我们都能吃到高脂高糖的食物
The problem is, the instinct and desire still remains.
问题是 那种本能和欲望存留下来了
And so we struggle to stop eating these meals.
因此我们很难让自己不再吃这类食物
Recently, it’s been discovered that
最近 据发现
the continual intake of fat and sugar
脂肪和糖类的持续摄入
overrides the regulatory system of ghrelin and leptin.
会扰乱胃饥饿素和瘦素的管理系统
The signalling pathway is insufficient to control our new diet,
神经信号传导通路无法控制这种新饮食
and so our initial evolutionary desire
所以 我们最初的进化欲望
now plagues our ability to choose wisely and eat healthy.
如今消磨着我们明智选择 健康饮食的能力
It’s a self-perpetuating problem.
这是个不断循环永存的问题
The more unhealthy food you eat, the more you desire food.
不健康的食物吃得越多 食欲就越旺盛
Got a burning question you want answered?
有一个迫切想知道答案的问题?
Ask it in the comments, or on Facebook and Twitter.
那就在评论 脸书或推特里问吧
And subscribe for more weekly science videos!
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BwqAelWSgHk

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